|New Zealand National Party|
|Number of MPs in the House of Representatives||48 (as of 2008)|
|Founded||13-14 May 1936|
|Headquarters||Willbank House, Willis Street|
|International Affiliation||International Democrat Union|
|See also:||Politics & Government|
The New Zealand National Party ("National" or "the Nats") currently forms the second-largest (in terms of parliamentary seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. John Phillip Key (born 9 August 1961) is a New Zealand politician and member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, representing Simon William "Bill" English (born 1961 is a New Zealand politician and former leader of the National Party from October 2001 to October 2003 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Liberal conservatism is a variant of Conservatism which combines conservative and liberal values and positions The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative The politics of New Zealand takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Monarchy. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> New Zealand The Governor-General of New Zealand (Te Kawana Tianara o Aotearoa is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently Queen The New Zealand House of Representatives is the Legislature of New Zealand. In New Zealand the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the country's legislative body the New Zealand House of Representatives New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive Party system. The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealand's Head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the Executive branch within the New Zealand government system Members of New Zealand 's House of Representatives, commonly called " Parliament " normally gain their parliamentary seats through nationwide general Māori politics is the Politics of the Māori people who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the country's largest minority The foreign relations of New Zealand are oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and until 1951 the New Zealand Legislative Council Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government particularly in a Westminster -based Parliamentary system "National" has become the largest (in terms of membership) centre-right conservative political party in New Zealand. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined
The National Party presently advocates policies of reducing taxes, reducing social welfare payments, promoting free trade, restoring or maintaining New Zealand's traditional (Western) defence and security alliances and promoting one standard of citizenship for all New Zealanders ("One law for all"). Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions The party's policy-documents contain commitments to doubling New Zealand's economic growth, to giving welfare payments only to "those in genuine need" and to "speedy, full and final settlements to historic Waitangi Treaty claims". The Treaty of Waitangi ( Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a Treaty first signed on February 6, 1840, by representatives of the British
Starting historically as a balanced urban/rural movement, National has seemed to appeal more consistently to country voters. At the 2005 election, the Party narrowly won more votes than the New Zealand Labour Party in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city, and in the northern cities of Hamilton and Tauranga. The 2005 New Zealand general election took place on 17 September 2005 and determined the composition of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party The Auckland metropolitan area or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country Hamilton ( Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealand 's fourth largest Urban area, and is the country's seventh largest City for the electorate see Tauranga (NZ electorate Tauranga (population 114500 2007 estimate after status was lost after 1989 Local It also won almost all of the rural and provincial electoral seats. However, the rival Labour Party won considerably more votes in the cities of Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand Dunedin (dəˈneɪdɪn) Ōtepoti in Maori is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of
National features both regional and electorate-level organisational structures. In light of the 2002 election result, a review of the party organisation resulted in decisions to weaken the regional structure and to implement a more centralised structure. The 2002 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. The Party President (currently Judy Kirk) heads the administration outside of National's current sitting MPs. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
Historically, the Party's youth wing, the Young Nationals, commonly known as the "Young Nats", has provided much political impetus as a ginger group: it gained a reputation as "the" social organisation in rural New Zealand and in some urban circles. The New Zealand Young Nationals are the youth wing of the New Zealand National Party a centre-right political party in New Zealand The Ginger Group was not a formal political party in Canada, but a faction of radical Progressive and Labour Members of Parliament
A group called the Bluegreens exists within National and advises on environmental policy.
The National Party officially formed in May 1936, but its roots go considerably further back. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The party came about as the result of a merger between the United Party (known as the Liberal Party until 1927, except for a short period between 1925 and 1927 when it used the name "National Party") and the Reform Party. This article discusses the party which originated in 1927 from a faction of the Liberal Party This article is about the original New Zealand Liberal Party At least three subsequent organisations unconnected to the original have used the same name the Liberal Party The Reform Party was New Zealand 's second major Political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party The United Party gained its main support from the cities, and drew upon businesses for money and upon middle class electors for votes, while the Reform Party had a rural base and received substantial support from farmers, who then formed a substantial proportion of the population. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials
Historically, the Liberal and Reform parties had competed against each other, but from 1931 until 1935 a coalition between the United and Reform parties held power in New Zealand. The coalition went into the 1935 election under the title of the "National Political Federation", a name adopted to indicate that the grouping intended to represent New Zealanders from all backgrounds (in contrast to the previous situation, where United served city-dwellers and Reform served farmers). The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 25th term. However, because of the effects of the Great Depression and a perception that the existing coalition government had handled the situation poorly, the National Political Federation lost heavily in 1935 to the Labour Party, the rise of which had originally prompted the alliance. The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party
A new party, called the New Zealand National Party, formed at a meeting held in Wellington on May 13 and 14, 1936. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Erstwhile members of the United and Reform parties made up the bulk of the new party. George Forbes, Prime Minister from 1930 until 1935 and United Party Leader, opened the conference; he served as Leader of the Opposition and leader of the newly formed party (largely in a caretaker capacity) from May until November, when the Reform MP Adam Hamilton was elected the leader. George William Forbes (12 March 1869 - 17 May 1947 served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1930 to 1935 Adam Hamilton ( 20 August 1880 - 29 April 1952) was a New Zealand politician Hamilton led the Party into its first election in 1938. He got the top job primarily due to a compromise between George Forbes (former leader of United) and Gordon Coates (former leader of Reform), neither of whom wished to serve under the other. George William Forbes (12 March 1869 - 17 May 1947 served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1930 to 1935 Joseph Gordon Coates (1878-1943 served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1925 to 1928 Hamilton, however, failed to counter Labour's popular Prime Minister, Michael Joseph Savage effectively. The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealand's Head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in The New Zealand politician Michael Joseph Savage ( March 23, 1872 – March 27, 1940) became the first Labour This, along with perceptions that he remained too much under the control of Coates and that he lacked real support from his party colleagues, saw Hamilton fail to prevent Labour's re-election in 1938. The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 26th term.
In 1940 Sidney Holland replaced Hamilton. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sir Sidney George Holland, GCMG, CH, ( October 18 1893 - August 5 1961) was Prime Minister of New Zealand William Polson "acted effectively as Holland's deputy" (Gustafson). Sir William John Polson, KCMG (1875 - 1960 was a New Zealand politician first as an Independent and then in the National Party.
The 1943 election saw Labour's majority reduced, but it remained in power. The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 27th term. Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people In the 1946 elections, National also failed to unseat Labour. The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 28th term. However, in the 1949 elections, thirteen years after the party's foundation, National finally won power, and Holland became Prime Minister. The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 29th term.
In 1949 National had campaigned on "the private ownership of production, distribution and exchange". The First National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1949 to 1957 Once in power the new Holland Government proved decidedly administratively conservative, retaining, for instance, the welfare state set up by the previous Labour Government; though National gained, and has largely kept, a reputation for showing more favour to farmers and to business than did the Labour Party. This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to
In 1951 the Waterfront Dispute broke out, lasting 151 days. The 1951 New Zealand waterfront dispute is the largest and most widespread industrial dispute in New Zealand history The National government stepped into the conflict, acting in opposition to the maritime unions. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Holland also used this opportunity to call the 1951 snap election. The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 30th term. Campaigning on an anti-Communist platform and exploiting the Labour Opposition's apparent indecisiveness, National returned with an increased majority, gaining 54 parliamentary seats out of 80. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and
In the 1954 elections, National again won, though losing some of its seats, and Holland became Prime Minister for a third term. The 1954 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 31st term. Towards the end of his third term, however, Holland became increasingly ill, and stepped down from the leadership shortly before the general election in 1957. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Keith Holyoake, the party's long-standing deputy leader, took Holland's place. Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake, KG, GCMG, CH, QSO, KStJ ( 11 February 1904 - 8 December 1983 Holyoake, however, had insufficient time to establish himself in then public mind as Prime Minister, and lost in the election later that year to Labour, then led by Walter Nash. The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 32nd term. Sir Walter Nash, GCMG, CH ( 12 February 1882 &ndash 4 June 1968) served as Prime Minister of the Second
Nash's government became very unpopular. The Second National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1960 to 1972 Labour quickly acquired a reputation for poor economic management, and much of the public saw its 1958 Budget, known since as the "Black Budget", as miserly and puritanical. In New Zealand, the term Black Budget refers to the Government budget of 26 June 1958 in which Finance Minister Arnold Nordmeyer After only one term in office, Labour suffered defeat at the hands of Holyoake and the National Party in the elections of 1960. The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 33rd term.
Holyoake's government lasted twelve years, the Party gaining re-election three times (in 1963, 1966, and 1969). The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 34th term. The 1966 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 35th term. The 1969 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 36th term. However, this period also saw the rise of Social Credit, which broke the National/Labour duopoly in parliament, winning former National seats from 1966. One of the several logos used during the history of the Social Credit Party The New Holyoake retired from the Prime Ministership and from the Party leadership at the beginning of 1972, and his deputy, Jack Marshall, replaced him. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sir John Ross Marshall, GBE, CH, ( March 5, 1912 &ndash August 30, 1988) generally known as Jack Marshall
Marshall suffered the same fate as Holyoake. Having succeeded an experienced leader in an election-year, he failed to establish himself in time. Marshall had an added disadvantage; he had to compete against the much more popular and charismatic Norman Kirk, then leader of the Labour Party, and lost the ensuing election. Norman Eric Kirk ( 6 January 1923 &ndash 31 August 1974) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in The New Zealand general election of 1972 was held to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament.
Within two years the Party removed Marshall as its parliamentary leader and replaced him with Robert Muldoon, who had previously served as Minister of Finance. Sir Robert David ("Rob" Muldoon, GCMG, CH ( 25 September 1921 &ndash 5 August 1992) served as Prime Minister The Minister of Finance is a senior figure within the Government of New Zealand. An intense contest between Kirk and Muldoon followed. In a stroke of luck for Muldoon, Kirk became ill and died in office (1974); his successor, Bill Rowling, proved no match for Muldoon, and in the 1975 elections, National under Muldoon returned comfortably to power. Sir Wallace Edward Rowling KCMG, ( 15 November 1927 - 31 October 1995) often known as Bill Rowling, was a Prime The 1975 New Zealand general election was held to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament.
The Muldoon administration, which favoured interventionist economic policies, arouses mixed opinions amongst the majority free-market adherents of the modern National. Economic interventionism, is a common term used to describe any activity beyond the basic regulation of fraud and enforcement of contracts undertaken by a government in an effort to affect A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Bill Birch's "Think Big" initiatives, designed to invest public money in major projects, stand in contrast to the Party's contemporary views. Sir William Francis Birch, GNZM, (born 9 April 1934) usually known as Bill Birch, is a former New Zealand politician The New Zealand Prime Minister Robert Muldoon (Prime Minister 1975 - 1984 and his New Zealand National Party government in the early 1980s sponsored Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Muldoon's interventionist economics, increasingly unpopular with both the public and the Party, caused an attempted leadership change in 1980. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Led by ministers Derek Quigley, Jim McLay, and Jim Bolger, the challenge (dubbed the "colonels' coup") against Muldoon aimed to replace him with Brian Talboys, his deputy. Derek Francis Quigley (born 31 January 1932) is a former New Zealand politician James Kenneth McLay, CNZM, QSO (born 21 February 1945) generally known as Jim McLay, is a former New Zealand politician Rt Hon James Brendan "Jim" Bolger, ONZ (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997 Sir Brian Edward Talboys, AC, CH, KCB, (born 7 June 1921) was a New Zealand politician However, the plan collapsed as the result of Talboys' unwillingness, and Muldoon kept his position.
Under Muldoon, National won elections in 1978 and 1981. The 1978 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to elect the 39th New Zealand Parliament. The 1981 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. However, public dissatisfaction with Government policies grew, and Muldoon's controlling and belligerent style of leadership became less and less appealing. The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading In the 1981 election, National gained fewer votes than the Labour opposition, but could command a small majority in Parliament because of the then-used First Past the Post electoral system. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member
Dissent within the National Party continued to grow, however. Rebel National MPs Marilyn Waring and Mike Minogue caused particular concern to the leadership, threatening National's thin majority in parliament. Marilyn Waring, CNZM (born on 7 October 1952 in Ngaruawahia) is a New Zealand Feminist, an Activist for "female Michael John ("Mike" Minogue (born 2 October 1923) was a National Party politician lawyer and mayor When, in 1984, Marilyn Waring refused to support Muldoon's policies on visits by nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed ships, Muldoon called a snap election. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 41st New Zealand Parliament. Muldoon made the television announcement of this election while visibly inebriated, and some believe that he later regretted the decision to "go to the country". Drunkenness or inebriation is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of Alcoholic beverages to a degree that mental and physical faculties are noticeably National resoundingly lost the election to Labour under David Lange. David Russell Lange, ONZ, CH (who pronounced his name ˈlɒŋi long-ee) (4 August 1942 – 13 August 2005 served as Prime Minister of New Zealand
Shortly after this loss, the Party removed Muldoon from the leadership. The Fourth National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 2 November 1990 to 27 November 1999 Jim McLay, who had replaced Brian Talboys as deputy leader shortly before the election, became the new leader. James Kenneth McLay, CNZM, QSO (born 21 February 1945) generally known as Jim McLay, is a former New Zealand politician McLay, however, failed to restore the party's fortunes, partly because a bitter Muldoon undermined McLay's position. In 1986 Jim Bolger took over the leadership. Rt Hon James Brendan "Jim" Bolger, ONZ (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997
In the 1990 elections National defeated Labour in an electoral landslide and formed a new government under Jim Bolger. The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament 's 43rd term. Rt Hon James Brendan "Jim" Bolger, ONZ (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997 However, the Party lost support when it continued the economic reforms which had damaged the previous Labour government — these policies, started by Labour Party Finance Minister Roger Douglas and popularly known as Rogernomics, centred on the privatization of state assets and on the removal of tariffs and subsidies. Sir Roger Owen Douglas (born 5 December 1937) a New Zealand politician formerly served as a senior Cabinet minister The term Rogernomics, a Portmanteau of "Roger" and "economics" was created by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the economic policies Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector These policies alienated traditional Labour supporters, who saw them as a betrayal of the party's left-wing character, but did not entirely appease the right-wing National party either. Many more conservative National supporters preferred Muldoon's more authoritarian and interventionist policies over the free-market liberalism promoted by Douglas. However, the new National Party Finance Minister, Ruth Richardson, strongly supported Rogernomics, actually believing that Douglas had not gone far enough. Ruth Richardson (born December 13 1950) served as New Zealand 's Minister of Finance from 1990 to 1993 and is known for her strong pursuit (See Ruthanasia. Ruthanasia, a Portmanteau of Ruth and Euthanasia, is the pejorative name (typically used by opponents given to the period of free-market ) Her policies encouraged two National MPs to leave the National Party and form the New Zealand Liberal Party (1992). The New Zealand Liberal Party founded in 1992 (not to be confused with the original Liberal Party) was a splinter group of the National Party. Richardson's views also met with considerable opposition within the National Party Parliamentary Caucus and caused damage to the party's membership base.
Nevertheless, National retained office (albeit barely) in 1993, due partly to a strongly recovering economy. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) At the same time as the 1993 election, however, a referendum took place which established the MMP electoral system for future use in New Zealand general elections. The 1993 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. Mixed member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is an ' additional member ' This would have a significant impact on New Zealand politics. Some National Party MPs defected to a new grouping, United New Zealand in mid-1995. United New Zealand logo   United New Zealand was a centrist And as a result of the new electoral mechanics, the New Zealand First Party, led by former National MP and former Cabinet minister Winston Peters, held the balance of power after the 1996 elections. New Zealand First is a Political party in New Zealand. It has had members in the New Zealand House of Representatives since 1993 Winston Raymond Peters (born April 11, 1945) is a New Zealand politician and leader of New Zealand First, a Political party he The 1996 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. After a prolonged period of negotiation, in which New Zealand First played National and Labour off against each other (both parties negotiated complete coalition agreements), New Zealand First entered into a coalition with National.
Under the coalition agreement, Peters became Deputy Prime Minister and had the post of Treasurer especially invented for him. The Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand is second most senior officer in the Government of New Zealand, although this seniority does not necessarily translate In many Governments a treasurer is the person responsible for running the Treasury. New Zealand First extracted a number of other concessions from National in exchange for its support. The influence of New Zealand First angered many National MPs, particularly Jenny Shipley. Jennifer Mary Shipley, DCNZM, (born 4 February 1952, Gore New Zealand) was the Prime Minister of New Zealand from December When, in 1997, Shipley toppled Bolger to become National's new leader, relations between National and its coalition partner deteriorated. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Rt Hon James Brendan "Jim" Bolger, ONZ (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997 After Shipley sacked Peters from Cabinet in 1998, the New Zealand First party split into two groups - half the MPs followed Peters out of the coalition, but the remainder broke away, establishing themselves as independents or as members of new parties. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) From the latter group National gained enough support to continue in government. The visibly damaged National Government managed to survive the parliamentary term, but lost the election to Labour's Helen Clark and the Alliance's Jim Anderton, who formed a coalition government. The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950 is the 37th and current Prime Minister of New Zealand. The Alliance, in New Zealand politics, is a Left-wing political party James Patrick Anderton, usually known as Jim Anderton (born 21 January 1938) is leader of the Progressive Party, a Political party
Shipley continued to lead the National Party until 2001, when Bill English replaced her. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Simon William "Bill" English (born 1961 is a New Zealand politician and former leader of the National Party from October 2001 to October 2003 English, however, proved unable to gain traction against Clark, and National suffered its worst-ever electoral defeat in the 2002 elections, gaining only 27 of 120 seats. The 2002 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. Many hoped that English would succeed in rebuilding the party, given time, but a year later polling showed the party performing only slightly better than in the election. In October 2003 English gave way as leader to Don Brash, a former governor of the Reserve Bank who had joined the National Parliamentary caucus in the 2002 election. Dr Donald Thomas Brash (born 24 September 1940) a former New Zealand politician served as the Leader of the Opposition and parliamentary leader The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the Central bank of New Zealand and is constituted under the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1989
Under Dr Brash, the National Party's overall popularity with voters improved markedly. Mostly, however, the party achieved this by "reclaiming" support from electors who voted for other centre-right parties in 2002. National's campaigning on race relations, amid claims of preferential treatment of Māori, and amid their opposition to Labour Party policy during the foreshore-and-seabed controversy, generated considerable publicity and much controversy. This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. The New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy is a debate in the politics of New Zealand. Strong campaigning on a tax-cuts theme in the lead-up to the 2005 elections, together with a consolidation of centre-right support, may have contributed to the National Party's winning 48 out of 121 seats in Parliament. The 2005 New Zealand general election took place on 17 September 2005 and determined the composition of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. National, however, remained the second-largest party in Parliament (marginally behind Labour, which gained 50 seats), and had fewer options for forming a coalition government. With the formation of a new Labour-dominated Government, National remained the major Opposition party.
After the 2005 election defeat Don Brash's leadership of National came under scrutiny from the media, and political watchers speculated on the prospect of a leadership-challenge before the next general election due in 2008. A general election will be held in New Zealand on November 8 2008 to determine the composition of the 49th New Zealand Parliament, and thus the makeup of the Don Brash resigned on November 23, 2006, immediately before the release of Nicky Hager's book The Hollow Men, which contained damaging revelations obtained from private emails. Events 800 - Charlemagne arrives at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Nicky Hager (born 1958 is an Author and investigative Journalist born in Levin New Zealand and now resides in Wellington. The Hollow Men is a 2006 book written by Nicky Hager that has been adapted into a stage play and filmed as a documentary John Key became the leader of the National caucus on 27 November 2006. John Phillip Key (born 9 August 1961) is a New Zealand politician and member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, representing Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Key has fostered a more "centrist" image, discussing issues such as child poverty. Child poverty concerns poverty of people under the age of 18 Causes Government corruption.
|Leader||Term||Leader of the Opposition||Prime Minister|
|Adam Hamilton||1936 – 1940||1936 - 1940|
|Sidney Holland||1940 - 1957||1940 - 1949||1949 - 1957|
|Keith Holyoake||1957 - 1972||1957 - 1960||1957|
1960 - 1972
|Jack Marshall||1972 - 1974||1972 - 1974||1972|
|Robert Muldoon||1974 - 1984||1974 - 1975|
|1975 - 1984|
|Jim McLay||1984 - 1986||1984 - 1986|
|Jim Bolger||1986 - 1997||1986 - 1990||1990 - 1997|
|Jenny Shipley||1997 - 2001||1999 - 2001||1997 - 1999|
|Bill English||2001 - 2003||2001 - 2003|
|Don Brash||2003 - 2006||2003 - 2006|
|John Key||2006 - present||2006 - present|
Forbes served as Prime Minister from 1930 to 1935, prior to the formation of The New Zealand National Party. George Forbes may refer to George Forbes (Canadian politician, 19th century merchant and political figure in Prince Edward Island George Forbes Adam Hamilton ( 20 August 1880 - 29 April 1952) was a New Zealand politician Sir Sidney George Holland, GCMG, CH, ( October 18 1893 - August 5 1961) was Prime Minister of New Zealand Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake, KG, GCMG, CH, QSO, KStJ ( 11 February 1904 - 8 December 1983 Sir John Ross Marshall, GBE, CH, ( March 5, 1912 &ndash August 30, 1988) generally known as Jack Marshall Sir Robert David ("Rob" Muldoon, GCMG, CH ( 25 September 1921 &ndash 5 August 1992) served as Prime Minister James Kenneth McLay, CNZM, QSO (born 21 February 1945) generally known as Jim McLay, is a former New Zealand politician Rt Hon James Brendan "Jim" Bolger, ONZ (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997 Jennifer Mary Shipley, DCNZM, (born 4 February 1952, Gore New Zealand) was the Prime Minister of New Zealand from December Simon William "Bill" English (born 1961 is a New Zealand politician and former leader of the National Party from October 2001 to October 2003 Dr Donald Thomas Brash (born 24 September 1940) a former New Zealand politician served as the Leader of the Opposition and parliamentary leader John Phillip Key (born 9 August 1961) is a New Zealand politician and member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, representing
|Sir George Wilson||1936|
|Colonel Claude H. Weston||1936 – 1940|
|Alex Gordon||1940 - 1944|
|Sir Wilfred Sim||1944 - 1951|
|Sir Alex McKenzie||1951 - 1962|
|John S. Meadowcroft||1962 - 1966|
|Edward Durning (Ned) Holt||1966 - 1973|
|Sir George Chapman||1973 - 1982|
|Sue Wood||1982 - 1986|
|Neville Young||1986 - 1989|
|John Collinge||1989 - 1994|
|Geoff Thompson||1994 - 1998|
|John Slater||1998 - 2001|
|Michelle Boag||2001 - 2002|
|Judy Kirk||2002 - present|
Short biographies of all Presidents up to Sue Wood appear in Barry Gustafson's The First Fifty Years. Suzanne Mary (Sue Wood, born in Onehunga in 1948, was the president of the National Party from 1982 to 1986 the first woman to hold the post John Gregory Collinge (born 10 May 1939) is a former president of the New Zealand National Party, from 1989 to 1994 Geoffrey William Fleetwood (Geoff Thompson (born 1940) was a New Zealand Member of Parliament for Horowhenua, in the North Island