New York State public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations, generally with boards appointed by elected officials. They're a form of government bureaucracy in one sense but, unlike government agencies, public benefit corporations are exempt from some regulations. Of particular importance, they can take out their own debt, allowing them to bypass legal limits on state debt. This allows them to make potentially risky capital and infrastructure investments without putting so much of the credit of New York City or New York State on the line. The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous However, it also allows them to avoid many of the oversight and reporting regulations which apply to state government.
Public benefit corporations in New York State likely have origins in mercantile capitalism. A public benefit corporation is a Public Corporation chartered by a State designed to perform some public service A shared tradition of English common law and Dutch law may partly explain their origins. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
Many New York public benefit corporations are powerful public authorities. The widespread use of public authorities in the United States was pioneered in New York State by Robert Moses. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Robert Moses ( December 18 1888 – July 29 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Much of Moses' power base resulted from his tight control of the Triborough Bridge Authority, which allowed him to earmark revenues from tolls on the bridge to other projects in New York City and around the state. The Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, doing business as " MTA Bridges and Tunnels " is a division of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority,
The approval of the New York State Public Authorities Control Board is required in some cases. The New York State Public Authorities Control Board is composed of five members appointed by the Governor, some upon the recommendation of members of the Legislature Public authorities in New York may levy taxes and tolls. This means that they are not part of the usual state budgetary process, and gives them a certain independence. Furthermore, they may make contracts; because of public authorities' corporate status, there is, generally, no remedy against the chartering State for the breach of such contracts. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law John Grace & Co. v. State University Constr. Fund, 44 N. Y. 2d 84, 375 N. E. 2d 377; 404 N. Y. S. 2d 316 (1978). On the other hand, as agents of the state, public authorities are not subject to many laws governing private corporations, and are not subject to municipal regulation. Employees of public authorities usually are not state employees, but are employees of the Authority. Ciulla v. State, 191 Misc. 528; 77 N. Y. S. 2d 545; (NY Court of Claims, 1948). Public authorities can also often condemn property. See Generally 87 NY Jur PUBLIC AUTHORITIES Section 1 et. seq. .
Among the major public benefit corporations in New York State, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (actually a bi-state agency created by interstate compact) and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which manages most of the public transportation to, in, and around New York City, might be the most famous. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority ( MTA) is a Public benefit corporation responsible for Public transportation in the U The City of New York New York has hundreds of lesser-known public benefit corporations. In the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation has been receiving a lot of press. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation ( LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute
Public benefit corporations get charters from New York State and are usually designed to perform a specific, narrow function in the public interest. They are overseen by the Public Authorities Control Board. The New York State Public Authorities Control Board is composed of five members appointed by the Governor, some upon the recommendation of members of the Legislature
The New York State Comptroller's Office lists four types of public benefit corporations and authorities:
Below are some of the authorities operating in and around the New York City metropolitan area. The City of New York The New York metropolitan area, often referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the most populous Metropolitan area in the United States and is also one
Battery Park is located at the bottom tip of Manhattan. Battery Park is a 25-acre (10 hectare public park located at the Battery the southern tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, facing Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York
The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation ( LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute It was founded by Governor George Pataki and then-Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. The LMDC is a joint State-City corporation governed by a 16-member Board of Directors, half appointed by the Governor of New York and half by the Mayor of New York City. The Governor of New York is the head of the Executive branch of New York 's government and the Commander-in-chief of the state's military The Mayor of New York City is the head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City.
The Development Corporation is a subsidiary of the Empire State Development Corporation. The Urban Development Corporation, doing business as Empire State Development Corporation is a public authority of the state of New York in the United
The Long Island Power Authority or LIPA ["lie-pah"], a municipal subdivision of the State of New York, was created under the Long Island Power Act of 1985 to acquire the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO)'s assets and securities. The Long Island Power Authority or LIPA "lie-pah", a municipal subdivision of the State of New York, was created under the Long Island Power Act of 1985 to acquire A second Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), a wholly owned subsidiary of the first, acquired LILCO's transmission and distribution system in June 1998. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar)
The Metropolitan Transportation Authority  manages public transportation in the New York Metropolitan Area (this includes the New York Subway and public bus systems, as well as MTA Metro-North Railroad and the Long Island Rail Road). The Metropolitan Transportation Authority ( MTA) is a Public benefit corporation responsible for Public transportation in the U The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or more commonly Metro-North, is a Suburban commuter rail service
The MTA includes the following subsidiaries:
The Overcoat Development Corporation was founded in the 1980s to lure a men's outerwear company to New York City. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. It continues to exist today due to a favorable real estate lease it got. Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions notably in the USA, United Kingdom
The Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation's  responsibility is to develop Roosevelt Island, a small strip of land in the East River, part of the borough of Manhattan. The Roosevelt Island Operating Corporation' s responsibility is to develop Roosevelt Island, a small strip of land in the East River, part of the borough of Manhattan Roosevelt Island, formerly known as Welfare Island, and before that Blackwell's Island, is a narrow island in the East River of New York The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York
Some of the public benefit corporations outside of New York City's metropolitan area, or serving the entire state, are listed below.
The Agriculture and New York State Horse Breeding Development Fund serves equine interests in New York State and provides education concerning certain agricultural development. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae.
According to its web site, the Dormitory Authority of the State of New York  "provides financing and construction services to public and private universities, not-for-profit healthcare facilities and other institutions which serve the public good. The Dormitory Authority of the State of New York ( Acronym: DASNY ˈdæzniː also frequently referred to as just "Dormitory Authority" provides construction financing "
The Empire State Development Corporation, also known as the Urban Development Corporation, maintains various programs and subsidiaries to encourage economic development in New York State. The Urban Development Corporation, doing business as Empire State Development Corporation is a public authority of the state of New York in the United
The New York State Thruway Authority  maintains the major highway that cuts across New York State from New York City to Buffalo. The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll Highway in the U Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State.
The New York State Canal Corporation is a subsidiary of the New York State Thruway Authority. The New York State Canal Corporation is a subsidiary of the New York State Thruway Authority. It is responsible for the oversight, administration and maintenance of the New York State Canal System , which consists of the Erie Canal, Cayuga-Seneca Canal, Oswego Canal and Champlain Canal. The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other Canals within New York The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes The Oswego Canal is a Canal in the New York State Canal System located in New York, United States. The Champlain Canal is a 60-mile Canal that connects the south end of Lake Champlain to the Hudson River in New York. It is also involved with the development and maintenance of the New York State Canalway Trail and with the general development and promotion of the Erie Canal Corridor as both a tourist attraction and a working waterway.
The Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA)  is a public benefit organization which provides transportation services to the Capital District of New York State (Albany, Schenectady, and Rensselaer counties plus part of Saratoga). The Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA is a public benefit organization which provides transportation services to the Capital District of New York State ( Albany Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. Schenectady (skəˈnɛktədi Θkahnéhtati in Tuscarora) is a City in Schenectady County, New York, United States The function of CDTA is to operate public transportation as well as to operate the Amtrak stations in the service area (Albany-Rennselaer, Schenectady, and Saratoga Springs). The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971
It includes the following subsidies:
The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority  manages most public transportation in four Central New York counties - Onondaga, Oneida, Oswego and Cayuga. The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority, known as CENTRO, is the operator of mass transit in Onondaga, Oswego, Cayuga This includes bus service serving the cities of Syracuse, Utica, Rome, Oswego and Auburn. Syracuse (locally ˈsɛrəkjuːs sometimes ˈsɪrəkjuːs or /ˈsɪərəkjuːs/ by non-natives is a city in Central New York, USA. Utica is a City in the American state of New York, and the County seat of Oneida County. Rome is a City in Oneida County, New York, United States. The population was 34950 at the 2000 census. Oswego is a City in Oswego County, New York, United States. The population was 18096 at the 2000 census. Auburn ( Áhsku•ˀ in Tuscarora) is a City in Cayuga County, New York, United States of America. The CNYRTA includes the following subsidiaries:
The New York State Bridge Authority  owns and operates five bridges on the Hudson River. The New York State Bridge Authority (or NYSBA) is a public benefit corporation in New York State, United States The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami
The Olympic Regional Development Authority  was designed to prepare the Lake Placid area for the 1980 Winter Olympics. The Olympic Regional Development Authority (ORDA is a New York State public benefit corporations, created by the State of New York to manage the facilities used during Lake Placid is a Village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States. The 1980 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in February
The Power Authority of the State of New York  provides electricity throughout New York State. The New York Power Authority (NYPA formerly the Power Authority of the State of New York (PASNY is a New York State public benefit corporation and the largest state-owned
The Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority  consists of numerous subsidiaries, including:
The United Nations Development Corporation  was designed to assist the United Nations with its real estate and development needs. The United Nations Development Corporation is a Public benefit corporation in New York State that helps the United Nations with its real estate and development The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
Class C public authorities have local jurisdiction and very few are of significance outside of economic development within towns, villages, and small cities. The Adirondack Park is a publicly-protected area located in northeast New York. The New York Racing Association is the non-profit management group that runs the three largest Thoroughbred Horse-racing tracks in the state of New
Class D public authorities have interstate and international jurisdiction. This is the complete list.
Some of these corporations, particularly the "authorities," are criticized as being wasteful or overly secretive. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan There are literally hundreds, more than 640 as of 2004 according to a New York Times editorial. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " An editorial, leader (UK or leading article (UK is an article in a Newspaper or Magazine that expresses the opinion of the Editor Some attempts at reform have been made. According to the editorial:
The Overcoat Protection Authority actually isn't the correct name of the entity in question. The correct name of the entity the Times was speaking of is the Overcoat Development Corporation , which was designed to lure a clothing manufacturer to New York from Indiana in the 1980s. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. (Berry, Dan. "The Cold Facts Of Officialdom, Albany-Style," The New York Times, March 20, 2004)
Lack of oversight is a major concern with New York's authorities. According to the Associated Press:
Recently, the state has been trying to phase out public benefit corporations and authorities it considers unnecessary.