New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The City of New York This is sometimes construed in the sense "the Ports of New York and New Jersey". More narrowly, the term occasionally refers only to "Upper New York Bay". See also Geography and environment of New York City Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is
In the broad sense, the term includes the following bodies of water and their waterfronts: Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay, North River (i. See also Geography of New York City This article provides a brief introduction to both natural and manmade geographic features of New York Harbor from a maritime See also Geography and environment of New York City Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is See also Geography and environment of New York City Lower New This article refers to the North River the lower section of the Hudson e. the lowest part of the Hudson River), East River, Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, Arthur Kill, The Narrows, Jamaica Bay, Raritan Bay, and Harlem River. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end The Kill Van Kull is a tidal Strait approximately long and wide separating Staten Island and Bayonne New Jersey, USA. See also Newark Bay South Georgia Newark Bay is a body of water a tidal back bay of New York Harbor formed at the confluence The Arthur Kill (from the Middle Dutch word kille, meaning "riverbed" or "water channel" is a tidal Strait separating See also Geography and environment of New York City The Narrows is the tidal Strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn See also Geography and environment of New York City Jamaica Bay is a Lagoon that lies in the shadow of New York City 's skyscrapers and is adjacent Raritan Bay is a Bay located at the confluence of the Raritan River and the Arthur Kill between the U See also Geography and environment of New York City The Harlem River is a navigable tidal Strait in New York City, USA that This includes about 1,200 square miles (3,100 km²), with over a 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of shoreline. At peak it contained 650 miles (1,046 km) of developed waterfront in 11 individual, active ports in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island, Perth Amboy, Elizabeth, Bayonne, Newark, Jersey City, Hoboken, and Weehawken. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name Perth Amboy is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. Bayonne is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States, south of Jersey City. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County. Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Weehawken is a township in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Although the U. S. Board of Geographic Names does not include the term, New York Harbor has important historical, governmental, commercial, and ecological usages. The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN is a United States federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic
The aboriginal population of the seventeenth century New York Harbor, the Lenape were linguistically tied to the Algonquians, and used the waterways for fishing and travel. The shannon (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans were in the 17th century organized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguistic The Algonquian (also Algonkian, and pronounced both and) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic They greeted the first recorded European in the Harbor, Henry Hudson, in 1609. Henry Hudson' (1570 &ndash 1611 was an English Sea explorer and Navigator in the early 17th century In 1624 the first permanent European settlement was started on Governors Island, and eight years later in Brooklyn; soon these were connected by ferry operation.  The colonial Dutch Director-General of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, ordered construction of the first wharf on the Manhattan bank of the lower East River sheltered from winds and ice, which was completed late in 1648 and called Schreyers Hook Dock (near what is now Pearl and Broad Streets). New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland ( Nieuw Nederland Peter Stuyvesant (originally Pieter or Petrus, Peter is never mentioned in historical records (c Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end This prepared New York as a leading port for the British colonies and then within the newly independent United States. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the Between 1776 and 1789, the United States became an independent country creating and ratifying its new constitution, and establishing of the federal government  In 1686 the British colonial officials gave the municipality control over the waterfront.
In 1824 the first American drydock was completed on the East River. Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year A drydock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform Because of its location and depth, the Port grew rapidly with the introduction of steamships; and then with the completion in 1825 of the Erie Canal New York became the most important transhipping port between the American interior and Europe as well as coastwise destinations. A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Transshipment or Transhipment is the Shipment of goods to an intermediate destination and then from there to yet another destination The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The term transatlantic refers to something occurring all the way across the Atlantic Ocean. The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern By about 1840, more passengers and a greater tonnage of cargo came through the port of New York than all other major harbors in the country combined and by 1900 it was one of the great international ports.  The main immigrant port of entry at Ellis Island had 12 million arrivals from 1892 to 1954. Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor 
In 1870 the city established the Department of Docks to systematize waterfront development, with George B. McClellan as the first engineer in chief. George Brinton McClellan ( December 3 1826 October 29 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War.
Before the major road improvements allowed efficient trucking, rail freight was ferried to Manhattan from New Jersey, meaning railroads had small fleets of towboats, barges, and 323 car floats, specially designed barges with rails so cars could be rolled on. A towboat is a Boat designed for pushing Barges Towboats are characterized by a square bow with steel knees for pushing and powerful engines A railroad car float is an unpowered Barge with Rail tracks mounted on its deck  New York subsidized this service which undercut rival ports. 
After the United States entered World War II, Operation Drumbeat loosed the top U-Boat aces against the merchant fleet in U. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word, itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot ( undersea boat) and refers S. territorial waters in January 1942, starting the Second happy time. The Second Happy Time was the informal name for a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis Submarines attacked Merchant shipping The U-Boat captains were able to silhouette target ships against the glow of city lights, and attacked with relative impunity, in spite of U. S. Naval concentrations within the Harbor. Casualties included the tankers Coimbria off Sandy Hook and Norness off Long Island. New York Harbor, as the major convoy embarkation point for the U. A convoy is a group of Vehicles (of any type but usually motor vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support S. , was effectively a staging area in the Second Battle of the Atlantic, with the U. The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous Military campaign of World War II, (though some say it was a series of naval Military campaigns S. Merchant Marine losses of 1 of 26 exceeding those of the other U. S. forces. 
The Harbor reached its peak activity in March 1943, during World War II, with 543 ships at anchor, awaiting assignment to convoy or berthing (with as many as 425 seagoing vessel already at one of the 750 piers or docks). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 1100 warehouses with nearly 1. A warehouse is a commercial Building for Storage of Goods. Warehouses are used by Manufacturers Importers Exporters 5 square miles (3. 9 km²) of enclosed space served freight along with 575 tugboats and 39 active shipyards (perhaps most importantly New York Naval Shipyard founded 1801). Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships These can be Yachts military The United States Navy Yard New York - better known as the Brooklyn Navy Yard or the New York Naval Shipyard (NYNSY - is an American shipyard located With a staggering inventory of heavy equipment, this made New York Harbor the busiest in the world. 
Nautically, the Harbor consists of a complex of about 240 miles (386 km) of shipping channels (requiring pilotage), as well as anchorages and port facilities, centered on the Upper New York Bay. Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat It involves a knowledge of a variety of topics and development of specialised skills including Navigation and international Physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a River, slough or ocean Strait consisting of a bed and banks A pilot is a Mariner who guides Ships through dangerous or congested waters such as Harbours or River mouths Legally the master remains ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo See also Geography and environment of New York City Upper New York Bay, sometimes called Upper New York Harbor or the Upper Bay, is  Larger vessels require tugboat assistance for the sharper channel turns, for example from Kill van Kull into Port Newark. TUGboat (ISSN 0896-3207 is a journal published three times per year by the TeX Users Group. The Harbor has the main entrance from the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, between the Rockaway Point and Sandy Hook; it has another entrance via the Long Island Sound from the northeast at the outlet of the East River. The Rockaway Peninsula, also known as The Rockaways, is the name of a peninsula of Long Island, most of which is located within the borough of Queens Sandy Hook is a barrier peninsula, approximately 97 kilometers (between 6 and 7 miles in length and 800 meters (0 Long Island Sound is an Estuary of the Atlantic Ocean and various Rivers in the United States that lies between the coast of Connecticut The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end The Harbor extends to the southwest to the mouth of the Raritan River, to the northwest at Port Newark and to the north to the George Washington Bridge. The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States. Not to be confused with Port Elizabeth New Jersey Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal is the name for the port facility in The George Washington Bridge (known informally as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George) is a Suspension bridge spanning  Other vehicular routes cross the Harbor include the PATH tunnel and lower down the Verrazano Narrows Bridge. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson ( PATH) is a Rapid transit railroad linking Manhattan, New York with New Jersey, and providing service The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked Suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New
As the port facilities of New York and New Jersey it is the largest oil importing port and second largest container port in the nation. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through  Although the phrase has always implied the commercial activity of the port of New York City, including the waterfronts of the five boroughs and nearby cities in New Jersey, only since 1972 has this been formalized under a single bi-state Port Authority. The City of New York In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government which administers the five fundamental constituent parts that make up the consolidated city New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States.  Since the 1950s, the New York and Brooklyn commercial port has been almost completely eclipsed by the container ship facility at nearby Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in Newark Bay, which is the largest such port on the Eastern Seaboard. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Container ships are Cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers in a technique called Containerization. Not to be confused with Port Elizabeth New Jersey Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal is the name for the port facility in See also Newark Bay South Georgia Newark Bay is a body of water a tidal back bay of New York Harbor formed at the confluence The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The port has diminished in importance to passenger travel, but the Port Authority operates all three major airports in New York (La Guardia, 1939 and JFK/Idlewild, 1948) and Newark (1928).  New York City is still serviced by several cruise lines, commuter ferries, and tourist excursion boats. A cruise line is a company that operates Cruise ships Cruise lines have a dual character they are partly in the transportation business and partly in the leisure See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and A new passenger facility has recently opened in Red Hook, Brooklyn. Red Hook is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, USA. Although most ferry service is private, the Staten Island Ferry is operated by the New York City Department of Transportation. The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger Ferry service operated by the New York City Department of Transportation that runs between Manhattan and Staten The New York City Department of Transportation ( NYCDOT or DOT) is responsible for the management of much of New York City
Responsibilities within the Harbor are divided among all levels of government, from municipal to federal. Port facilities are controlled by bi-state Port Authority, but actual channel depth control is under the US Army Corps of Engineers, which has been involved in the Harbor since about 1826 when Congress passed an omnibus rivers and harbors act. The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel  The natural depth of New York Harbor is about 17 feet (5 m), but it has been deepened over the years, to about 24 feet (7 m) controlling depth in 1880.  By 1891 the Main Ship Channel was minimally 30 feet (9 m). In 1914 Ambrose Channel became the main entrance to the Harbor, at 40 feet (12 m) deep and 2,000 feet (600 m) wide. During World War II the main channel was dredged to 45 feet (14 m) depth to accommodate larger ships up to Panamax size. " Panamax " ships are of the maximum dimensions that will fit through the locks of the Panama Canal. Currently the Corps of Engineers is contracting out deepening to 50 feet (15 m), to accommodate Post-Panamax container vessels, which can pass through the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation  This has been a source of environmental concern along channels connecting the container facilities in Port Newark to the Atlantic. PCBs and other pollutants lay in a blanket just underneath the soil. Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCB s are a class of Organic compounds with 1 to 10 Chlorine atoms attached to Biphenyl which is a molecule composed  In many areas the sandy bottom has been excavated down to rock and now requires blasting. Dredging equipment then picks up the rock and disposes of it. At one point in 2005 there were 70 pieces of dredging equipment in the harbor working to deepen the harbor, the largest fleet of dredging equipment anywhere in the world. The work occasionally causes noise and vibration that can be felt by residents on Staten Island. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name Excavators alert residents when blasting is underway.
The Coast Guard deals with waterways management, including spills, vessel rescues, and counter-terrorism.  Deterrence and investigation of criminal activity, especially relating to organized crime, is also the responsibility of the bi-state Waterfront Commission. The Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor (WCNYH is an Inter-state government entity of the States of New York and New Jersey, which was  The Commission was set up in 1953 (a year before the movie On the Waterfront), to combat labor racketeering. On the Waterfront is a American Drama film about mob violence and corruption among longshoremen. A racket is an illegal business usually run as part of Organized crime. It is held that the Gambino crime family controlled the New York waterfront and the Genovese crime family controlled the New Jersey side. The Gambino crime family is one of the " Five Families " that controls Organized crime activities based in New York City, United States The Genovese crime family is one of the " Five Families " that controls Organized crime activities in New York City, within the nationwide  In 1984 the Teamsters local was put under RICO trusteeship, and in 2005 a similar suit was brought against the International Longshoremen's Association local. TemplateInfobox Union for usage-->The International Brotherhood of Teamsters ( IBT) formerly known by the The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (commonly referred to as RICO Act or RICO) is a United States federal law that provides for extended Template talkInfobox Union for usage -->The International Longshoremen's Association is a labor union representing 
In March 2006, the Port passenger facility was to be transferred to Dubai Ports World. DP World is a subsidiary of Dubai World, a holding company owned by the government of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. There was considerable security controversy over the ownership by a foreign, particularly Arab, of a U. S. port operation, this in spite of the fact the current operator was the British based P&O Ports, and the fact that Orient Overseas Investment Limited, a company dominated by a Chinese Communist official, has the operating contract for Howland Hook Marine Terminal. P&O Ferries (formerly P&O European Ferries) is a constituent company of DP World (which took over its parent company the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation The New York Container Terminal (formerly Howland Hook Marine Terminal) is a container port facility located in northwestern Staten Island in New York  An additional concern is the U. S. Customs "green lane" program, in which trusted shippers have fewer containers inspected, providing easier access for contraband materiel. 
A persistent misconception holds that the Harbor is largely devoid of marine life. The Marine life of New York Harbor refers to the variety of flora and fauna in and around New York Harbor in the vicinity of New York City. In reality, it supports a great variety of thriving estuarine aquatic species. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open Indeed tidal flow occurs as far north as Troy, over 100 miles north. Characteristics A tide is a repeated cycle of sea level changes in the following stages Over several hours the water rises or advances up a beach in the flood Troy is a City in New York, US, and the County seat of Rensselaer County. 
The National Park Service now maintains the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, Governors Island, Castle Clinton, Gateway National Recreation Area, and Grant's Tomb. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor This article is about Governors Island in New York For other uses see Governors Island (disambiguation Governors Island is a 172- Acre (69 ha island Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton was once a circular sandstone Fort now located in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New Gateway National Recreation Area is a 26607 acre (10767 km² National Recreation Area in the New York City metropolitan area.