|City of New Orleans|
Ville de La Nouvelle-Orléans
|Nickname: "The Crescent City," "The Big Easy," "The City That Care Forgot," "504," and "NOLA" (acronym for New Orleans, LA). A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name.|
Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States
|- Mayor||C. Ray Nagin (D)|
|- City||907 km² (350. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The political units and divisions of the United States include The 50 states (four of these being officially styled as Commonwealths) which are typically The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America The US state of Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes in the same way that 48 of the other states of the United States New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Clarence Ray Nagin Jr (ˈneɪgɨn (born June 11, 1956) is the Mayor of New Orleans. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare different Orders of magnitude and geographical regions we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km² 2 sq mi)|
|- Land||467. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 6 km² (180. 6 sq mi)|
|- Water||439. 4 km² (169. 7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||-2 to 6 m (-6. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International 5 to 20 ft)|
|- Density||973/km² (2,518/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|- Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
New Orleans (pronounced /nʲuːˈɔɹliˌɛnz/, locally /ˌnuːˈɔːlɛnz/; French: La Nouvelle-Orléans ) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving Areas using UTC−6 Single zone countries Belize Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Daylight saving time ( DST The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America It is the center of the New Orleans metropolitan area. New Orleans&ndashMetairie&ndashKenner is a metropolitan area designated by the US Census encompassing seven parishes in the state of Louisiana, centering on
New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, straddling the Mississippi River. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to It is coextensive with Orleans Parish, meaning that the boundaries of the city and the parish are the same. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches  It is bounded by the parishes of St. Tammany (north), St. Bernard (east), Plaquemines (south), and Jefferson (south and west). St Tammany Parish (Paroisse de Saint-Tammany is a Parish located in the U St Bernard Parish (Paroisse de Saint-Bernard is a parish located southeast of New Orleans in the U Plaquemines Parish ( Cajun French: Paroisse Plaquemine) is the parish with the most combined land and water area in the U Jefferson Parish is a parish in Louisiana, United States that includes most of the Suburbs of New Orleans.  Lake Pontchartrain, part of which is included in the city limits, lies to the north, and Lake Borgne lies to the east. Lake Pontchartrain (ˈpɒntʃətreɪn in English Lac Pontchartrain IPA in French) is a brackish Lake Lake Borgne is a Lagoon in eastern Louisiana of the Gulf of Mexico 
The city is named after Philippe II, Duc d'Orléans, Regent of France, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. Philippe II Duke of Orléans ( August 2, 1674 &ndash December 2, 1723) was a member of the royal family of France It is well known for its multicultural heritage, cuisine, architecture, music (particularly as the birthplace of jazz), and its annual Mardi Gras and other celebrations and festivals. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States See also Mardi Gras Mardi Gras in New Orleans Louisiana is one of the most famous Carnival celebrations in the world The city is often referred to as the "most unique" city in America. 
La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans) was founded in 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The history of New Orleans, Louisiana traces its development from its founding by the French, through its period under Spanish control then New Orleans Louisiana, was the largest city in the Southern United States during the American Civil War. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon was a major German Encyclopedia that existed in various editions from 1839 until 1984 when it merged with the Brockhaus In the history of French trade the French Mississippi Company was a Chartered company first established in 1684. Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville ]]( February 23, 1680 &ndash March 7, 1767) was a colonizer born in Montreal, Quebec It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of France at the time; his title came from the French city of Orléans. Philippe II Duke of Orléans ( August 2, 1674 &ndash December 2, 1723) was a member of the royal family of France This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. The French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris (1763) and remained under Spanish control until 1801, when it reverted to French control. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain Most of the surviving architecture of the Vieux Carré (French Quarter) dates from this Spanish period. The French Quarter, also known as Vieux Carré, is the oldest and most famous neighborhood in the city of New Orleans Louisiana. Napoleon sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. For the film see Louisiana Purchase (film. The Louisiana Purchase (French Vente de la Louisiane "Louisiana Sale" The city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French, and Creole French. This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana USA For uses of the term "Creole" in other countries and cultures see Creole (disambiguation. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on large plantations outside the city.
The Haitian Revolution of 1804 established the second republic in the Western Hemisphere and the first led by blacks. The Revolution (1791–1804 was the most successful of African Slave rebellions in the Western Hemisphere Refugees who were white and free people of color both arrived in New Orleans, often bringing slaves with them. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out more free black men, French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population. A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a Creole language based on the French language, more specifically on a 17th century koiné As more refugees were allowed in Louisiana, Haitian émigrés who had gone to Cuba also arrived. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Nearly 90 percent of the new immigrants settled in New Orleans. The 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites; 3,102 free persons of African descent; and 3,226 enslaved refugees to the city, doubling its population. Sixty-three percent of Crescent City inhabitants were now black, as Americans classified people. 
During the War of 1812, the British sent a force to conquer the city. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Americans decisively defeated the British troops, led by Sir Edward Pakenham, in the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. Edward Pakenham was also the name of the sixth earl of Longford Sir Edward Michael Pakenham ( pro The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815, and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
As a principal port, New Orleans had the major role of any city during the antebellum era in the slave trade. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Its port handled huge quantities of goods for export from the interior and import from other countries to be traded up the Mississippi River. The river was filled with steamboats, flatboats and sailing ships. At the same time, it had the most prosperous community of free persons of color in the South, who were often educated and middle-class property owners. 
The population of the city doubled in the 1830s, and by 1840 New Orleans had become the wealthiest and third-most populous city in the nation. It had the largest slave market. Two-thirds of the more than one million slaves brought to the Deep South arrived via the forced migration of the internal slave trade. The money generated by sales of slaves in the Upper South has been estimated at fifteen percent of the value of the staple crop economy. The slaves represented half a billion dollars in property, and an ancillary economy grew up around the trade in slaves - for transportation, housing and clothing, fees, etc. , estimated at 13. 5 percent of the price per person. All this amounted to tens of billions of dollars during the antebellum period, with New Orleans as a prime beneficiary. 
The Union captured New Orleans early in the American Civil War, sparing the city the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive 
In the early 20th century, New Orleans was a progressive major city whose most portentous development was a drainage plan devised by engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood. Albert Baldwin Wood ( December 1 1879 - May 10 1956) was an Inventor and Engineer from New Orleans Louisiana Until then, urban development was largely limited to higher ground along natural river levees and bayous; Wood's pump system allowed the city to expand into low-lying areas. A bayou (pronounced oʊ or uː is a small slow-moving Stream or creek or a lake or pool ( bayou lake) that lies in an abandoned channel of a stream Over the 20th century, rapid subsidence, both natural and human-induced, left these newly populated areas several feet below sea level. In Geology, Engineering, and Surveying, subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually the Earth's surface as it shifts downward relative to 
New Orleans was vulnerable to flooding even before the age of negative elevation. In the late 20th century, however, scientists and New Orleans residents gradually became aware of the city's increased vulnerability. In 1965, Hurricane Betsy killed dozens of residents, even though the majority of the city remained dry. Hurricane Betsy was a powerful Hurricane of the 1965 Atlantic hurricane season which caused enormous damage in the Bahamas, Florida, and The rain-induced 1995 flood demonstrated the weakness of the pumping system; since that time, measures were taken to repair New Orleans's hurricane defenses and restore pumping capacity. The May 8th 1995 New Orleans Flood struck the New Orleans metropolitan area, shutting down the city for two days
By the time Hurricane Katrina approached the city at the end of August 2005, most residents had evacuated. Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States As the hurricane passed through the Gulf Coast region, the city's federal flood protection system failed, resulting in the worst civil engineering disaster in American history. The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. The Flood Control Act of 1965, Title II of, was enacted on October 27 1965 by the 89th Congress and authorized the U Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built  Floodwalls and levees constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers failed below design specifications and 80% of the city flooded. Dike (constructionEmbankmentA levee, levée, dike (or dyke) embankment, floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel Tens of thousands of residents who had remained in the city were rescued or otherwise made their way to shelters of last resort at the Louisiana Superdome or the Morial Convention Center. The Louisiana Superdome, often informally referred to simply as the The New Orleans Morial Convention Center (formerly the Ernest N Over 1,500 people died in Louisiana. 
The city was declared off-limits to residents while efforts to clean up after Katrina began. Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense Tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States The approach of Hurricane Rita in September 2005 caused repopulation efforts to be postponed, and the Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded by Rita's storm surge. Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense Tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico Lower Ninth Ward is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans.
The Census Bureau in July 2006 estimated the population of New Orleans to be 223,000; a subsequent study estimated that 32,000 additional residents had moved to the city as of March 2007, bringing the estimated population to 255,000, approximately 56% of the pre-Katrina population level. The effects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans were shattering and long-lasting Drainage in New Orleans, Louisiana has been a major concern since the founding of the city in the early eighteenth century remaining an important factor The Effects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans were catastrophic due to failure of the Federal flood protection system designed to protect the city (see 2005 levee Another estimate, based on data on utility usage from July 2007, estimated the population to be approximately 274,000, or 60% of the pre-Katrina population. These estimates are somewhat smaller than a third estimate, based on mail delivery records, from the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center in June 2007, which indicated that approximately two-thirds of the pre-Katrina population had returned to the city. 
Several major tourist events and other forms of revenue for the city have returned. Large conventions are being held again, such as those held by the American Library Association and American College of Cardiology. The American Library Association ( ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally The American College of Cardiology (ACC is a Nonprofit medical association established in 1949 to educate research and influence health care public policy  College football events such as the Bayou Classic, New Orleans Bowl, and Sugar Bowl returned for the 2006-2007 season. The State Farm Bayou Classic is the annual College football game between the Grambling State University Tigers and the Southern University Jaguars first The New Orleans Bowl is a post-season College football Bowl game certified by the NCAA that has been played annually at the Louisiana Superdome The Sugar Bowl is an annual American College football Bowl game played in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans Louisiana. The New Orleans Saints returned that season as well, following speculation of a move. The New Orleans Saints are a professional American football team based in New Orleans Louisiana. The New Orleans Hornets returned to the city fully for the 2007-2008 season, having partially spent the 2006-2007 season in Oklahoma City. The New Orleans Hornets are a professional Basketball team based in New Orleans Louisiana, United States. Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the US state of Oklahoma. In March 2007 a local group of investors began conducting a study to see if the city could support a Major League Soccer team.  New Orleans successfully hosted the 2008 NBA All-Star Game, and Tulane University hosted the first and second rounds of the 2007 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. The 2008 NBA All-Star Game took place on February 17, 2008 at the New Orleans Arena in New Orleans Louisiana Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. The 2007 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament involved 65 NCAA schools playing in a Single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division The Superdome played host to the 2008 BCS National Championship Game in January 2008. The 2008 Allstate BCS National Championship Game was played at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana
Major events such as Mardi Gras and the Jazz and Heritage Festival were never displaced. " Mardi Gras " ( French for Fat Tuesday) is the day before Ash Wednesday. The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, often known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the Music and Culture of New Orleans and
New Orleans is located at  on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 105 miles (169 km) upriver from the Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 350. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 2 square miles (907 km²), of which 180. 56 square miles (467. 6 km²), or 51. 55%, is land. (29. 964722, −90. 070556)
The city is located in the Mississippi River Delta on the east and west banks of the Mississippi River and south of Lake Pontchartrain. The Mississippi River Delta is the modern area of land (the River delta) built up by Alluvium deposited by the Mississippi River as it slows Lake Pontchartrain (ˈpɒntʃətreɪn in English Lac Pontchartrain IPA in French) is a brackish Lake The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows.
New Orleans was originally settled on the natural levees or high ground along the Mississippi River. Dike (constructionEmbankmentA levee, levée, dike (or dyke) embankment, floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial In fact, when the capital of French Louisiana was moved from Mobile, Alabama to New Orleans, the French colonial government cited New Orleans' inland location as one of the reasons for the move as it would be less vulnerable to hurricanes.  After the Flood Control Act of 1965, the US Army Corps built floodwalls and man-made levees around a much larger geographic footprint that included previous marshland and swamp. The Flood Control Act of 1965, Title II of, was enacted on October 27 1965 by the 89th Congress and authorized the U Whether or not this human interference has caused subsidence is a topic of debate. In Geology, Engineering, and Surveying, subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually the Earth's surface as it shifts downward relative to A study by the Geological Society of America reported
|“||While erosion and wetland loss are huge problems along Louisiana's coast, the basement 30 to 50 feet (15 m) beneath much of the Mississippi Delta has been highly stable for the past 8,000 years with negligible subsidence rates. The '''Geological Society of America''' (or GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the Geosciences The society was founded in New York ||”|
On the other hand, a report by the American Society of Civil Engineers claims that "New Orleans is subsiding (sinking)":
|“||Large portions of Orleans, St. Bernard, and Jefferson parishes are currently below sea level — and continue to sink. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana St Bernard Parish (Paroisse de Saint-Bernard is a parish located southeast of New Orleans in the U Jefferson Parish is a parish in Louisiana, United States that includes most of the Suburbs of New Orleans. New Orleans is built on thousands of feet of soft sand, silt, and clay. Subsidence, or settling of the ground surface, occurs naturally due to the consolidation and oxidation of organic soils (called “marsh” in New Orleans) and local groundwater pumping. In the past, flooding and deposition of sediments from the Mississippi River counterbalanced the natural subsidence, leaving southeast Louisiana at or above sea level. However, due to major flood control structures being built upstream on the Mississippi River and levees being built around New Orleans, fresh layers of sediment are not replenishing the ground lost by subsidence. ||”|
A recent study by Tulane and Xavier University notes that 51% of New Orleans is at or above sea level, with the more densely populated areas generally on higher ground. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. Xavier University of Louisiana is a private coed liberal arts historically Black Roman Catholic University located in New Orleans Louisiana The average elevation of the city is currently between one and two feet (0. 5 m) below sea level, with some portions of the city as high as 16 feet (5 m) and others as low as 10 feet (3 m) below sea level. 
In 2005, storm surge from Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic failure of the federally designed and built levees, flooding 80% of the city. The Flood Control Act of 1965, Title II of, was enacted on October 27 1965 by the 89th Congress and authorized the U  A report by the American Society of Civil Engineers says that "had the levees and floodwalls not failed and had the pump stations operated, nearly two-thirds of the deaths would not have occurred". 
New Orleans has always had to consider the risk of hurricanes, but the risks are dramatically greater today due to coastal erosion from human interference.  Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been estimated that Louisiana has lost 2,000 square miles (5,000 km²) of coast (including many of its barrier islands) which once protected New Orleans against storm surge. Following Hurricane Katrina, the Army Corps of Engineers has instituted massive levee repair and hurricane protection measures to protect the city. The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel By 2011 the city of New Orleans is planned to have 100-year flood protection (meaning protection against the worst storm that would occur in an average 100-year period).
In 2006, Louisiana voters overwhelmingly adopted an amendment to the state's constitution to dedicate all revenues from off shore drilling to restore Louisiana's eroding coast line.  Congress has allocated $7 billion to bolster New Orleans' flood protection. 
|Climate chart for New Orleans|
5. Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their environmental cultural or similar value Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve protects significant examples of the rich natural and cultural resources of Louisiana 's Mississippi River Delta New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park is a US National Historical Park in the Treme neighborhood of New Orleans Louisiana, near the French 9
|temperatures in °F • precipitation totals in inches|
source: Weather. com
The climate of New Orleans is humid subtropical, with short, generally mild winters and hot, humid summers. Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6 °C), and daily highs around 62 °F (17 °C). In July, lows average 74 °F (23 °C), and highs average 91 °F (33 °C). The lowest recorded temperature was 7 °F (−14 °C) on February 13, 1899. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The highest recorded temperature was 102 °F (39 °C) on August 22, 1980. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The average precipitation is 64. 2 inches (1,630 mm) annually; the summer months are the wettest, while October is the driest month.  Precipitation in winter usually accompanies the passing of a cold front. Hurricanes pose a severe threat to the area, and the city is particularly vulnerable because of its low elevation. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding According the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the city is the most vulnerable in the country when it comes to hurricanes. The purpose of FEMA is to coordinate the response to a Disaster which has occurred in the United States and which overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities  Since 1965, portions of New Orleans have been flooded by four different storms: Hurricane Betsy, Hurricane Georges, Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. Hurricane Betsy was a powerful Hurricane of the 1965 Atlantic hurricane season which caused enormous damage in the Bahamas, Florida, and Hurricane Georges (ʒɔʒ was the seventh tropical storm fourth hurricane and second major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense Tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico 
New Orleans experiences snowfall only on rare occasions. A small amount of snow fell during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. The 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm was a rare Weather event that took place in Louisiana and Texas in the United States on December 24 On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954 and brought 4. A white Christmas, to most people in the Northern Hemisphere, refers to Snowy weather on Christmas Day. 5 inches (11 cm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1–2 inches (2–5 cm) of snow. Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation.
The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and was historically called the "American Quarter" or "American Sector". The Central Business District is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street, Poydras Street, Tulane Avenue and Loyola Avenue. Canal Street is a major thoroughfare in the city of New Orleans Louisiana. Canal Street functions as the street which divides the traditional "downtown" area from the "uptown" area.
Every street crossing Canal Street between the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, which is the northern edge of the French Quarter, has a different name for the "uptown" and "downtown" portions. For example, St. Charles Avenue, known for its street car line, is called Royal Street below Canal Street. Elsewhere in the city, Canal Street serves as the dividing point between the "South" and "North" portions of various streets. In the local parlance downtown means "downriver from Canal Street" while uptown means "upriver from Canal Street". Downtown neighborhoods include the French Quarter, Treme, the 7th Ward, Faubourg-Marigny, Bywater (the Upper Ninth Ward), and the Lower Ninth Ward. Tremé (historically sometimes called Tremé or Faubourg Tremé or Tremé/Lafitte when including the Lafitte Projects) is a The Marigny (often referred to as Faubourg Marigny) is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. Bywater is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. A subdistrict of the Bywater District Area its boundaries as defined by the City Planning Commission are The Ninth Ward or 9th Ward is a distinctive region of New Orleans, Louisiana that is located in the easternmost downriver portion of the city Uptown neighborhoods include the Warehouse District, the Lower Garden District, the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. Uptown is a section of New Orleans Louisiana on the East Bank of the Mississippi River encompassing a number of neighborhoods between the French Quarter Garden District is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. Carrollton is a Neighborhood of uptown New Orleans Louisiana, USA. However, the Warehouse and Central Business Districts, despite being above Canal Street, are frequently called "Downtown" as a specific region, as in the Downtown Development District. The Central Business District is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans.
Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid-City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, and Algiers. Algiers is a community within the city of New Orleans. It is the portion of Orleans Parish Louisiana on the West Bank of the Mississippi River.
New Orleans is world-famous for its abundance of unique architectural styles, as it reflects the city's historical roots and multicultural heritage. The city has seventeen historic landmark districts, administered by the New Orleans Historic District Landmarks Commission (HDLC). Many styles of housing exist in the city, including the shotgun house (originating from New Orleans) and the California bungalow style. The shotgun house is a narrow rectangular domestic residence usually no more than 12  feet (3 California Bungalows, commonly called simply Bungalows in America are a form of residential structure that were widely popular across America Creole townhouses, notable for their large courtyards and intricate iron balconies, line the streets of the French Quarter. The French Quarter, also known as Vieux Carré, is the oldest and most famous neighborhood in the city of New Orleans Louisiana. Throughout the city, there are many other historic housing styles: Creole cottages, American townhouses, double-gallery houses, and Raised Center-Hall Cottages. St. Charles Avenue is famed for its large Antebellum homes and its mansions in various styles such as Greek Revival, Colonial, and Victorian styles such as Queen Anne and Italianate. St Charles Avenue is a thoroughfare in New Orleans Louisiana. " Antebellum " is an expression derived from Latin that means "before war" ( ante, "before" and bellum The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries predominantly in northern Europe and the United States American colonial architecture includes several building design styles associated with the colonial period of the United States including First Period English (late-medieval The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of Architectural styles predominantly employed during the Victorian era. The Queen Anne Style is a style of architecture, furniture and decoration that reached its greatest popularity in the last quarter of the 19th century manifesting itself in In the course of the history of Classical architecture, an Italianate style of architecture was a distinct nineteenth-century phase in which Italian sixteenth-century New Orleans is also noted for its large, European-style Catholic cemeteries, which can be found throughout the city.
For much of its history, New Orleans' skyline consisted of only low- and mid-rise structures. The soft soils of New Orleans are susceptible to subsidence, and there was doubt about the feasibility of constructing large high rises in such an environment The 1960s brought the World Trade Center New Orleans and Plaza Tower, which demonstrated that high rises could stand firm on New Orleans' soil. World Trade Center New Orleans, located at 2 Canal Street in the Central Business District of New Orleans Louisiana, is a 33-story -tall skyscraper Crescent City Towers (formerly the Plaza Tower and dubbed as the Crescent City Residences in the early phases of the redesign is a 45-story -tall Skyscraper One Shell Square took its place as the city's tallest building in 1972. One Shell Square, located at 701 Poydras Street in the Central Business District of New Orleans Louisiana, is a 51-story -tall Skyscraper designed in The oil boom of the early 1980s redefined New Orleans' skyline again with the development of the Poydras Street corridor. Today, New Orleans' high rises are clustered along Canal Street and Poydras Street in the Central Business District. Canal Street is a major thoroughfare in the city of New Orleans Louisiana. The Central Business District is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans.
According to current travel guides, New Orleans is in the top ten of the most visited cities in the United States, and tourism is a major staple in the area's economy. This list of tallest buildings in New Orleans ranks Skyscrapers in the U  10. 1 million visitors came to New Orleans in 2004, and the city was on pace to break that level of visitation in 2005. Annually, tourism in New Orleans is a $5. 5 billion industry and accounts for 40 percent of New Orleans' tax revenues. Tourism employed 85,000 people, making it New Orleans' top industry.  The city's annual large events such as Mardi Gras, the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival (known by locals as "Jazz Fest"), the Voodoo Music Experience, Southern Decadence, and the Essence Music Festival help fuel its mammoth tourism industry. " Mardi Gras " ( French for Fat Tuesday) is the day before Ash Wednesday. The Sugar Bowl is an annual American College football Bowl game played in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans Louisiana. The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, often known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the Music and Culture of New Orleans and Southern Decadence is a week-long predominantly gay-male event held in New Orleans Louisiana and its environs by the gay and lesbian community in early September Essence Music Festival is an annual music festival celebrating contemporary African-American music and culture Events held less frequently, such as Super Bowls and portions of NCAA tournaments, also contribute.
Prior to Katrina in the Greater New Orleans Area, there were 265 hotels with an inventory of 38,338 rooms. In May 2007, there were over 140 metro area hotels and motels in operation with over 31,000 rooms in inventory. .
A CNN poll ranking US cities was released in October 2007, ranking New Orleans first in eight categories, behind only New York City, which ranked first in 15. Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner The City of New York According to the poll, New Orleans is the best US city for live music, cocktail hours, flea markets, antique shopping, nightlife, "wild weekends," "girlfriend getaways," and cheap food. The city also ranked second for gay friendliness, overall food and dining, friendliness of residents, and people-watching, behind San Francisco, California, Chicago, Illinois, Charleston, South Carolina, and New York City, respectively. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. However, among the top 25 U. S. travel destinations as established by the poll, the city was voted last in terms of safety and cleanliness and near the bottom as a family vacation destination. "We weren't surprised to see New Orleans' great performance," said Amy Farley, a senior editor at Travel + Leisure, which printed the complete results in its November issue. Travel + Leisure is a travel Magazine based in New York City Published 12 times a year it has 4 "New Orleans is legendary for its great after dark scene. "
In 2007, Louisiana began to offer tax incentives for music and theatre productions, leading many to begin referring to New Orleans as "Broadway South". This will likely become an important aspect of the city and region's economy in the near future, most notably further boosting the tourism industry. 
New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife to St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities), the historic Pontchartrain Hotel, and many stately 19th century mansions. Bourbon Street (Rue Bourbon is a famous and historic street that runs the length of the French Quarter in New Orleans Louisiana. The French Quarter, also known as Vieux Carré, is the oldest and most famous neighborhood in the city of New Orleans Louisiana. St Charles Avenue is a thoroughfare in New Orleans Louisiana. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. Loyola University New Orleans is a private, Co-educational and Jesuit university located in New Orleans. The Pontchartrain Hotel is a Historic Hotel building on St Charles Avenue in Uptown New Orleans Louisiana, USA. Magazine Street, with its many historic antique shops and boutique stores, is also popular tourist attraction. Magazine Street is a major thoroughfare in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter" or Vieux Carré), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River, Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Avenue. The French Quarter contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs, most notably around Bourbon Street. Other notable tourist attractions in the Quarter include Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets), and jazz at Preservation Hall. Jackson Square, also known as Place d'Armes, is a historic park in the French Quarter of New Orleans Louisiana. Saint Louis Cathedral ( French: Cathédrale Saint-Louis) also known as the Basilica of St Café du Monde is a coffee shop on Decatur Street in the French Quarter in New Orleans, Louisiana. Café au lait ( French for "coffee with milk" is a French coffee drink Beignets de pommes de terrejpg|thumb|Potato-Beignet in the Upper Savoy]]A beignet ( pronounced ben–YAY from the Middle French word for "bump" in Preservation Hall is a noted Jazz performance hall located at 726 St
Also located in the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, formerly a branch of the United States Mint, which now operates as a museum. The New Orleans Mint operated in New Orleans, Louisiana, as a branch mint of the United States Mint from 1838 to 1861 and from 1879 to 1909 The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its Trade and Commerce. Located on Royal Street is The Historic New Orleans Collection, a museum and research center housing art and artifacts relating to the History of New Orleans and the Gulf South. Royal Street is a street in New Orleans Louisiana. It is one of the oldest streets in the city dating from the French Colonial era and is most well-known for the antique The Historic New Orleans Collection (THNOC is a museum research center and publisher dedicated to the study and preservation of the history and culture of New Orleans The Gulf South is a region of the United States that consists of parts of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
Near the Quarter in the neighboring Warehouse District sits the National World War II Museum, opened on June 6, 2000, as the National D-Day Museum, dedicated to providing information and materials related to the allied invasion of Normandy, France. The National World War II Museum, formerly known as the National D-Day Museum, is a Museum located in the Central Business District of New Orleans Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Also nearby is Confederate Memorial Hall, containing the second largest collection of Confederate memorabilia in the world in the oldest continually operating museum in Louisiana. Confederate Memorial Hall is a museum located in New Orleans Louisiana containing historical artifacts related to the Confederate States of America and the
To tour the port, one can ride the Natchez, an authentic steamboat with a calliope which cruises the Mississippi the length of the city twice daily. Natchez has been the name of several Steamboats and four naval vessels each named after the city of Natchez Mississippi or the Natchez people A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving a Propeller A calliope is a Musical instrument that produces sound by sending Steam through whistles, originally locomotive whistles
Art museums in the city include the Contemporary Arts Center, the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park, and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. The Contemporary Arts Center (CAC is a pioneering contemporary art museum located in Cincinnati Ohio. The New Orleans Museum of Art (often referred to as NOMA) in New Orleans Louisiana, was established in 1911 as the Delgado Museum of Art with a bequest City Park is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans. A subdistrict of the Lakeview District Area its boundaries as defined by the City Planning Commission The Ogden Museum of Southern Art is located in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA within the Central Business District. Audubon Park, the Audubon Zoo, and the Aquarium of the Americas are also located in the city. Audubon Park is a city Park located in New Orleans Louisiana. The Audubon Zoo is a Zoo located in New Orleans Louisiana. It is part of the Audubon Nature Institute which also manages the Aquarium of the The Audubon Aquarium of the Americas is a renowned Aquarium in New Orleans Louisiana, USA. New Orleans is also noted for its many beautiful cemeteries. Some notable cemeteries in the city include Saint Louis Cemetery and Metairie Cemetery. Saint Louis Cemetery is the name of three Roman Catholic cemeteries in New Orleans Louisiana. Metairie Cemetery is a Cemetery in New Orleans Louisiana, United States. Significant gardens include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. Longue Vue House and Gardens, also known as Longue Vue, is a Classical Revival mansion and garden located at 7 Bamboo Road New Orleans Louisiana, in the The New Orleans Botanical Garden is a Botanical garden located in City Park, New Orleans Louisiana. Gardens are also found in places like City Park and Audubon Park. City Park still has one of the largest (if not the largest) stands of oak trees in the world.
There are also various points of interest in the surrounding areas. Many wetlands are in close proximity to the city, including Honey Island Swamp. The Honey Island Swamp (Marais de l'Île-de-Miel is a marshland located in the eastern portion of the U Chalmette Battlefield and National Cemetery, located just south of the city, is the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans. Chalmette National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located within Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Chalmette Louisiana The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815, and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.
Greater New Orleans is home to numerous celebrations, including Mardi Gras and the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. See also Mardi Gras Mardi Gras in New Orleans Louisiana is one of the most famous Carnival celebrations in the world The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, often known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the Music and Culture of New Orleans and New Orleans' most popular celebration is Carnival, officially beginning on the Feast of the Epiphany, which locals sometimes refer to as "Twelfth Night". Carnival is a festival season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February and March Epiphany ( Greek for "to manifest" or "to show" is a Christian Feast day which celebrates the "shining forth" or revelation of Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas, and The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of its last day, Mardi Gras (French for "Fat Tuesday"), which is held the Tuesday before the beginning of the Catholic liturgical season of Lent, which commences on Ash Wednesday. " Mardi Gras " ( French for Fat Tuesday) is the day before Ash Wednesday. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Lent, in some Christian denominations, is the forty-day-long liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter. In the Western Christian Calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent and occurs forty days before Easter (excluding Sundays
The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, often known as Jazz Fest, is an annual celebration of the Music and Culture of New Orleans and Commonly referred to simply as "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, featuring crowds coming from all over the world to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and internationally-known popular music artists. Along with Jazz Fest, New Orleans' Voodoo Music Experience (known as Voodoo Fest) and Essence Music Festival are both large music festivals featuring local and internationally known music artists. Essence Music Festival is an annual music festival celebrating contemporary African-American music and culture
Other major events in the city include Southern Decadence, the French Quarter Festival, and the Tennessee Williams Literary Festival. Southern Decadence is a week-long predominantly gay-male event held in New Orleans Louisiana and its environs by the gay and lesbian community in early September Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26 1911 &ndash February 25 1983 better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical
Throughout the Greater New Orleans area, various ethnic groups have retained their distinctive language traditions to this day. Although rare, Kreyol Lwiziyen is still spoken by Louisiana Creole people. Louisiana Creole is a French Creole language spoken by the mixed Louisiana Creole people of the state of Louisiana. This article is about an ethnic culture in Louisiana USA For uses of the term "Creole" in other countries and cultures see Creole (disambiguation. Also rare, an archaic Louisiana-Canarian Spanish dialect is spoken by the Isleños people, but it can usually only be heard by older members of the Isleños population. Isleño (plural isleños) (Îlois is the Spanish word meaning " Islander.
New Orleans has always been a significant center for music, with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. New Orleans' unique musical heritage was born in its pre-American and early American days with a unique blending of European instruments with African rhythms. As the only North American city to allow slaves to gather in public and play their native music (largely in Congo Square, now located within Louis Armstrong Park), likely due to the more relaxed attitudes of French and Creole slave owners as compared to their Anglo-American neighbors, New Orleans give birth to an indigenous music: jazz. Congo Square is an open space within Louis Armstrong Park, which is located in the Treme neighborhood of New Orleans Louisiana, just across Rampart Louis Armstrong Park is a 32-acre park located in the Treme neighborhood of New Orleans Louisiana, just across Rampart Street from the French Quarter Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States With New Orleans' large, educated, and influential Creole, Haitian, and free black population, these African beats intertwined with trained musicians and the city's now famous brass bands gained wide popularity and remain popular today. New Orleans musical traditions also borrow heavily from Acadiana to the west, home of Cajun music and Zydeco music, as well as the Delta blues from its hinterlands in the Mississippi Delta. See also [[Cajun]] Cajun music, an emblematic Music of Louisiana, is rooted in the Ballads of the French-speaking Acadians of Zydeco ( French "les haricots" English "snap beans" is a form of American roots or folk music, that evolved from The jure during The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression
The city created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals. A brass band is a Musical group generally consisting entirely of Brass instruments, most often with a percussion section Traditional New Orleans funerals feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. A Krewe (pronounced in the same way as "crew" is an organization that puts on a Parade and or a ball for the Carnival season Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music", but out-of-town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals". Jazz funeral is a common name for a Funeral tradition with Music which developed in New Orleans Louisiana.
Decades later, New Orleans was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African A great example of New Orleans' sound in the 1960s is the #1 US hit "Chapel of Love" by the Dixie Cups, a song which had the distinction of knocking the Beatles out of the top spot on the Billboard Hot 100. " Chapel of Love " is a Song written by Jeff Barry, Ellie Greenwich and Phil Spector, and made famous by The Dixie The Dixie Cups are an American Pop music Girl group of the 1960s New Orleans became a hotbed for funk music in the 1960s and 70s. Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul By the late 1980s it had developed its own localized variant of hip hop called bounce music which, while never commercially successful outside of the Deep South, remained immensely popular in the poor African-American neighborhoods of the city through the 1990s. Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Bounce music is a type of music that emerged in New Orleans. It is characterized by extensive use of Drum Machines Synthesizers Mardi Gras Indians ' chants The Deep South is a descriptive category of cultural and geographic subregions in the American South.
A cousin of Bounce, New Orleans Rap has seen commercial success locally and internationally. Also, a form of southern rock or cowpunk has become popular across college campuses throughout the United States. Southern rock is a subgenre of Rock music. It developed in the Southern United States from Rock and roll, Country music, and Blues Cowpunk or Country punk is a subgenre of Punk rock that began in Southern California in the 1980s especially Los Angeles. New Orleans bands which helped originate this wave include The Radiators, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Rebirth Brass Band, Better Than Ezra, Cowboy Mouth, Rising Sun and Dash Rip Rock. The Radiators, also known as The New Orleans Radiators, are a Rock band from New Orleans Louisiana, who have combined the traditional musical styles The Dirty Dozen Brass Band is a New Orleans Louisiana, Brass band. The Rebirth Brass Band is a New Orleans Brass band. The group was founded in 1982 by Tuba player Philip Frazier, his brother Better Than Ezra is an American Alternative rock trio based in New Orleans Louisiana. Cowboy Mouth is a rock band based in New Orleans Louisiana. Their name was taken from the title of a Sam Shepard play although the phrase was used Dash Rip Rock is a New Orleans based rock group which was formed as a three-piece rockabilly band in Baton Rouge Louisiana during the summer of 1984 Notable aspects of the New Orleans music scene are Lil Wayne, Master P, Birdman, Juvenile, Cash Money Records, and No Limit Records. Dwayne Michael Carter Jr (born September 27 1982 better known by his Stage name Lil Wayne, is an American Rapper. Percy Miller, better known as P Miller, (formerly Master P is an American entertainer and entrepreneur Bryan "Baby" Williams (born February 15, 1969) better known by his Stage name Birdman, is an American Rapper and Record Cash Money Records is an Record label founded in 1991 by brothers Bryan "Baby" Williams and Ronald "Slim" Williams in New No Limit Records is a Record label that began in 1990 as the No Limit Record Shop in Richmond California. Throughout the 1990s many sludge metal bands started in the New Orleans area. Sludge metal (or sludgecore) is a form of Heavy metal music that fuses Doom metal and Hardcore punk. Heavy Metal in New Orleans has avoided the standardisation of the style by MTV and other Media. Bands like Down, Eyehategod, Soilent Green, Crowbar and Acid Bath have incorporated styles such as Country, Dixie Rock, Punk, and NWOBHM to create an original and heady brew of swampy and aggravated Metal. Eyehategod (also abbreviated and referred to as EHG) is an American Sludge metal band from New Orleans who formed in 1988 For the 1973 movie for which this band is named see Soylent Green. Crowbar is an American Sludge metal band from New Orleans, Louisiana, characterized by their extremely slow low-keyed heavy and brooding songs Acid Bath was an American Sludge metal band from Houma, Louisiana that was active from 1991 to 1997 In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity The New Wave of British Heavy Metal (frequently abbreviated as NWOBHM) is a heavy metal music movement that started in the late 1970s in Britain, and achieved
New Orleans is the southern terminus of the famed Highway 61. Highway 61 Revisited is Bob Dylan 's sixth studio album released in 1965 by Columbia Records.
In an effort to diversify its economy, Louisiana began offering tax incentives for movie production companies in 2002. This led to a substantial increase in the number of films shot in the New Orleans area giving it a new nickname - "Hollywood South". Many big-budget and critically acclaimed feature films have been made in and around New Orleans, such as Ray, Runaway Jury, The Pelican Brief, The Skeleton Key, Hard Times, Glory Road, All the King's Men, Déjà Vu, Last Holiday, Waiting..., Failure to Launch, Stay Alive,and many other full-length films and documentaries. Ray is a 2004 Biographical film focusing on thirty years of the life of legendary rhythm and blues musician Ray Charles. Runaway Jury ( 2003) is an American Drama / thriller Film directed by Gary Fleder and starring John The Pelican Brief is a 1993 legal crime thriller Film based on the novel of the same name by John Grisham. The Skeleton Key is a 2005 horror - suspense film released in the UK on 22 July and in the USA on August 12 Hard Times- For These Times is a Novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854 Glory Road is an American film directed by James Gartner, released on January 13, 2006. All the King's Men is a 2006 film adaptation of the 1946 Pulitzer Prize -winning novel All the King's Men by Robert Penn Warren Déjà Vu is a Science fiction Crime thriller directed by Tony Scott, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and starring Last Holiday is a 2006 American Comedy film directed by Wayne Wang. Waiting ( 2005) is an American Independent film starring Ryan Reynolds, Justin Long and Anna Faris. Failure to Launch is a 2006 American Romantic comedy Film. It is a loose remake of the French film Tanguy Stay Alive is a 2006 Horror film directed by William Brent Bell and written by William Brent Bell and Hollywood stars Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie have made New Orleans their home with the purchase of a home in the French Quarter, and a new movie studio complex is to be built in the Treme neighborhood. William Bradley "Brad" Pitt Pitt received a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination for his role in the 1995 film Twelve Monkeys Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4 1975 is an American film actor Tremé (historically sometimes called Tremé or Faubourg Tremé or Tremé/Lafitte when including the Lafitte Projects) is a K-Ville, a cop drama series set in post-Katrina New Orleans, has been picked up for the Fox Network's 2007-08 prime-time schedule, according to sources in Hollywood, a move that was expected pump millions of dollars of location production money into the local economy. K-Ville (an abbreviation of Katrinaville) was an American Television drama created and executive produced by Jonathan Lisco, The police procedural is a sub-genre of the mystery story which attempts to convincingly depict the activities of a Police force as they investigate Crimes The show starred Anthony Anderson (The Shield, The Departed) and Cole Hauser (The Cave, Paparazzi). Anthony Alvin Anderson (born August 15, 1970) is an American Comedian and Actor. The Shield is an American Police - Drama Television series shown on FX Networks in the U The Departed is a 2006 crime thriller Film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Cole Kenneth Hauser (born March 22 1975 is an American film and television Actor. The Cave is a 2005 sci-fi / horror Film directed by Bruce Hunt Paparazzi is a 2004 Action film directed by Paul Abascal, produced by actor Mel Gibson, and starring Cole Hauser and It was cancelled mid-season after a very short production run, due to the Hollywood Writer's Strike.
New Orleans is world-famous for its food. Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of Cooking originating in Louisiana (centered on the Greater New Orleans area that blends French, See also [[Cajun]] Cajun cuisine (in French Cuisine cadienne) originates from the French-speaking Acadian or "Cajun" immigrants deported The indigenous cuisine is distinctive and influential. From centuries of amalgamation of local Creole, haute Creole, and New Orleans French cuisines, New Orleans food has developed. Local ingredients, French, Spanish, Italian, African, Native American, Cajun, and a hint of Cuban traditions combine to produce a truly unique and easily recognizable Louisiana flavor.
Unique specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that could be called "French doughnuts" (served with coffee and chicory, known as café au lait); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell, boiled crawfish, and other seafood; étouffée, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday favorite of red beans and rice (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "Red beans and ricely yours"). Beignets de pommes de terrejpg|thumb|Potato-Beignet in the Upper Savoy]]A beignet ( pronounced ben–YAY from the Middle French word for "bump" in A po' boy (also po-boy, po boy, or poor boy) is a traditional Submarine sandwich from Louisiana. The muffuletta (with numerous alternate spellings is a type of Sicilian Bread, as well as a Sandwich in New Orleans, Louisiana Crayfish, crawfish, crawdads, or crodgers are freshwater Crustaceans resembling small Lobsters to which they are closely Seafood is any Sea Animal or Seaweed that is served as Food, or is suitable for eating particularly saltwater animals such Étouffée or etouffee is a Creole and Cajun dish typically served with shellfish or chicken over Rice, similar to Gumbo, very popular Jambalaya (ˌdʒʌmbəˈlaɪə or) or is a Louisiana Creole dish of Spanish and French creation Gumbo is a stew or soup originating in Louisiana, and found across the Gulf Coast of the United States and into the U Louis Armstrong (August 4 1901 &ndash July 6 1971 nicknamed Satchmo or Sachimo and Pops, was an American Jazz Trumpeter New Orleans residents enjoy some of the best restaurants in the United States that cater specifically to locals, and visitors are encouraged to try the local establishments recommended by their hosts.
Professional sports teams include the New Orleans Saints (NFL), the New Orleans Hornets (NBA), the New Orleans VooDoo (AFL), and the New Orleans Zephyrs (PCL). New Orleans is home to a wide variety of sporting events Most notable are the home games of the New Orleans Saints ( NFL) and the New Orleans Hornets ( The New Orleans Saints are a professional American football team based in New Orleans Louisiana. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. The New Orleans Hornets are a professional Basketball team based in New Orleans Louisiana, United States. The New Orleans VooDoo is a team in the Arena Football League, and is owned in part by Tom Benson, who also owns the National Football League New Orleans The Arena Football League (AFL was founded in 1987 as an American football indoor league. The New Orleans Zephyrs are a Minor league baseball team based in Metairie, Louisiana, a Suburb of New Orleans. The Pacific Coast League (PCL is a Minor league baseball league operating in the West and Midwest of the United States. There is also an all-female flat track roller derby team, Big Easy Rollergirls, and an all-female football team, New Orleans Blaze. Big Easy Rollergirls or BERG (est 2005 is the first and only all-female flat-track Roller derby league in New Orleans. The New Orleans Blaze is a Women's American football team in the National Women's Football Association. The Louisiana Superdome is the home stadium of the Saints and hosts the annual Sugar Bowl and other prominent events. The Louisiana Superdome, often informally referred to simply as the The New Orleans Arena is the home of the Hornets and many events that aren't large enough to need the Superdome. The New Orleans Arena is an indoor arena in New Orleans Louisiana. New Orleans is also home to the Fair Grounds Race Course, the nation's third-oldest thoroughbred track, and the Zurich Classic, a golf tournament on the PGA Tour. History Sometimes referred to as as the "New Orleans Fair Grounds" the track was initially opened as the "Union Race Course" in 1852 The Zurich Classic of New Orleans is a regular Golf tournament on the PGA Tour. The PGA Tour is an organization that operates the main professional Golf tours in the United States. In 2008 New Orleans hosted the NBA All-Star Game. The game showcased the Hornets own Chris Paul and David West. Christopher Emmanuel Paul (born May 6 1985 in Winston-Salem North Carolina) is an American professional Basketball player who currently plays Point David West is the name of David West (basketball, NBA power forward David West RSW, watercolourist David West (baseball
New Orleans is the home to one of the largest and busiest ports in the world, accounts for a major portion of the nation's refinery and production of petroleum, has a top 50 research university (in Tulane University) as well as half a dozen other institutions of higher education, and is renowned for its cultural tourism. The Intracoastal Waterway is a 4800-km (3000-mile Waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana.
New Orleans is an industrial and distribution center and the busiest port system in the world by gross tonnage. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The Port of New Orleans is the 5th-largest port in the United States based on volume of cargo handled, second-largest in the state after the Port of South Louisiana, and 12th-largest in the U. The Port of New Orleans is a Port located in New Orleans Louisiana. The Port of South Louisiana is the largest volume shipping Port in the Western Hemisphere and 9th largest in the world S. based on value of cargo. The Port of South Louisiana, also based in the New Orleans area, is the world's busiest in terms of bulk tonnage, and, when combined with the Port of N. O. , it forms the 4th-largest port system in volume handled.
Like Houston, Texas, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, and the many oil rigs lie just offshore. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world Louisiana ranks fifth in oil production and eighth in reserves in the United States. It is also home to two of the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage facilities: West Hackberry in Cameron Parish and Bayou Choctaw in Iberville Parish. This article refers to the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve Other infrastructure includes 17 petroleum refineries with a combined crude oil distillation capacity of nearly 2. 8 million barrels per day, the second highest in the nation after Texas. Louisiana has numerous ports including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), which is capable of receiving ultra large oil tankers. With all of the product to distribute, Louisiana is home to many major pipelines supplying the nation: Crude Oil (Exxon,Chevron, BP, Texaco, Shell, Scurloch-Permian, Mid-Valley, Calumet, Conoco, Koch, Unocal, Dept. Exxon is a brand of fuel sold by ExxonMobil. History Exxon formally replaced the Esso, Enco, BP plc, previously known as British Petroleum, is the third largest global Energy company, a multinational oil company (" Oil major Texaco is the name of an American oil retail brand Its flagship product is its fuel "Texaco with Techron" Shell Oil Company is the United States -based affiliate of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil company (" Oil major " of Anglo Conoco Inc was an American oil company founded in 1875 as the Continental Oil and Transportation Company. Union Oil Company of California dba Unocal is a defunct company that was a major petroleum explorer and marketer in the late 19th century through the 20th century and into the early of Energy, Locap), Product (TEPPCO, Colonial, Plantation, Explorer, Texaco, Collins), and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Dixie, TEPPCO, Black Lake, Koch, Chevron, Dynegy, Kinder, Dow, Bridgeline, FMP, Tejas, Texaco, UTP). Black Lake may refer to in Bosnia and Herzegovina Crno jezero (Treskavica Crno jezero (Zelengora Dynegy Inc ( based in Houston, Texas, is a large owner and operator of Power plants and a player in the Natural gas liquids and Coal  There are a few energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including Chevron and Shell Oil Company. Shell Oil Company is the United States -based affiliate of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil company (" Oil major " of Anglo
The city is the home and worldwide headquarters of a single Fortune 500 company: Entergy Corporation, an energy and infrastructure providing company. Please do not add the complete list of fortune 500 companies The list is copyrighted by Fortune which makes money by selling the content Entergy Corporation is an integrated energy company engaged primarily in electric power productions and retail distribution operations Freeport-McMoRan, the city's other Fortune 500 company, merged its copper and gold exploration unit with an Arizona company and relocated that division to Phoenix, Arizona. Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc, (FMCG) often called simply Freeport, is the world's lowest-cost Copper producer and one of the world's largest producers Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include the worldwide headquarters of the Entergy and its subsidiaries, Freeport-McMoRan, AT&T, IBM, Navtech, Harrah's (downtown casino), Popeye's Fried Chicken, Zatarain's, Whitney Bank (corp. Entergy Corporation is an integrated energy company engaged primarily in electric power productions and retail distribution operations Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology Harrah's Entertainment Inc is a private gaming Corporation that owns and operates Casinos hotels and six golf courses under several Brands Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits (often referred to as Popeyes) is a chain of Fried chicken Fast food restaurants owned since 1993 by the Atlanta Zatarain's is a food and Spice company It was started in the New Orleans suburb of Gretna by Emile A Whitney National Bank is a regional community banking institution headquartered in New Orleans, Louisiana. HQ), Capital One (banking HQ), Tidewater (Corp. Capital One Financial Corp ( is a McLean Virginia -based Bank holding company specializing in Credit cards, home loans, Auto loans HQ), McMoran Exploration, and Energy Partners (corp. HQ).
The federal government has a significant presence in the area. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The NASA Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish, known as New Orleans East, and is operated by Lockheed-Martin. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF is an 832- Acre (34-km² site owned by the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA) and located Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of It is a large manufacturing facility where external fuel tanks for space shuttles are produced, and it also houses the National Finance Center, operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
|Est. 2007||239,124||||-50. 7%|
|Historical Population Figures|
As of the census of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population The population density was 2,684. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 3 inhabitants per square mile (1,036. 4 /km²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 1,191. 3 inhabitants per square mile (460. 0 /km²). The racial makeup of the city was 67. 25% African American, 28. 05% White, 0. 20% Native American, 2. 26% Asian, 0. 02% Pacific Islander, 0. 93% from other races, and 1. 28% from two or more races. 3. 06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The last population estimate before Hurricane Katrina was 454,865 as of July 1, 2005. New Orleans&ndashMetairie&ndashKenner is a metropolitan area designated by the US Census encompassing seven parishes in the state of Louisiana, centering on "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  A population analysis released in August 2007 estimated the population to be 273,000, 60% of the pre-Katrina population and an increase of about 50,000 since July 2006.  A September 2007 report by The Greater New Orleans Community Data Center, which tracks population based on U. S. Postal Service figures, found that in August 2007, just over 137,000 households received mail. That compares with about 198,000 households in July 2005, representing about 70% of pre-Katrina population. 
A 2006 study by researchers at Tulane University and the University of California, Berkeley determined that there are as many as 10,000 to 14,000 undocumented workers, mostly from Mexico, currently residing in New Orleans. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.  Janet Murguia, president and chief executive officer of the National Council of La Raza, stated that there could be up to 120,000 Hispanic workers in New Orleans. Janet Murguia is a prominent civil rights leader for the Mexican and Hispanic communities of the United States In June 2007, one study stated that the hispanic population had risen from 15,000 pre-Katrina to over 50,000. 
The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has stated that some public housing developments, which were originally going to be torn down, are going to be re-opened temporarily; the public housing developments will be redeveloped in phases. The United States Department of Housing, often abbreviated HUD, is a Cabinet department of the United States federal government. On March 21, 2007, the House of Representatives passed a bill blocking any demolition of housing developments until HUD shows solid plans for redevelopment, informing HUD that they must contact all former developments on August 1, 2007 and that the buildings must be livable by October 2007. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The House's measure must be approved by the United States Senate. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives  Developers who take advantage of federal tax credits to build other low income and affordable housing, along with residents' continued receipt of federal grant money, should help residents to return to the region.
New Orleans is notably absent from the Protestant Bible Belt that dominates religion in the Southern United States. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Evangelical Protestantism is a The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive In New Orleans and the surrounding Gulf Coast area, the predominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Within the Archdiocese of New Orleans (which includes not only the city but the surrounding Parishes as well), 35. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, officially in Latin Archidioecesis Novae Aureliae, is an ecclesiastical division of the Roman Catholic Church 9% percent of the population is Roman Catholic.  The influence of Catholicism is reflected in many of the city's French and Spanish cultural traditions, including its many parochial schools, street names, architecture, and festivals, including Mardi Gras. See also Mardi Gras Mardi Gras in New Orleans Louisiana is one of the most famous Carnival celebrations in the world
New Orleans also famously has a presence of its distinctive variety of Voodoo, due in part to syncretism with Roman Catholic beliefs, the fame of voodoo practitioner Marie Laveau, and New Orleans' distinctly Caribbean cultural influences. Louisiana Voodoo, also known as New Orleans Voodoo, originated from the ancestral religions of the African diaspora. Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought Marie Laveau ( September 10, 1801 – June 16, 1881) was an Louisiana Creole practitioner of Voudou renowned in New Orleans  However, the exotic image of Voodoo within the city has been highly exploited by the tourism industry out of proportion to the small number of serious adherents to the religion.
New Orleans has developed a distinctive local dialect over the years. Yat refers to a unique collection of Dialects of English spoken in New Orleans Louisiana. This dialect is neither Cajun nor the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. Cajuns ('keʒən les Cadiens are an Ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other Southern American English is a group of Dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from Southern It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of post-vocalic "r". English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups the rhotic (ˈroʊtɪk and non-rhotic, depending on when the sound typically represented One dialect is similar to the New York "Brooklynese" dialect to people unfamiliar with it. The City of New York The New York dialect of the English language is spoken by most European Americans and some non-European Americans who were raised in New York City and There are many theories to how this dialect came to be, but it likely resulted from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water and the fact that New Orleans was a major port of entry into the United States throughout the 19th century. Many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, with Irish, Italians (especially Sicilians), and Germans being the largest groups, as well as a very sizeable Jewish community. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
One of the strongest varieties of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as Yat, from the greeting "Where y'at?" This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city itself but remains very strong in the surrounding Parishes. Yat refers to a unique collection of Dialects of English spoken in New Orleans Louisiana.
New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The Mayor-Council government system sometimes called the Mayor-Commission government system is one of two variations of Government used for the most part in modern The city council consists of five council members who are elected by district and two at-large councilmembers. Mayor Ray Nagin was elected in May 2002 and was reelected in the mayoral election of May 20, 2006. The first round of the New Orleans mayoral election of 2006 took place on April 22, 2006; a runoff between Incumbent Mayor Ray Nagin and Louisiana
The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The New Orleans Police Department or NOPD has primary responsibility for law enforcement in New Orleans Louisiana. The Orleans Parish Civil Sheriff's Office serves papers involving lawsuits and provides security for the Civil District Court and Juvenile Courts. Service of process is the procedure employed to give Legal notice to a person (such as a defendant of a Court or administrative body's exercise of The Criminal Sheriff, Marlin Gusman, maintains the parish prison system, provides security for the Criminal District Court, and provides backup for the New Orleans Police Department on an as-needed basis.
The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-parish government. The US state of Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes in the same way that 48 of the other states of the United States  Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. The original city of New Orleans was composed of what are now the 1st through 9th wards. The city of Lafayette (including the Garden District) was added in 1852 as the 10th and 11th wards. In 1870, Jefferson City, including Faubourg Bouligny and much of the Audubon and University areas, was annexed as the 12th, 13th, and 14th wards. Algiers, on the west bank of the Mississippi, was also annexed in 1870, becoming the 15th ward. Algiers is a community within the city of New Orleans. It is the portion of Orleans Parish Louisiana on the West Bank of the Mississippi River. Four years later, Orleans Parish became coextensive with the city of New Orleans when the city of Carrollton was annexed as the 16th and 17th wards. Carrollton is a Neighborhood of uptown New Orleans Louisiana, USA.
New Orleans' government is now largely centralized in the city council and mayor's office, but it maintains a number of relics from earlier systems when various sections of the city ran much of their affairs separately. For example, New Orleans has seven elected tax assessors, each with their own staff, representing various districts of the city, rather than one centralized office. A constitutional amendment passed on November 7, 2006, will consolidate the seven assessors into one by 2010. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
New Orleans has a high violent crime rate. Homicides peaked at 421 in 1994, a rate of 86 per 100,000 residents. 
The homicide rate rose and fell year to year throughout the late 1990s, but the overall trend from 1994 to 1999 was a steady reduction in homicides.
From 1999 to 2004, the homicide rate again increased. New Orleans had the highest homicide rate of any major American city in 2002 (53. 3 per 100,000 people) and again in 2003 (275 homicides).  It should be stated that the number of homicides has decreased since 1994 - the number of homicides in 2004 was about 275, cutting the 1994 count by one-third.
Violent crime is a serious problem for New Orleans residents, but far less of a problem for tourists. As in other U. S. cities of comparable size, the incidence of homicide and other violent crimes is highly concentrated in certain low-income neighborhoods, such as housing projects, that are sites of open-air drug trade. The Housing Authority of New Orleans is a Housing authority in New Orleans Louisiana tasked with providing housing to low-income residents  The homicide rate for the entire New Orleans metropolitan area was 24. New Orleans&ndashMetairie&ndashKenner is a metropolitan area designated by the US Census encompassing seven parishes in the state of Louisiana, centering on 4 per 100,000 in 2002. 
After Hurricane Katrina, media attention focused on the reduced violent crime rate following the exodus of many New Orleanians. Conversely, a number of cities that took in Katrina evacuees had a significant increase in their murder rate.  Houston, for example, had a 25% increase in murders from the previous year. Captain Dwayne Ready stated, "We also recognize that Katrina evacuees continue to have an impact on the murder rate. " Police have not kept records of how evacuees have affected crime rates other than homicide.  As more residents return to New Orleans, the trend is starting to reverse itself, although calculating the homicide rate remains difficult given that no authoritative source can cite a total population figure. 
On Thursday, January 11, 2007, several thousand New Orleans residents marched through city streets and gathered at City Hall for a rally demanding police and city leaders tackle the crime problem. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Mayor Ray Nagin said he was "totally and solely focused" on addressing the problem. Clarence Ray Nagin Jr (ˈneɪgɨn (born June 11, 1956) is the Mayor of New Orleans. The city of New Orleans implemented checkpoints starting in early January 2007 from the hours of 2 a. m and 6 a. m. in high-crime areas, and, as of January 20, 2007, they had made over 60 arrests and issued more than 100 citations. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Although the city has lost more than 40% of its pre-Katrina population, the city has recaptured an infamous unwanted title as the nation's "murder capital", according to the FBI.  By November 2007, local media reports claimed homicides had already eclipsed the previous year's numbers.  The city recorded a total of 209 homicides in 2007.
New Orleans Public Schools is the city's school district and one of the area's largest (along with the Jefferson Parish School District). New Orleans Public Schools is a public School district that serves all of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. It is widely recognized as the lowest performing school district in Louisiana. According to researchers Carl L. Bankston and Stephen J. Carl L Bankston III (born August 8, 1952, New Orleans Louisiana) is an American sociologist and author Caldas, 12 of the 103 schools in New Orleans showed reasonably good performance at the beginning of the twenty-first century.  Following Hurricane Katrina, the state of Louisiana took over most of the schools within the system (all schools that fell into a nominal "worst-performing" metric); about 20 new charter schools have been started since the storm, educating 15,000.
The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools, with the vast majority being run by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, officially in Latin Archidioecesis Novae Aureliae, is an ecclesiastical division of the Roman Catholic Church The prevalence of very good parochial schools has been both a cause and a consequence of the troubles in the public schools. Because so many middle class students have been enrolled in non-public schools, middle class support for public education has been relatively weak. At the same time, the apparent low quality of public schools in New Orleans has encouraged middle class families to educate their children in private or parochial schools. This has contributed to major underfunding of the public school system.
A large number of institutions of higher education exist within the city, including Tulane University and Loyola University New Orleans, the city's major private universities. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. Loyola University New Orleans is a private, Co-educational and Jesuit university located in New Orleans. The University of New Orleans is a large public research university in the city. The University of New Orleans, often locally called UNO, is a medium sized public urban University located in New Orleans Louisiana, United States Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans, and Xavier University of Louisiana are among some of the leading historically black colleges and universities in the United States (Xavier is the only predominantly black Catholic university in the US). Dillard University is a private historically black Liberal arts college in New Orleans Louisiana. Southern University at New Orleans is an HBCU (Historically Black College or University in New Orleans Louisiana. Xavier University of Louisiana is a private coed liberal arts historically Black Roman Catholic University located in New Orleans Louisiana Louisiana State University Medical School is the state's flagship public university medical school which also conducts research. Louisiana State University School of Medicine refers to two separate medical schools in Louisiana LSU School of Medicine in New Orleans and LSU School of Medicine in Shreveport Our Lady of Holy Cross College, Notre Dame Seminary, and the New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary are several smaller religiously affiliated universities. Our Lady of Holy Cross College is a small coeducational Catholic college in New Orleans Louisiana. Notre Dame Seminary is a resident accredited graduate theological school in New Orleans, Louisiana, founded in 1923 for the education of men to be priests of the The Other notable schools include Delgado Community College, the William Carey College School of Nursing, the Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, and Commonwealth University. Delgado Community College is a Louisiana public Community college with campuses throughout the New Orleans metropolitan area, the East and West Banks of William Carey University is a University in southern Mississippi, in the United States affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention and the Mississippi Herzing College is a private career focused institution of higher education that awards diplomas associate degrees and bachelor degrees in a variety of disciplines
There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University, the Law Library of Louisiana, and Earl K. A public library (also called circulating library) is a Library which is accessible by the Public and is generally funded from public sources (such Loyola University New Orleans is a private, Co-educational and Jesuit university located in New Orleans. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. Long Library at the University of New Orleans. 
The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina. The New Orleans Public Library (NOPL is the Public library service of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. However, only four libraries remained closed in 2007.  The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections. 
Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection and the Old U.S. Mint. The Historic New Orleans Collection (THNOC is a museum research center and publisher dedicated to the study and preservation of the history and culture of New Orleans The New Orleans Mint operated in New Orleans, Louisiana, as a branch mint of the United States Mint from 1838 to 1861 and from 1879 to 1909 
An independently operated lending library called Iron Rail Book Collective specializes in radical and hard-to-find books. Iron Rail Book Collective is an Volunteer -run radical Library and bookstore in New Orleans, Louisiana. The library contains over 8,000 titles and is open to the public. It was the first library in the city to re-open after Hurricane Katrina.
The major daily newspaper is the The Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. The Times-Picayune is a daily Newspaper published in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Weekly publications include The Louisiana Weekly and Gambit Weekly. The Louisiana Weekly is a weekly Newspaper published in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Gambit Weekly is a New Orleans Louisiana -based Alternative weekly Newspaper that was established in 1981  Also in wide circulation is the Clarion Herald, the newspaper of the Archdiocese of New Orleans, which is published weekly from September to May and biweekly from June to August. The Clarion Herald is the official newspaper of the Archdiocese of New Orleans. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, officially in Latin Archidioecesis Novae Aureliae, is an ecclesiastical division of the Roman Catholic Church
Greater New Orleans is well served by television and radio. The market is the 54th largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U. A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area, DMA or simply market is a region where the Population S. , serving 566,960 homes and 0. 509% of the U. S.  Major television network affiliates serving the area include:
WWOZ, the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Station, broadcasts 24 hours per day of jazz, blues, Zydeco, and New Orleans music at 90. WWL-TV, channel 4 is the CBS affiliate serving New Orleans Louisiana, southeast Louisiana and parts of southern and coastal Mississippi. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. WDSU is the NBC affiliate for the New Orleans Louisiana television market The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's WVUE was also the callsign for Channel 12 in Wilmington Delaware in the late 1950s WYES-TV is the flagship PBS member station in New Orleans Louisiana, owned by the Greater New Orleans Educational Television Foundation The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the WHNO is a Television station in New Orleans Louisiana, broadcasting locally on channel 20 as a LeSEA Owned-and-operated station. LeSEA is an Acronym that stands for " Le ster S umrall E vangelistic A ssociation WGNO, "ABC 26" is the ABC affiliate for the greater New Orleans Louisiana area as well parts of southern and coastal Mississippi. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. WLAE-TV is a PBS member station in New Orleans Louisiana, broadcasting locally on channel 32 The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the WNOL-TV, channel 38 is a CW Television Network affiliate in New Orleans Louisiana. The CW Television Network ( The CW) is a Television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006-2007 television season. WPXL is the local ION Television (formerly Pax TV and i affiliate in New Orleans Louisiana, owned by ION Media Networks. Ion Television is a broadcast television network first broadcast on August 31 1998 WUPL, My54, is the My Network TV affiliate for the Greater New Orleans Louisiana area MyNetworkTV (unofficially abbreviated MyNet or MNT) is a Television network in the United States, owned by the Fox Broadcasting Company 7 FM and at www. wwoz. org. Two radio stations that were influential in promoting New Orleans-based bands and singers were 50,000-watt WNOE-AM (1060) and 10,000-watt WTIX-AM (690). This article is about radio broadcasting for other uses see Radio (disambiguation. WIST is an all talk station based in New Orleans Louisiana. The locally owned & operated station (WTIX Inc owned by George H These two stations competed head-to-head from the late 1950s to the late 1970s.
New Orleans has three active streetcar lines. The following is a list of FCC -licensed Radio stations in the U Streetcars in New Orleans have been an integral part of the city's Public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train The St. Charles line is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in America, and each car is a historic landmark. Streetcars in New Orleans have been an integral part of the city's Public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century The Riverfront line runs parallel to the river from Esplanade Street through the French Quarter to Canal Street to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from the intersection of Canal Street and Poydras Street, down Canal Street, then branches off and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.
The city's streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26 1911 &ndash February 25 1983 better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical A Streetcar Named Desire is a 1947 play written by American playwright Tennessee Williams for which he received the Pulitzer Prize The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire streetcar line, running along the neutral grounds of North Rampart and St. Claude, as far downriver as Poland Avenue, near the Industrial Canal.
Hurricane Katrina destroyed the power lines supplying the St. Charles Avenue line. The associated levee failures flooded the Mid-City facility storing the red streetcars which normally run on the Riverfront and Canal Street lines. Restoration of service has been gradual, with vintage St. Charles line cars running on the Riverfront and Canal lines until the more modern red cars are back in service; they are being individually restored at the RTA's facility in the Carrollton neighborhood. On December 23, 2007, streetcars were restored to running on the St. Charles line up to Carrolton Avenue, with the remainder of the route expected to be restored in 2008. 
Public transportation in the city is operated by New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). The New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ( RTA or NORTA as it is called by some residents is a body established by the Louisiana State Legislature in 1979 There are many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas. The Jefferson Parish Department of Transit Administration operates Jefferson Transit which provides service between the city and its suburbs. Jefferson Parish is a parish in Louisiana, United States that includes most of the Suburbs of New Orleans. 
New Orleans proper is served by interstate highways, Interstate 10, Interstate 610 and Interstate 510. Interstate 10 ( I-10) is the southernmost east-west coast-to-coast Interstate highway in the United States. Interstate 610 (abbreviated I-610) is an auxiliary route of Interstate 10 that lies entirely within the boundaries of New Orleans Louisiana. Interstate 510 (abbreviated I-510) is a short Spur route of Interstate 10 within in eastern New Orleans Louisiana, United States. I-10 travels east-west through the city as the Pontchartrain Expressway. The Pontchartrain Expressway is a parallel 6-lane section of Interstate 10 and U In the far eastern part of the city, New Orleans East, it is known as the Eastern Expressway. Eastern New Orleans is a large section of the city of New Orleans Louisiana. Interstate 490 (abbreviated I-490) is an 3740-mile Interstate highway Loop route that serves the City of Rochester in Monroe County I-610 provides a direct shortcut for traffic passing through New Orleans via I-10, allowing that traffic to bypass I-10's southward curve. In the future, New Orleans will have another interstate highway, Interstate 49, which will be extended from its current terminus in Lafayette to the city. Interstate 49 (I-49 is an intrastate Interstate highway located entirely within the state of Louisiana in the southern United States. Lafayette is a City in and the Parish seat of Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, United States, on the Vermilion River.
In addition to Interstate Highways, U.S. 90 travels through the city while U.S. 61 terminates in the city's downtown center. US Route 90 is an east-west United States highway. Despite the "0" in its route number US 90 never was a full coast-to-coast route it has always ended at US Route 61 is the official designation for a United States highway that runs from New Orleans Louisiana, to the city of Wyoming Minnesota. In addition, U.S. 11 terminates in the eastern portion of the city. US Route 11 is a north-south United States highway extending 1645 mile
New Orleans is home to many bridges, The tolled Crescent City Connection is perhaps the most notable. The Crescent City Connection, abbreviated as CCC, (formerly the Greater New Orleans Bridge) refers to twin Cantilever bridges that carry U It serves as New Orleans' major bridge across the Mississippi River, providing a connection between the city's downtown on the eastbank and its westbank suburbs. Other bridges that cross the Mississippi River in the New Orleans area are the Huey P. Long Bridge, over which U. The Huey P Long Bridge in Jefferson Parish Louisiana, is a cantilevered steel through truss bridge that carries a two-track Railroad line over the Mississippi S. 90 travels, and the Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge, which carries Interstate 310. The Luling Bridge (also known as the Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge) is a Cable-stayed bridge over the Mississippi River in St Interstate 310 (abbreviated I-310) is a short Spur route of Interstate 10 near New Orleans Louisiana, United States.
The Twin Span, a five-mile (8 km) causeway in eastern New Orleans carries I-10 across Lake Pontchartrain. The I-10 Twin Span Bridge, known locally as the Twin Spans, consists of two parallel Trestle bridges These parallel bridges cross the eastern end of Lake In modern usage a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank usually across a broad Body of water or Wetland. Lake Pontchartrain (ˈpɒntʃətreɪn in English Lac Pontchartrain IPA in French) is a brackish Lake Also in eastern New Orleans, Interstate 510/LA 47 travels across the Intracoastal Waterway/Mississippi River Gulf Outlet via the Paris Road Bridge, connecting New Orleans East and suburban Chalmette. Interstate 510 (abbreviated I-510) is a short Spur route of Interstate 10 within in eastern New Orleans Louisiana, United States. Louisiana Highway 47 ( LA 47) is a State highway in Louisiana that serves Orleans and St The Intracoastal Waterway is a 4800-km (3000-mile Waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal (also known as MRGO MR-GO or "Mr The Green Bridge is the unofficial local name of the Paris Road Bridge carrying Louisiana Highway 47 across the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet between St Eastern New Orleans is a large section of the city of New Orleans Louisiana. Chalmette is a Census-designated place (CDP in and the Parish seat of St
The tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges, are, at 24 miles (39 km) in length, the longest bridges in the world. The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, or the Causeway, consists of two parallel bridges crossing Lake Pontchartrain in southern Louisiana. Built in the 1950s (southbound span) and 1960s (northbound span), the bridges connect New Orleans with its suburbs on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain via Metairie. Metairie (local pronunciations /ˈmɛtəɹi/ /ˈmɛtɹi/ is a Census-designated place (CDP in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, United States
The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, located in the suburb of Kenner. Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, formerly known as Moisant Field, while other names for it are Louis Armstrong International Airport and Kenner is a city in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, United States, and a suburb of New Orleans. New Orleans also has several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. These include the Lakefront Airport, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans (locally known as Callendar Field) in the suburb of Belle Chasse and "Southern Seaplane," also located in Belle Chasse. Lakefront Airport is a public Airport located in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. New Orleans Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base is a base of the United State military located in Belle Chasse Louisiana. Southern Seaplane has a 3,200-foot (980 m) runway for wheeled planes and a 5,000-foot (1,500 m) water runway for seaplanes. New Orleans' airport suffered some damage as a result of Hurricane Katrina, but as of April 2007 it contained the most traffic and is the busiest airport in the state of Louisiana, and it is the sixth busiest in the Southeast.
The city is served by rail via Amtrak. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and is served by three trains: the Crescent, operating between New Orleans and New York City; the City of New Orleans, operating between New Orleans and Chicago; and the Sunset Limited, operating through New Orleans between Orlando, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal ( NOUPT) is the main Train station in New Orleans Louisiana. The Crescent is a passenger Train operated by Amtrak in the eastern part of the United States. For the city itself see New Orleans Louisiana. The City of New Orleans is a nightly Passenger train operated by Amtrak The Sunset Limited is a Passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans and Los Angeles California, and that from early From late August of 2005 to the present, the Sunset Limited has remained officially a Florida-to-Los Angeles train, being considered temporarily truncated due to the lingering effects of Hurricane Katrina. At first (until late October 2005) it was truncated to a San Antonio-to-Los Angeles service; since then (from late October 2005 on) it has been truncated to a New Orleans-to-Los Angeles service. As time has passed, particularly since the January 2006 completion of the rebuilding of damaged tracks east of New Orleans by their owner CSX Transportation Inc. , the obstacles to restoration of the Sunset Limited's full route have been more managerial and political than physical.
In addition, the city is also served by five of the seven Class I freight railroads in North America: Union Pacific Railroad, BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX, and Canadian National Railway. A Class I railroad in the United States and Mexico, or a Class I rail carrier in Canada, is a large freight Railroad, as classified The BNSF Railway headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is one of the four remaining Transcontinental railroads and one of the largest railroad networks in This article is about the present railroad formed in 1990 For the former regional railroad in Virginia and North Carolina a small part of the new one see Norfolk Southern The Kansas City Southern Terminal was shut down post Hurricane Katrina. Kansas City Southern (, is the Parent company of many Railroads and railroad related companies New Orleans Public Belt provides interchange services between the railroads. The New Orleans Public Belt Railroad is a Non-profit terminal switching Railroad, owned by the City of New Orleans
Recently, many have proposed extending New Orleans's public transit system by adding light rail routes from downtown along Airline Highway through the airport to Baton Rouge and from downtown to Slidell and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. Baton Rouge (French Bâton-Rouge ˌbætən ˈruːdʒ in English, and in French) is the capital city of Louisiana. The Mississippi Gulf Coast refers to the three Mississippi counties which lie on the Gulf of Mexico: Hancock, Harrison and Jackson Proponents of this idea claim that these new routes would boost the region's economy, which has been badly damaged by Hurricane Katrina, and serve as an evacuation option for hospital patients out of the city. Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States 
The Canal Street Ferry connects the heart of New Orleans with the neighborhood of Algiers Point on the other side of the Mississippi River. The Canal Street Ferry, also known as the Algiers Ferry, is a Ferry across the Mississippi River in the U The Canal Street Ferry, also known as the Algiers Ferry, is a Ferry across the Mississippi River in the U This service has been in continuous operation since 1827. Pedestrians ride for free while automobiles are charged a fee. Service is from 6 am until midnight.
Natural gas and electricity dominate the home heating market with similar market shares totaling about 47 percent each.
The city's several nicknames are illustrative:
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