of the Americas
|History of the Americas|
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica; see Gallia Belgica: Belgica as the name of the Low Countries), 1614–1674, was the territory on the eastern coast of North America in the 17th century which stretched from latitude 38 to 45 degrees north as originally discovered by the Dutch East India Company with the yacht Half Moon under the command of Henry Hudson in 1609 and explored by Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiaensz from 1611 until 1614. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian A yacht is a recreational boat It designates two rather different classes of Watercraft, sailing and power yachts Henry Hudson' (1570 &ndash 1611 was an English Sea explorer and Navigator in the early 17th century Adriaen (Aerjan Block (c 1567 Amsterdam &ndash buried April 27 1627, Amsterdam was a Dutch private trader and navigator who is best Their map of 1614, presented to the States General, claimed the territory as New Netherland for the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
A private commercial venture since patents were issued by the States General in 1614, New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624. The States-General ( Staten-Generaal) is the Parliament of the Netherlands. At that time the northern border was reduced to 42 degrees north in acknowledgment of the inevitable intrusion of the English north of Cape Cod (see John Smith's 1616 map as self-anointed Admiral of New England).
According to the Law of Nations, a claim on a territory required not only discovery and charting, but also settlement. Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of States and Intergovernmental organizations. In May 1624 the Dutch completed their claim by landing 30 Dutch families on Noten Eylant, modern Governors Island. This article is about Governors Island in New York For other uses see Governors Island (disambiguation Governors Island is a 172- Acre (69 ha island
The Hudson was first explored by Giovanni da Verrazzano, who sailing for France, brought the Dauphine into lower New York Bay. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. French traders also descended from the north to trade with the Mahicans. Dutch traders clearly knew about the Hudson river by 1600.
An original 1614 province claim came chiefly as the result of the explorations of the Dutch East India Company with the yacht Halve Maen, captained by Henry Hudson in 1609. Henry Hudson' (1570 &ndash 1611 was an English Sea explorer and Navigator in the early 17th century It was the first year of the twelve-year armistice between The Dutch Republic and Spain (April 9, 1609-1621) when unaccompanied and unarmed Dutch ships would be free from attack by the Spanish enemy. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) The truce enabled the Halve Maen to traverse the Atlantic. Hudson’s report to his superiors relayed that he had engaged in small-scale bartering for furs with the natives he had encountered along the Mauritius River―so named by him after Holland’s Lord Lieutenant Maurits, a nobleman of the house of Orange Nassau who was leading the Republic’s land war against Spain. Maurice of Nassau (Maurits van Nassau ( 14 November 1567 &ndash 23 April 1625) Prince of Orange (1618&ndash1625
At the conclusion of the armistice in 1621, the Dutch West India Company received its charter from the States General. Dutch West India Company ( Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWC; English: Chartered West India Company was a company of It had very broad objectives covering the entire Atlantic region as originally formulated in a concept patent in 1606. In 1621, it still incorporated the narrow objectives of its spiritual founder Willem Usselincx who, between 1600 and 1606, had made the case for the Company as primarily a source of colonies in the new world. Willem Usselincx (Antwerp Low Countries 1567-1647? was a merchant and diplomat In 1620, Usselincx made a last appeal to the States General who rejected his principal vision as its primary goal. The result was that colonization would take now a tertiary place after the Company’s chief aims of military and profit seeking activities in the Atlantic arena. New Netherland was thus destined to become the State General’s stepchild until 1654 when it had surrendered Dutch Brazil, obtained through conquest from the Portuguese in 1630. Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of Brazil, seized by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas Having lost its possession, the richest sugar producing area in the world, enabled it to focus belatedly on the New Netherland nation-building effort in North America.
The prospect of exploiting Henry Hudson’s 1609 report of a new trade resource had been the catalyst for Dutch private merchant-traders to assume the risk of exploring the river region Hudson had discovered. It resulted in the only known commercial expedition in the year 1610 by Symen Lambertsz May of Monnikendam to the Mauritius River. The following year and in 1612, the Admiralty of Amsterdam sent (covert) expeditions to find a northwest passage to China with the yachts Craen and Vos, captained by Jan Cornelisz May and Symon Willemsz Cat respectively. In the same years of 1611 and 1612, as well as the year 1613 and 1614, Adriaen Block, Hendrick Christiaensz and Cornelis Jacobsz May undertook commercial explorations to Hudson’s river while surveying and charting the coastline and all river inlets between Cape Cod and the Delaware Bay. Adriaen (Aerjan Block (c 1567 Amsterdam &ndash buried April 27 1627, Amsterdam was a Dutch private trader and navigator who is best Cornelis Jacobsz Mey, incorrectly spelled May or Meij and often with the incorrect Americanized Cornelius instead of Cornelis was a Dutch explorer captain
Some of those explorers are still honored today such as Adriaen Block, for whom Block Island has been named, and Cornelis Jacobsz May, for whom Cape May, New Jersey is named, and his business partner Thymen Jacobsz Hinlopen for whom Cape Henlopen, Delaware, is named. Adriaen (Aerjan Block (c 1567 Amsterdam &ndash buried April 27 1627, Amsterdam was a Dutch private trader and navigator who is best Block Island is part of the US state of Rhode Island and is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately south of the coast of Rhode Island Cornelis Jacobsz Mey, incorrectly spelled May or Meij and often with the incorrect Americanized Cornelius instead of Cornelis was a Dutch explorer captain Cape May, is a city at the southern tip of Cape May Peninsula in Cape May County, New Jersey, where the Delaware Bay meets the Cornelis Jacobsz Mey, incorrectly spelled May or Meij and often with the incorrect Americanized Cornelius instead of Cornelis was a Dutch explorer captain
The results of these explorations, surveys and charts made from 1609-1614, were consolidated in a map made by Adriaen Block and presented to the States General in 1614 (the Block Map). The map named New Netherland for the first time and was delivered on behalf of various competing trading companies in the Hudson River region. They had amalgamated in a new company named The New Netherland Company.
The map and a companion detailed report was presented in response to a States General promulgation of March 17, 1614, that it would grant an exclusive patent for trade between the 40th and 45th parallels, good for four voyages to the discoverer of new countries, harbors and passages. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger The journeys had to be undertaken within three years after granting the trading rights at the exclusion of all other Dutch. The New Netherland Company was the winner on October 11, 1614 with the date of patent expiration on January 1, 1618. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC
The New Netherland Company had the Delaware area surveyed by skipper Cornelis Hendricksz of Monnikendam in the years 1614, 1615 and 1616. However, it was unable to secure an exclusive patent from the States General for the area between the 38th and 40th parallel. Upon Block’s departure to patria in June 1614, Cornelis Hendricksz had stayed behind and had been appointed by Block as skipper of the North American-built ship Onrust or “Trouble”. The Onrust (Dutch for "Restless" was a Dutch ship that was built by Adriaen Block and the crew of the Tyger, which had been destroyed by fire The “Trouble” (often less correctly translated as “Unrest”), was a replacement ship built by Block in the vicinity of Manhattan upon the destruction of his yacht the Tyger which had been lost to fire in January 1614. The Tyger (tiger was the ship used by Dutch captain Adriaen Block during his 1613 voyage to explore the East Coast of North America and the present day Hudson Adriaen Block never returned to New Netherland. Cornelis Hendricksz’s Zuyd Rivier, (Delaware River) explorations, from its very top to the lower bay, has been preserved in a map of 1616. The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
In preparation for North American colonization, the West India Company recalled all private commercial parties operating in the New Netherland territory in 1621, 1622 and 1623 and invalidated all private commercial interests, thus voiding maritime law as only legal recourse in the region. A legal recourse is an action that can be taken by an individual or a corporation to attempt to remedy a legal difficulty The peopling and growth of New Netherland as an overseas province was to be financed partly by profits from fur trading operations. That trade was therefore made exclusive to the West India Company in order to minimize the company’s financial exposure to the colony.
In the summer of 1624, the Dutch East India Company delivered the first colonists (mostly from southern Netherlandic or Walloon ancestry) on Noten Eylant, now Governors Island, in New Netherland. Walloons (Wallons Walons are a Romance people living in Belgium principally in Wallonia. This article is about Governors Island in New York For other uses see Governors Island (disambiguation Governors Island is a 172- Acre (69 ha island They came from the Walloon communities in Amsterdam, Haarlem and Leiden and comprised thirty families. These colonists had disembarked on Governors Island from the ship named “New Netherland” under the command of Cornelis Jacobsz May, the first director of the Province of New Netherland. Cornelis Jacobsz Mey, incorrectly spelled May or Meij and often with the incorrect Americanized Cornelius instead of Cornelis was a Dutch explorer captain
In June, 1625, forty-five more colonists disembarked on Governors Island from three ships named Horse, Cow and Sheep which also delivered 103 horses, steers and cows, in addition to numerous pigs and sheep. It successfully completed the Republic’s first planting of a colony in 1624. Director May (1624-1625) was replaced with Director Willem Verhulst (1625-1626).
Prior to establishment of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in 1625, giving birth to New York City, there was a fort on Noten Eylant in 1624, giving birth to New York State (as well as New Jersey, Connecticut and Delaware, i. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York e. , the New York Tri-State region). The earliest fort however was Fort Nassau (1614) far up Hudson's river, constructed on Castle Island, and, because of its inundation after 1618, replaced by Fort Orange on the mainland in 1624, giving birth to Beverwijck which became Albany, New York State’s capital. Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. On the Delaware River there existed a Fort Wilhelmus on Verhulsten Island, now Burlington Island, a Fort Nassau (1623 until 1651), now Gloucester in New Jersey, and in the Connecticut River was Fort Goede Hoop, also known as Huys de Hoop in 1633 (En. Fort Hoop ( Dutch: Fort Goede Hoop; Algic: Suckiaug) was a settlement by the New Netherlands colony in the land that would eventually "House of Hope"), giving birth to Hartford. The primary purpose of the forts was to defend river traffic against interlopers and to conduct fur trading operations with the natives. The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal Fur. (The two forts Nassau and Fort Orange were named in honor of the House of Orange-Nassau whose members occupied positions of power as lord-lieutenants of various provinces of the Dutch Republic. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life )
In 1643-1645, the Dutch colonists fight the Weckquaesgeek Indians in the bloody Kieft's War, near nowaday’s Jersey City and elsewhere in New Netherland. Kieft's War, also known as the Wappinger War, was a conflict between Dutch settlers and Indians in the colony of New Netherland from 1643 to Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Those settlers to Governors Island in 1624 planted the concept of toleration as a legal right on North America as per explicit orders in 1624. This article is about Governors Island in New York For other uses see Governors Island (disambiguation Governors Island is a 172- Acre (69 ha island They had to attract, “through attitude and by example”, the natives and non-believers to God’s word “without, on the other hand, to persecute someone by reason of his religion and to leave everyone the freedom of his conscience” (via “levenshouding en voorbeeld” moesten zij “de Indianen ende andere blinde menschen tot de kennisz Godes ende synes woort sien te trecken, sonder nochtans ijemant ter oorsaecke van syne religie te vervolgen, maer een yder de vrijch[eyt] van sijn consciencie te laten”).
Those instructions derived from the founding document of the Dutch Republic, the 1579 Union of Utrecht, stating “that everyone shall remain free in religion and that no one may be persecuted or investigated because of religion” (“dat een yder particulier in sijn religie vrij sal moegen blijven ende dat men nyemant ter cause van de religie sal moegen achterhaelen ofte ondersoucken”). The Union of Utrecht (Unie van Utrecht is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern Provinces That statement, unique in the world at the time, became the historic underpinning for the opening of the first synagogue in the Western Hemisphere at Recife in Dutch Brazil in 1642 as well as the "official" granting of full residency for both Ashkenazim and Sephardim at New Amsterdam in 1655. Furthermore, the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland were incorporated by reference in those first instructions to the Governors Island settlers in 1624. They contained the legal-cultural code that lies at the root of the New York Tri-State traditions and, ultimately, American pluralism (diversity) and liberty.
In 1658 Franciscus van den Enden together with Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy worked on a project for an utopian settlement in New Netherland, more precisely in the area of the present Delaware. Franciscus van den Enden ( Antwerp ca 5 February 1602 - Paris, 27 November 1674) is mainly known as the teacher of Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy (also Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy van Zierikzee or Peter Cornelius van Zurick-zee, born c Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. In 1663 Plockhoy and 41 settlers made their way to Delaware Bay and established their colony near the former Swaanendael. Zwaanendael or Swaanendael was a Dutch colonial settlement in Delaware.
William Wood’s 1634 map is the first to show Cape Cod as part of New England, evidence of English settlement spilling over from New England into New Netherland. William Wood may refer to William Wood 1st Baron Hatherley (1801&ndash1881 British statesman William Wood (botanist, English Unitarian Unable to militarily defend their large territorial claims, the Dutch could do nothing but protest the growing flood of English. With the founding of New Haven in 1638, the flood picked up and English settlers began moving into the areas right around New York and Long Island.
Peter Stuyvesant was Director-General of the colony from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664. Peter Stuyvesant (originally Pieter or Petrus, Peter is never mentioned in historical records (c
With the 1650 Treaty of Hartford, Stuyvesant provisionally ceded the Connecticut River region to New England, drawing New Netherland's eastern border 50 Dutch miles west of the Connecticut's mouth on the mainland and just west of Oyster Bay on Long Island. The term Treaty of Hartford applies to three historic agreements negotiated at Hartford Connecticut. The Connecticut River is the largest River in New England, flowing south from the Connecticut Lakes in northern New Hampshire, along the border Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches The Dutch West India Company refused to recognize the treaty, but since they failed to reach any agreement with the English themselves, the Hartford Treaty set the de facto border.
In March of 1664, Charles II of England resolved to annex New Netherland and to “bring all his Kingdoms under one form of government, both in church and state, and to install the Anglican government as in old England”. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. In the face of this the Directors of the Dutch West India Company comforted themselves that the religious freedom of the colony rendered military defense against New England unnecessary. They wrote to Director-General Peter Stuyvesant, “we are in hopes that as the English at the north (in New Netherland) have removed mostly from old England for the causes aforesaid, they will not give us henceforth so much trouble, but prefer to live free under us at peace with their consciences than to risk getting rid of our authority and then falling again under a government from which they had formerly fled. This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland ( Nieuw Nederland Peter Stuyvesant (originally Pieter or Petrus, Peter is never mentioned in historical records (c ”
On August 27, 1664, four English frigates sailed in New Amsterdam’s harbor and demanded New Netherland’s surrender. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan They met no resistance because previously, numerous citizens’ requests for protection by a suitable garrison against “the deplorable and tragic massacres” by the natives had gone unheeded. That ongoing lack of sufficient garrisons, ammunition and gun powder, as well as the indifferent responses from the West India Company upon frequent and urgent requests for reinforcement of men and ships against “the continual troubles, threats, encroachments and invasions of the English neighbors and government of Hartford Colony” made New Amsterdam defenseless. Stuyvesant made the best of a bad situation and negotiated successfully for good terms from his “too powerful enemies. " The capture of the city was one out of a series of attacks on Dutch colonies that resulted in the Second Anglo-Dutch War between England and the Dutch Republic. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March, 1665 until 31 July, 1667.
During the negotiations over the Articles of Transfer, Petrus Stuyvesant and his council secured the principle of tolerance in Article VIII, which assured New Netherlanders that they “shall keep and enjoy the liberty of their consciences in religion” under English rule. In the 1667 Treaty of Breda, the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland. For other meanings see Treaty of Breda (disambiguation. The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31 The status quo, with the Dutch occupying Suriname and the nutmeg island of Run, was maintained; no definitive solution was decided on. Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by The nutmegs Myristica are a Genus of Evergreen Trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia
Within six years, the nations were again at war, and in August of 1673 the Dutch recaptured New Netherland with a fleet of 21 ships, then the largest one seen in North America. It comprised a squadron under the command of Vice-Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jongste sent out by Pieter Huybert, raadspensionaris of the Zeeland Chamber of the Dutch West India Company, and a squadron of the Amsterdam Chamber under the command of Jacob Binckes. Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest ( Flushing, 16 November, 1642 &ndash 16 November, 1706) is a Dutch admiral from the 17th They installed Anthony Colve as “governor” and renamed the city "New Orange", reflecting the installation of William of Orange as Lord-Lieutenant (stadtholder) of Holland in 1672 (He became King William III of England in 1689). William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" A Stadtholder ( Dutch: stadhouder, " steward " or literally "place-keeper" or "stead-holder" in older Dutch in the Low However, after the conclusion of the third Anglo-Dutch war, 1672-74, — the historic “disaster years” in which The Dutch Republic was simultaneously attacked by the French (Louis XIV), the English and the Bishops of Munster and Cologne — the republic was financially and morally broke. The States of Zeeland had tried to convince the States of Holland to take on the responsibility for the New Netherland province to no avail. Zeeland ( also called Zealand in English and Zeelandic, is a province of the Netherlands. States of Holland and West Frisia ( Dutch: Staten van Holland en Westfriesland) were the representation of the two Estates ( In November 1674, the Treaty of Westminster concluded the Third Anglo-Dutch War and ceded New Netherland definitively to the English. The Third Anglo-Dutch War or Third Dutch War ( Dutch: Derde Engelse Oorlog or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog) was a military conflict between The province of New Netherland and the city of New Orange were renamed New York.
New Netherland has left a profoundly enduring legacy on both American cultural and political life. Perhaps most significant was the impact of cultural and religious tolerance which led to a wealth of diversity in New Amsterdam. This tolerance was the mainstay of its mother country, the Dutch Republic as nation state and a haven for refugees from surrounding autocratic or despotic regimes. In 1682, the visiting Virginian William Byrd commented about New Amsterdam that "they have as many sects of religion there as at Amsterdam". This religious freedom was preserved under the Articles of Transfer to English authority.
More visible traces of Dutch influence include the prevalence of Dutch placenames in the region from Rhode Island to Delaware to this day. Examples include:
In addition, many New York citizens are directly descended from the Dutch citizens of New Netherland. For instance, the Roosevelt family, which produced two Presidents, are descended from Claes van Roosevelt, who emigrated from Haarlem in about 1650. The Roosevelt family is a prominent American political family of Dutch descent that produced two United States Presidents Theodore Roosevelt The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The Van Buren family of President Martin Van Buren also originated in New Netherland. Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 July 24 1862 was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841
Further, the colors of the flag of the City of New York are the blue, white and orange of the old Dutch flag. The City of New York The Flag of the Netherlands is a horizontal Tricolour of Red, White, and Blue. The colors are also seen in the Nassau County flag, material from New York's two World's Fairs and the uniforms of the New York Mets. There is also a Town of Nassau in Rensselaer County. Nassau County is a suburban county in the New York Metropolitan Expo (short for "exposition" and also known as World Fair and World's Fair) is the name given to various large public exhibitions held since the "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis.
The folk tales of the Dutch peasants of the Hudson Valley gave literary inspiration to Washington Irving for his two most famous short stories, Rip van Winkle and the Legend of Sleepy Hollow, proving the survival of the local Dutch culture well into the first part of the 19th century. Washington Irving (April 3 1783 – November 28 1859 was an American Author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th " Rip Van Winkle " is a short story by the American author Washington Irving published in 1819, as well as the name of the story's fictional protagonist " The Legend of Sleepy Hollow " is a Short story by Washington Irving contained in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon Gent