The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading and posting Usenet articles (aka netnews), as well as transferring news among news servers. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection Communication, and Data transfer between two computing Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system A news server is a set of Computer software used to handle Usenet articles Brian Kantor of the University of California, San Diego and Phil Lapsley of the University of California, Berkeley completed RFC 977, the specification for the Network News Transfer Protocol, in March 1986. The University of California San Diego (popularly known as UC San Diego or UCSD) is a public Research university in San Diego, California Phil Lapsley (born 1965 is an Electrical engineer, hacker, and Entrepreneur. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Other contributors included Stan Barber from the Baylor College of Medicine and Erik Fair of Apple Computer. Baylor College of Medicine, located in Houston, Texas, USA, is one of the world's leading centers for Biomedical research and clinical care Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics
Usenet was originally designed around the UUCP network, with most article transfers taking place over direct computer-to-computer telephone links. UUCP is an Abbreviation for Unix to Unix CoPy. The term generally refers to a suite of Computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution Readers and posters would log into the same computers that hosted the servers, reading the articles directly from the local disk.
As local area networks and the Internet became more commonly used, it became desirable to allow newsreaders to be run on personal computers, and a means of employing the Internet to handle article transfers was desired. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks A newsreader, also known as a news client, is an application software that reads articles on Usenet (generally known as newsgroup), either directly from the news server's disks or via the NNTP.
Because networked Internet-compatible filesystems were not yet widely available, it was decided to develop a new protocol that resembled SMTP, but was tailored for reading newsgroups. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP) is a De facto standard for electronic mail (e-mail transmissions across the Internet. A newsgroup is a Repository usually within the Usenet system for messages posted from many users in different locations
The well-known TCP port 119 is reserved for NNTP. The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) are Transport Layer protocols of the Internet Protocol When clients connect to a news server with SSL, TCP port 563 is used. Transport Layer Security ( TLS) and its predecessor Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL) are Cryptographic protocols that provide secure This is sometimes referred to as NNTPS.
In October 2006, the IETF released RFC 3977 which updates the NNTP protocol and codifies many of the additions made over the years since RFC 977. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The IMAP protocol can also be used for reading newsgroups. The Internet Message Access Protocol or IMAP is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for E-mail retrieval the other being POP3
During an abortive attempt to update the NNTP standard in the early 1990s, a specialized form of NNTP intended specifically for use by clients, NNRP, was proposed. This protocol was never completed or fully implemented, but the name persisted in INN's nnrpd program. InterNetNews ( INN) is a Usenet News server package originally released by Rich Salz in 1991 and presented at the Summer As a result, the subset of standard NNTP commands useful to clients is sometimes still referred to as "NNRP".