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The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. Ancient Semitic religion spans the Polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris In the Levantine pantheon the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam assembled on the divine holy place Mount Zephon ( Jebel This is a sub-article to Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabian mythology comprises the ancient Pre-Islamic beliefs of the Arabs Prior to the Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky heaven was a sky-god The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. In Sumerian mythology, the utukku were a type of Spirit or Demon that could be either benevolent or evil Babylonian mythology is a set of stories depicting the activities of Babylonian deities, Heroes and Mythological creatures While these stories The Anunna are the fifty great gods of Sumerian mythology. Some of them are associated with specific cities while others bear a strong resemblance to the functions of patron This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. Ashnan was the goddess of grain in Mesopotamia. She and her brother Lahar, both children of Enlil, were created by the gods to provide the Annunaki In Sumerian and Akkadian mythology Asaruludu is one of the Anunnaku. Enbilulu was a rivers and Canals god in Mesopotamian mythology Disambiguation Sometimes an alternate spelling for Enkidu. Enkimdu is the Sumerian god of farming in charge of canals and ditches a task assigned In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal ( D EREŠ. KI. GAL, lit Inanna ( D INANNA B153ellstpng|100x20px|INANNA]]) is the Sumerian goddess of sexual love fertility and warfare Lahar was the Sumerian cattle-god sent by Enlil and Enki from heaven to earth in order to make abundant its cattle In Sumerian mythology Nanshe was the daughter of Enki and Ninhursag. Nanibgal ( D NANIBGAL B010ellstpng|100x20px|AN]] 𒀭𒀭𒉀 D NÁNIBGAL 𒀭𒀭𒊺𒉀 also Nisaba or Nidaba Ningal ("Great Lady" in Sumerian mythology was a goddess of reeds daughter of Enki and Ningikurga and the consort of the moon god Nanna In Sumerian mythology, Ninsun or Ninsuna ("lady wild cow" is a goddess best known as the mother of the legendary hero Gilgamesh, and as Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian matron goddess of Beer. Her father was Enki, the lord Nudimmud, and her mother was Ninti In Sumerian mythology, Ninlil (𒀭𒊩𒌆𒆤 D NIN.LÍL"lady of the open field" or "Lady of the Air" first called Ninurta ( Nin Ur: Lord of the Earth/Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu Nusku was the name of the light and fire-god in Babylonia and Assyria, who is hardly to be distinguished from a certain time on from a god Girru - Uttu in Sumerian mythology is the goddess of weaving and clothing The Anunnaki (also transcribed as Anunnaku, Ananaki) are a group of Sumerian and Akkadian deities related to and in some cases See also List of deities A deity is a Postulated Preternatural or Supernatural Being, who is always Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Kutha (Sumerian Gudua, modern Tell Ibrahim site Iraq) was an ancient city of Sumer on the right bank of the eastern branch of the Upper Nergal is mentioned in the Hebrew bible as the deity of the city of Cuth (Cuthah): "And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal" (2 Kings, 17:30). The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic Kutha (Sumerian Gudua, modern Tell Ibrahim site Iraq) was an ancient city of Sumer on the right bank of the eastern branch of the Upper Succoth-benoth or Succoth Benoth was a Babylonian deity one of the deities of the city of Samaria mentioned by name in 2 Kings 1730 The Books of Kings ( Sefer Melachim, ספר מלכים are a part of Judaism 's Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. He is the son of Enlil and Ninlil. Enlil ( EN = Lord + LIL = Loft "Lord of the Open" or "Lord of the Wind" was the name of a chief deity listed and written about in ancient Sumerian In Sumerian mythology, Ninlil (𒀭𒊩𒌆𒆤 D NIN.LÍL"lady of the open field" or "Lady of the Air" first called
Nergal actually seems to be in part a solar deity, sometimes identified with Shamash, but only a representative of a certain phase of the sun. For the Canaanite sun godess see Shemesh Shamash was the common Akkadian name of the Sun-god and god of justice in Babylonia Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice that brings destruction, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle.
Nergal was also the deity who presides over the netherworld, and who stands at the head of the special pantheon assigned to the government of the dead (supposed to be gathered in a large subterranean cave known as Aralu or Irkalla). In the study of Mythology and Religion, the underworld (gr κάτω κόσμος) is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term Afterlife In Akkadian and Sumerian mythology, Irkalla (also Ir-Kalla, Irkalia) is the Hell -like Underworld from which there In this capacity he has associated with him a goddess Allatu or Ereshkigal, though at one time Allatu may have functioned as the sole mistress of Aralu, ruling in her own person. Allatu ( Allatum) is an underworld goddess worshipped by western Semitic peoples including the Carthaginians. In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal ( D EREŠ. KI. GAL, lit In some texts the god Ninazu is the son of Nergal by Allatu/Ereshkigal. Ninazu in Sumerian mythology was a god of the underworld and of healing
Ordinarily Nergal pairs with his consort Laz. Standard iconography pictured Nergal as a lion, and boundary-stone monuments symbolise him with a mace surmounted by the head of a lion. The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. The ceremonial mace is a highly ornamented staff of metal and wood carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a Mace-bearer, intended
Nergal's fiery aspect appears in names or epithets such as Lugalgira, Sharrapu ("the burner," perhaps a mere epithet), Erra, Gibil (though this name more properly belongs to Nusku), and Sibitti. Nusku was the name of the light and fire-god in Babylonia and Assyria, who is hardly to be distinguished from a certain time on from a god Girru - A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninurta and Nergal. Ninurta ( Nin Ur: Lord of the Earth/Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu Nergal has epithets such as the "raging king," the "furious one," and the like. A play upon his name -- separated into three elements as Ne-uru-gal (lord of the great dwelling) -- expresses his position at the head of the nether-world pantheon.
In the late Babylonian astral-theological system Nergal is related to the planet Mars. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is As a fiery god of destruction and war, Nergal doubtless seemed an appropriate choice for the red planet, and he was equated by the Greeks either to the combative demigod Heracles (Latin Hercules) or to the war-god Ares (Latin Mars) -- hence the current name of the planet. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or Hercules is the Roman name for the Mythical Greek hero Heracles, son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmena. In Greek mythology, Ares ( Ancient Greek:, Μodern Greek Άρης) is the son of Zeus and Hera. In Babylonian ecclesiastical art the great lion-headed colossi serving as guardians to the temples and palaces seem to symbolise Nergal, just as the bull-headed colossi probably typify Ninurta.
Nergal's chief temple at Cuthah bore the name Meslam, from which the god receives the designation of Meslamtaeda or Meslamtaea, "the one that rises up from Meslam". The name Meslamtaeda/Meslamtaea indeed is found as early as the list of gods from Fara while the name Nergal only begins to appear in the Akkadian period. Amongst the Hurrians and later Hittites her was known as Aplu, a name derived from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil". The Hurrians (also Khurrites; cuneiform Ḫu-ur-ri 𒄷𒌨𒊑 were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established As God of the plague, he was invoked during the "plague years" during the reign of Suppiluliuma, when this disease spread from Egypt. Suppiluliuma I was king of the Hittites (ca 1344 – 1322 BC ( Short chronology)
The cult of Nergal does not appear to have spread as widely as that of Ninurta, but in the late Babylonian and early Persian period, syncretism seems to have fused the two divinities, which were invoked together as if they were identical. This article does not discuss "cult" in the original sense of "veneration" or "religious practice" for that usage see Cult (religious practice Ninurta ( Nin Ur: Lord of the Earth/Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought Hymns and votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers frequently invoke him, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Cuthah. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Sennacherib speaks of one at Tarbisu to the north of Nineveh, but significantly, although Nebuchadnezzar II (606 BC - 586 BC), the great temple-builder of the neo-Babylonian monarchy, alludes to his operations at Meslam in Cuthah, he makes no mention of a sanctuary to Nergal in Babylon. Sennacherib ( Akkadian Sîn-ahhe-eriba "(moon god Sîn has replaced (lost brothers for me" was the son of Sargon II, whom he Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar (c 630-562 BC was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c Local associations with his original seat -- Kutha -- and the conception formed of him as a god of the dead acted in making him feared rather than actively worshipped. Nergal was also called Ni-Marad in Akkadian. Like Lugal Marad in Sumerian, the name means "king of Marad," a city, whose name means "Rebellion" in Akkadian, as yet unidentified. The name Ni-Marad, in Akkadian means "Lord of Marad". The chief deity of this place, therefore, seems to have been Nergal, of whom, therefore, Lugal-Marad or Ni-Marad is another name. Thus, some scholars have drawn the connection of Ni-Marad being yet another deified name for Nimrod, the rebel king of Babylon and Assyria mentioned in Genesis 10: 8-11.
Being a deity of the desert, and a god of fire, the negative aspects of the sun, and the underworld, and also being a god of one of the religions who rivalled Christianity and Judaism, Nergal was sometimes called a demon and even being identified with Satan. In the study of Mythology and Religion, the underworld (gr κάτω κόσμος) is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term Afterlife Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Satan, ( Standard Hebrew Satan'el, English accuser) is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally According to Collin de Plancy and Johann Weyer, Nergal was said to be the chief of Hell's "secret police", and said to be "an honorary spy in the service of Belzebuth". Jacques Auguste Simon Collin de Plancy (1793-1887 was a French occultist demonologist and writer he published several works on Cultism and Demonology. Johannes Wier aka Johann Weyer, in Latin Ioannes Wierus and Piscinarius, (c Secret police (sometimes political police) are a Police agency which operates in Secrecy to maintain National security against internal Ba‘al Zebûb, Ba‘al Zəbûb or Ba‘al Zəvûv ( Hebrew בעל זבוב, with numerous variants appears as the