27 April 1994 – 14 June 1999
|Vice President||Frederik Willem de Klerk|
|Preceded by||Frederik Willem de Klerk (State President of South Africa)|
|Succeeded by||Thabo Mbeki|
3 September 1998 – 14 June 1999
|Preceded by||Andrés Pastrana Arango|
|Succeeded by||Thabo Mbeki|
|Born||18 July 1918 |
Mvezo, Eastern Cape, Union of South Africa
|Political party||African National Congress|
|Apartheid in South Africa|
|Events and Projects|
P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela IPA: [xolíɬaɬa mandéːla] (born 18 July 1918) is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections. The President of South Africa, in full the President of the Republic of South Africa is the Head of state and Head of government under South Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 State President, or Staatspresident in Afrikaans, was South Africa 's Head of state from 1961 to 1994. Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002 following in the footsteps of his father Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Mvezo is a small village on the banks of the Mbashe river in the District of Umtata, the capital of the Transkei, an area in the South Eastern area of The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho. } The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day state of the Republic of South Africa. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Sharpeville Massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police began shooting on a crowd The Soweto uprising or Soweto Riots were a series of clashes in Soweto, South Africa on June 16 1976 between black youths and the South African The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people (105 Blacks 21 Indians 23 Whites and 7 Coloureds including Nelson Mandela, were arrested in a raid and accused of treason The Rivonia Trial was a trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress The Church Street bombing was a 1983 attack by the Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the African National Congress, in the South African capital The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the De Klerk government The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated on St James Church in Kenilworth, Cape Town on 25 July 1993 by four cadres The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Inkatha Freedom Party ( IFP) is a Political party in South Africa. The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement or AWB, is a Political and Paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership The Black Sash was a non-violent white women's resistance organization founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair The South African Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB was a Covert, Special forces organisation during the apartheid era that operated under the authority The Conservative Party of South Africa ( Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a Conservative party formed in 1982 as a breakaway The End Conscription Campaign was an anti- Apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF and composed of Conscientious objectors and their supporters The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Party's policies of Apartheid. The Reform Party was a political party that existed for just five months in 1975 The Progressive Federal Party (PFP was a South African Political party formed in 1977. The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Reconstituted National Party of South Africa was formed as a Right wing splinter group of the South African National Party For other uses of Umkhonto see Umkhonto (disambiguation Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that South African Communist Party ( SACP) is a Political party in South Africa. The United Democratic Front ( UDF) was one of the most important anti- Apartheid organisations of the 1980s This page refers to the Afrikaner Broederbond For its later incarnation see Afrikanerbond. The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU is a Trade union The South African Defence Force (SADF were the South African Armed forces from 1957 until 1994 For the post-apartheid police force see South African Police Service. Pieter Willem Botha (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006 commonly known as "P Joshua Oupa Gqozo (ɔupʼa ɡǃʱɔz̤ɔ ( 10 March 1952 -) was the military ruler of the former Homeland of Ciskei in South Africa Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 &ndash 7 February 1959 more commonly known as D Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Cleric and activist who rose to Worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu ( May 18, 1912 &ndash May 5, 2003) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and member of the Helen Suzman, born Helen Gavronsky ( 7 November, 1917 in Germiston Gauteng, South Africa) was an anti- Apartheid Harry Heinz Schwarz (born May 13, 1924) is a former South African anti- Apartheid politician diplomat and jurist Andries Petrus Treurnicht ( February 19, 1921, Piketberg, Cape Province – April 22, 1993, Cape Town) was the Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd ( Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 &ndash Cape Town, 6 September 1966 was Prime Minister of South Africa from Oliver Reginald Tambo ( 27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti- Apartheid politician and a central figure Balthazar Johannes Vorster (13 December 1915 - 10 September 1983 better known as John Vorster ("FOUR-stir" served as the Prime Minister of South Africa Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima ( June 15 1915 - June 15 2003) was a former leader of the then- Bantustan of Transkei in James Thomas "Jimmy" Kruger (1917 — May 9, 1987) was a South African Politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice Stephen Bantu Biko December 1946 &ndash 12 September 1977 was a noted anti-[[apartheid] activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Ernest Urban Trevor Huddleston KCMG ( June 15, 1913 – April 20, 1998) was an Anglican priest one-time Archbishop A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West District Six ( Afrikaans Distrik Ses) is the name of a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town, South Africa. Robben Island ( Afrikaans Robbeneiland) is an Island in Table Bay, some seven kilometres off the coast of the Cape Town bay South Sophiatown (pronounced with a long stressed i) (also known as Sof'town or Kofifi) is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa South-West Africa (Afrikaans Suidwes-Afrika; German Südwestafrika) was the name of what is today the Republic of Namibia. Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. Vlakplaas is a farm 20km west of Pretoria that served as the headquarters of the South African Police Counterinsurgency unit C10 (later called C1 working The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance which consisted of the African National Congress and its allies the South The Sullivan Principles are the names of two corporate codes of conduct, developed by the African-American preacher Rev The Kairos Document (KD is a theological statement issued in 1985 by a group of black South African theologians based predominantly in the black Townships of Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant For the post-apartheid police force see South African Police Service. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The President of South Africa, in full the President of the Republic of South Africa is the Head of state and Head of government under South The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress and its armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions For other uses of Umkhonto see Umkhonto (disambiguation Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK He spent 27 years in prison, much of it on Robben Island, on convictions for crimes that included sabotage committed while he spearheaded the struggle against apartheid. Robben Island ( Afrikaans Robbeneiland) is an Island in Table Bay, some seven kilometres off the coast of the Cape Town bay South
Among opponents of apartheid in South Africa and internationally, he became a symbol of freedom and equality, while the apartheid government and nations sympathetic to it condemned him and the ANC as communists and terrorists (the United States still lists the ANC as a terrorist organization, though the United States Congress is considering removing the designation). The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses 
Following his release from prison on February 11, 1990, his switch to a policy of reconciliation and negotiation helped lead the transition to multi-racial democracy in South Africa. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Since the end of apartheid, he has been widely praised, even by former opponents.
Mandela has received more than one hundred awards over four decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. This is a comprehensive list of awards honours and other recognitions bestowed on Nelson Mandela. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor He is currently a celebrated elder statesman who continues to voice his opinion on topical issues. A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in In South Africa he is often known as Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan. The title has come to be synonymous with Nelson Mandela.
Mandela has frequently credited Mahatma Gandhi for being a major source of inspiration in his life, both for the philosophy of non-violence and for facing adversity with dignity. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January
Mandela belongs to a cadet branch of the Thembu dynasty which (nominally) reigns in the Transkeian Territories of the Union of South Africa's Cape Province. The descendants in the male-line of a younger son of a Monarch or Patriarch collectively constitute a cadet branch of that ancestor's lineage The Thembu are one of the handful of nations and population groups which speak Xhosa in South Africa. A reign is a period of time a person serves as a Monarch or Pope. The Transkei —which means "the area beyond the Kei River"—is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Cape of Good Hope Province (commonly referred to simply as the Cape Province) was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of He was born in the small village of Mvezo in the district of Umtata, the Transkei capital. Mvezo is a small village on the banks of the Mbashe river in the District of Umtata, the capital of the Transkei, an area in the South Eastern area of Mthatha ( MediaMthathaogg)(formerly Umtata) is the main town of the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality in Eastern Cape province of His great-grandfather was Ngubengcuka (died 1832), the Inkosi Enkhulu or King of the Thembu people, who were eventually subjected to British colonial rule. Ngubengcuka (died 1832 was the king of the Thembu people in the southern part of the Transkei region of South Africa. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. One of the king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. A surname is a name added to a Given name and is part of a Personal name. However, being only the Inkosi's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan (the so-called "Left-Hand House"), the descendants of his branch of the royal family were not eligible to succeed to the Thembu throne. A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death resignation or removal of its current occupant His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (1880–1928), was nonetheless designated chief of the town of Mvezo. Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa ( circa 1880 -1928 was a member of the Thembu tribe of South Africa, and the chief of Mveso, a tiny village on the banks A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a Tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government Upon alienating the colonial authorities, however, he was deprived of his position, and moved his family to Qunu. Gadla remained, however, a member of the Inkosi's Privy Council, and was instrumental in the ascension to the Thembu throne of Jongintaba Dalindyebo, who would later return this favour by informally adopting Mandela upon Gadla's death. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a Mandela's father had four wives, with whom he fathered a total of thirteen children (four boys and nine girls). Mandela was born to Gadla's third wife ('third' by a complex royal ranking system), Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa clan, the dynastic Right Hand House, in whose umzi or homestead Mandela spent much of his childhood. A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations In the Southern African context a homestead ( Xhosa umzi, Zulu umuzi, Swati umuti) is a cluster of several houses (singular  His given name Rolihlahla means "to pull a branch of a tree", or more colloquially, "troublemaker". 
At seven years of age, Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a school, where he was given the name "Nelson," after the British admiral Horatio Nelson, by a Methodist teacher who found his native name difficult to pronounce. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson 1st Duke of Bronté, KB (29 September 1758– 21 October 1805 was a British Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations
His father died of tuberculosis when Rolihlahla was nine, and the Regent, Jongintaba, became his guardian. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty to care for the personal and Property interests of another person called a ward Mandela attended a Wesleyan mission school next door to the palace of the Regent. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, and attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute. Initiation is a Rite of passage Ceremony marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society He completed his Junior Certificate in two years, instead of the usual three. The Junior Certificate is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary Destined to inherit his father's position as a privy councillor, in 1937 Mandela moved to Healdtown, the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort which most Thembu royalty attended. Healdtown Comprehensive School is a Methodist school located near Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. Generally the head of a royal family is a king or queen regnant Aged nineteen, he took an interest in boxing and running. Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, Running is a means for an animal to move on Foot. It is defined in Sporting terms as a Gait in which at some point all feet are off the ground 
After matriculating, he started to study for a B.A. at the Fort Hare University, where he met Oliver Tambo, and the two became lifelong friends and colleagues. Fort Hare University in South Africa was a key institution in higher education for black Africans from 1916 to 1959 Oliver Reginald Tambo ( 27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti- Apartheid politician and a central figure He also became close friends with his kinsman, Kaiser ("K.D.") Matanzima who, however, as royal scion of the Thembu Right Hand House, was destined for the throne of Transkei, a role that later led him to embrace Bantustan policies which made him and Mandela political enemies. Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima ( June 15 1915 - June 15 2003) was a former leader of the then- Bantustan of Transkei in A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West  At the end of Nelson's first year, he became involved in a boycott by the Students' Representative Council against the university policies, and was asked to leave Fort Hare. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of A Students' Representative Council represents student interests in the government of a University, School or other educational institution Fort Hare University in South Africa was a key institution in higher education for black Africans from 1916 to 1959
Later, while imprisoned, Mandela studied for a Bachelor of Laws from the University of London External Programme (see below). The Bachelor of Laws (abbreviated LLB, LLB or rarely LlB) is an undergraduate or bachelor degree in law offered in most Common law The University of London External System (until recently the University of London External Programme) is the External degree granting division of the University
Shortly after leaving Fort Hare, Jongintaba announced to Mandela and Justice (the Regent's own son and heir to the throne) that he had arranged marriages for both of them. Both young men were displeased by this and rather than marry, they elected to flee the comforts of the Regent's estate to go to Johannesburg. Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. Upon his arrival, Mandela initially found employment as a guard at a mine. However, this was quickly terminated after the employer learned that Mandela was the Regent's runaway adopted son. He later started work as an articled clerk at a law firm thanks to connections with his friend and mentor, realtor Walter Sisulu. An articled clerk is an Apprentice in a professional firm in Commonwealth countries Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu ( May 18, 1912 &ndash May 5, 2003) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and member of the While working there, he completed his B. A. degree at the University of South Africa via correspondence, after which he started with his law studies at the University of Witwatersrand, where he first befriended fellow students and future anti-apartheid political activists Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz and Ruth First. The University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg is a leading South African University situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. Joe Slovo ( May 23 1926 &ndash January 6 1995) was a South African Communist politician and long time leader of the Harry Heinz Schwarz (born May 13, 1924) is a former South African anti- Apartheid politician diplomat and jurist Ruth First ( May 4 1925 &ndash August 17 1982) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and scholar born in During this time Mandela lived in Alexandra township, north of Johannesburg.
After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party with its apartheid policy of racial segregation, Mandela was prominent in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental program of the anti-apartheid cause. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of The Defiance Campaign against Unjust Laws was presented by the African National Congress (ANC at a conference held in Bloemfontein South Africa in December The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance which consisted of the African National Congress and its allies the South During this time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law firm of Mandela and Tambo, providing free or low-cost legal counsel to many blacks who would otherwise have been without representation. Oliver Reginald Tambo ( 27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti- Apartheid politician and a central figure Mandela and Tambo was the name of the Law firm run by Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo in South Africa.
Mandela's approach was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, who inspired him and succeeding generations of South African anti-apartheid activists. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January  Indeed, Mandela took part in the 29 January – 30 January 2007 conference in New Delhi which marked the 100th anniversary of Gandhi's introduction of satyagraha in South Africa. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. New Delhi (नई दिल्ली ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ نئی دلی is the Capital city of India. Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas 
Initially committed to non-violent mass struggle, Mandela was arrested with 150 others on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The marathon Treason Trial of 1956–61 followed, and all were acquitted. The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people (105 Blacks 21 Indians 23 Whites and 7 Coloureds including Nelson Mandela, were arrested in a raid and accused of treason From 1952–59 the ANC experienced disruption as a new class of Black activists (Africanists) emerged in the townships demanding more drastic steps against the National Party regime. The ANC leadership of Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu felt not only that events were moving too fast, but also that their leadership was challenged. Albert John Lutuli (commonly spelled Luthuli) also known by his Zulu, name "Mvumbi" (c Oliver Reginald Tambo ( 27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti- Apartheid politician and a central figure Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu ( May 18, 1912 &ndash May 5, 2003) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and member of the They consequently bolstered their position by alliances with small White, Coloured and Indian political parties in an attempt to appear to have a wider appeal than the Africanists. The 1955 Freedom Charter Kliptown Conference was ridiculed by the Africanists for allowing the 100,000-strong ANC to be relegated to a single vote in a Congress alliance, in which four secretaries-general of the five participating parties were members of the secretly reconstituted South African Communist Party (SACP), strongly adhering to the Moscow line. The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance which consisted of the African National Congress and its allies the South South African Communist Party ( SACP) is a Political party in South Africa.
In 1959 the ANC lost its most militant support when most of the Africanists, with financial support from Ghana and significant political support from the Transvaal-based Basotho, broke away to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo. The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the For the Russian theme park see Transvaal Park. The Transvaal (Afrikaans lit The Basotho people have lived in Southern Africa since around the fifteenth century. The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe ( 5 December 1924; 27 February 1978 was a South African Political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Potlkako Leballo (1915 - 1986 was an Africanist who led the Pan Africanist Congress until 1979
In 1961, Mandela became the leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated as Spear of the Nation, also abbreviated as MK), which he co-founded. For other uses of Umkhonto see Umkhonto (disambiguation Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK He coordinated a sabotage campaign against military and government targets, and made plans for a possible guerrilla war if sabotage failed to end apartheid. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc A few decades later, MK did wage a guerrilla war against the regime, especially during the 1980s, in which many civilians were killed. A civilian under International humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her Country 's Armed forces. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad, and arranged for paramilitary training, visiting various African governments. A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status
Mandela explains the move to embark on armed struggle as a last resort, when increasing repression and violence from the state convinced him that many years of non-violent protest against apartheid had achieved nothing and could not succeed. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. 
Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle against apartheid, also violated human rights, and has sharply criticised attempts by parts of his party to remove statements supporting this fact from the reports of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. This is about the South African body For similar bodies in other countries see Truth commission. 
On August 5, 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort. The Rivonia Trial was a trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The arrest was made possible because the CIA tipped off the security police as to Mandela's whereabouts and disguise. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all  Three days later, the charges of leading workers to strike in 1961 and leaving the country illegally were read to him during a court appearance. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of Two years later on 11 June 1964, a verdict had been reached concerning his previous engagement in the African National Congress (ANC). Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions
While Mandela was imprisoned, police arrested prominent ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, north of Johannesburg. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mandela was brought in, and at the Rivonia Trial, Mandela, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Andrew Mlangeni, Raymond Mhlaba, Elias Motsoaledi, Walter Mkwayi (who escaped during trial), Arthur Goldreich (who escaped from prison before trial), Denis Goldberg and Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein were charged by the chief prosecutor Dr. The Rivonia Trial was a trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (sometimes nicknamed Kathy) (born 21 August 1929) is a South African politician and was an anti- Apartheid activist Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu ( May 18, 1912 &ndash May 5, 2003) was a South African anti- Apartheid activist and member of the Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki ( 9 July 1910 - 30 August 2001) was a South African Politician, and father of the former Raymond Mhlaba ( February 12, 1920 - February 20, 2005) was an anti- Apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress Elias Motsoaledi ( July 26, 1924 &ndash May 9, 1994) was one of the eight men sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. Arthur Goldreich was an abstract painter born in 1929 in Johannesburg, South Africa, and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement in the country of his Denis Goldberg (b in Cape Town, 1933 is a South African social campaigner who was active in the struggle against Apartheid and was imprisoned along with Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein ( 20 March 1920 - 23 June 2002) was South African anti-apartheid activist and Political prisoner Percy Yutar, the deputy attorney-general of the Transvaal, with the capital crimes of sabotage (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were equivalent to treason, but easier for the government to prove. Dr Percy Yutar ( 29 July 1911, Cape Town - 13 July 2002, Johannesburg) was South Africa ’s first Jewish In most Common law jurisdictions the Attorney General, or Attorney-General, is the main legal advisor to the government and in some jurisdictions may in addition For the Russian theme park see Transvaal Park. The Transvaal (Afrikaans lit In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. The second charge accused the defendants of plotting a foreign invasion of South Africa, which Mandela denied.
In his statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the trial on 20 April 1964 at Pretoria Supreme Court, Mandela laid out the clarity of reasoning in the ANC's choice to use violence as a tactic. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. His statement revealed how the ANC had used peaceful means to resist apartheid for years until the Sharpeville Massacre. The Sharpeville Massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police began shooting on a crowd That event coupled with the referendum establishing the Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with the banning of the ANC made it clear that their only choice was to resist through acts of sabotage. Doing otherwise would have been tantamount to unconditional surrender. Mandela went on to explain how they developed the Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe on 16 December 1961 intent on exposing the failure of the National Party's policies after the economy would be threatened by foreigners' unwillingness to risk investing in the country. For other uses of Umkhonto see Umkhonto (disambiguation Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  He closed his statement with these words:
|“||During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. ||”|
Bram Fischer, Vernon Berrange, Harry Schwarz, Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson and George Bizos were part of the defence team that represented the accused. Abram Louis Fischer, commonly known as Bram Fischer, ( 23 April 1908 - 8 May 1975) was a South African Lawyer of Harry Heinz Schwarz (born May 13, 1924) is a former South African anti- Apartheid politician diplomat and jurist Joel Goodman Joffe Baron Joffe CBE (born 1932 is a Labour peer in the House of Lords. Arthur Chaskalson, (born November 24, 1931) former President of the Constitutional Court of South Africa (1994-2001 and Chief Justice of South Africa George Bizos (born 1928 in Greece) is a distinguished human rights advocate who fought against Apartheid in South Africa. Harold Hanson was brought in at the end of the case to plead mitigation. Harold Joseph Hanson ( 9 August 1904 – 17 February 1973) was an eminent South African Advocate ( QC) and Senior All except Rusty Bernstein were found guilty, but they escaped the gallows and were sentenced to life imprisonment on 12 June 1964. Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Charges included involvement in planning armed action, in particular four charges of sabotage, which Mandela admitted to, and a conspiracy to help other countries invade South Africa, which Mandela denied. Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction In a political sense conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power
Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. Robben Island ( Afrikaans Robbeneiland) is an Island in Table Bay, some seven kilometres off the coast of the Cape Town bay South On the island, he and others performed hard labour in a lime quarry. Prison conditions were very basic. Prisoners were segregated by race, with black prisoners receiving the fewest rations. Political prisoners were kept separate from ordinary criminals and received fewer privileges. Mandela describes how, as a D-group prisoner (the lowest classification) he was allowed one visitor and one letter every six months. Letters, when they came, were often delayed for long periods and made unreadable by the prison censors. 
Whilst in prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. The University of London External System (until recently the University of London External Programme) is the External degree granting division of the University The Bachelor of Laws (abbreviated LLB, LLB or rarely LlB) is an undergraduate or bachelor degree in law offered in most Common law He was subsequently nominated for the position of Chancellor of the University of London in the 1981 election, but lost to Princess Anne. A Chancellor is the head of a University. Other titles are sometimes used such as President or Rector. The 1981 University of London election for the position of Chancellor was called upon when the incumbent Chancellor, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother announced in
In his 1981 memoir Inside BOSS secret agent Gordon Winter describes his involvement in a plot to rescue Mandela from prison in 1969: this plot was infiltrated by Winter on behalf of South African intelligence, who wanted Mandela to escape so as to be able to shoot him during recapture. The plot was foiled by British Intelligence.
In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, along with other senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba. Pollsmoor Prison, officially Pollsmoor Maximum Security Prison is a prison in the Cape Town suburb of Tokai in South Africa. It was speculated that this was to remove the influence of these senior leaders on the new generation of young black activists imprisoned on Robben Island, the so-called "Mandela University". However, National Party minister Kobie Coetsee says that the move was to enable discreet contact between them and the South African government. The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of Hendrik Jacobus (Kobie Coetsee ( 19 April 1931 - 2000 was a South African Lawyer, National Party Politician and administrator 
In February 1985 President P.W. Botha offered Mandela conditional release in return for renouncing armed struggle. Pieter Willem Botha (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006 commonly known as "P Coetzee and other ministers had advised Botha against this, saying that Mandela would never commit his organisation to giving up the armed struggle in exchange for personal freedom. Mandela indeed spurned the offer, releasing a statement via his daughter Zindzi saying "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts. "
The first meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came in November 1985 when Kobie Coetsee met Mandela in Volks Hospital in Cape Town where Mandela was being treated for prostate surgery. Over the next four years, a series of tentative meetings took place, laying the groundwork for further contact and future negotiations, but little real progress was made. 
Throughout Mandela's imprisonment, local and international pressure mounted on the South African government to release him, under the resounding slogan Free Nelson Mandela! In 1989, South Africa reached a crossroads when Botha suffered a stroke and was replaced as president by Frederik Willem de Klerk. Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 De Klerk announced Mandela's release in February 1990.
On 2 February 1990, State President F. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) State President, or Staatspresident in Afrikaans, was South Africa 's Head of state from 1961 to 1994. W. de Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990. Drakenstein Correctional Centre (formerly Victor Verster Prison is a low-security Prison near Paarl in the valley of the Dwars River in the Paarl (derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch is the third oldest European settlement in the Republic of South Africa (after Cape Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) The event was broadcast live all over the world.
On the day of his release, Mandela made a speech to the nation. He declared his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority, but made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not yet over:
|“||Our resort to the armed struggle in 1960 with the formation of the military wing of the ANC (Umkhonto we Sizwe) was a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid. For other uses of Umkhonto see Umkhonto (disambiguation Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK The factors which necessitated the armed struggle still exist today. We have no option but to continue. We express the hope that a climate conducive to a negotiated settlement would be created soon, so that there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle.||”|
He also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections.
Following his release from prison, Mandela returned to the leadership of the ANC and, between 1990 and 1994, led the party in the multi-party negotiations that led to the country's first multi-racial elections. The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the De Klerk government The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the De Klerk government
In 1991, the ANC held its first national conference in South Africa after its unbanning, electing Mandela as President of the organisation. His old friend and colleague Oliver Tambo, who had led the organisation in exile during Mandela's imprisonment, became National Chairperson. 
Mandela's leadership through the negotiations, as well as his relationship with President F. W. de Klerk, was recognised when they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor However, the relationship was sometimes strained, particularly so in a sharp exchange in 1991 when he furiously referred to De Klerk as the head of "an illegitimate, discredited, minority regime". The talks broke down following the Boipatong massacre in June 1992 when Mandela took the ANC out of the negotiations, accusing De Klerk's government of complicity in the killings. The Boipatong massacre took place on 1992-06-17 in Boipatong, South Africa when Inkatha Freedom Party members killed 46 people  However, talks resumed following the Bisho massacre in September 1992, when the spectre of violent confrontation made it clear that negotiations were the only way forward. The Bisho massacre occurred on 7 September 1992 in Bisho, in the nominally independent homeland of Ciskei in South Africa 
Following the assassination of senior ANC leader Chris Hani in April 1993, there were renewed fears that the country would erupt in violence. Chris Hani, born Martin Thembisile Hani ( June 28, 1942 &ndash April 10, 1993) was the leader of the South African Communist Mandela addressed the nation appealing for calm, in a speech regarded as 'presidential' even though he was not yet president of the country at that time:
|“||Tonight I am reaching out to every single South African, black and white, from the very depths of my being. A white man, full of prejudice and hate, came to our country and committed a deed so foul that our whole nation now teeters on the brink of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her life so that we may know, and bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves throughout the country and the world. . . . Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us.||”|
While some riots did follow the assassination, the negotiators were galvanised into action, and soon agreed that democratic elections should take place on 27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's assassination. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) 
Mandela's autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, was published in 1994. Long Walk to Freedom is an autobiographical work written by Nelson Mandela, and published in 1995 by Little Brown & Co Mandela had begun work on it secretly while in prison. In that book Mandela did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of F.W. de Klerk in the violence of the eighties and nineties, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born September 26 1936 as Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela) is a South African politician who has held several government However, he later co-operated with his friend, journalist Anthony Sampson who discussed those issues in Mandela: The Authorised Biography. Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson ( 3 August 1926 &ndash 18 December 2004) was a British writer and journalist Mandela The Authorised Biography (ISBN 0-00-638845-0 is a Biography of former South African President Nelson Mandela, by the late British Another detail that Mandela omitted was the allegedly fraudulent book, Goodbye Bafana. Goodbye Bafana, also released under the name The Color of Freedom, is a 2007 drama film about the relationship between Nelson Mandela Its author, Robben Island warder James Gregory, claimed to have been Mandela's confidante in prison and published details of the prisoner's family affairs. James Gregory may refer to James Gregory (writer (?-2003 South African prison guard author of Goodbye Bafana James Gregory (astronomer Sampson maintained that Mandela had not known Gregory well, but that Gregory censored the letters sent to the future president and thus discovered the details of Mandela's personal life. Sampson also averred that other warders suspected Gregory of spying for the government and that Mandela considered suing Gregory. 
South Africa's first democratic elections in which full enfranchisement was granted were held on 27 April 1994. The South African general election of 1994 was the first free election held in South Africa after the end of Apartheid, therefore also the first held on Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The ANC won 62% of the votes in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first black President, with the National Party's de Klerk as his first deputy and Thabo Mbeki as the second in the Government of National Unity. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) The President of South Africa, in full the President of the Republic of South Africa is the Head of state and Head of government under South The Deputy President of South Africa is the acting President of South Africa when the President is outside the country's borders unable to fulfill the duties of the office Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 Between April 27, 1994 and February 3, 1997 South Africa was governed under the terms of the interim Constitution of South Africa 
As President from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid, winning international respect for his advocacy of national and international reconciliation.
Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated Springboks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. The South Africa national Rugby union team (commonly referred to as the Springboks in English Springbokke in Afrikaans and Amabokoboko The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. It was hosted by South Africa, and had the distinction of being the first Rugby World Cup in which every match After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Mandela, wearing a Springbok shirt, presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. Jacobus Francois Pienaar (born 2 January 1967 in Vereeniging, South Africa captained and played for the South African Springboks national Rugby union This was widely seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans.
After assuming the presidency, one of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba shirts", even on formal occasions. Batik ( pronunciation:, but often in English is or) is a wax-resist Dyeing technique used on Textile. A Madiba shirt is a Batik silk Shirt, usually adorned in a bright and colourful print
In South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation, Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili. The South African National Defence Force Invasion of Lesotho, codenamed Operation Boleas, was a military invasion launched by Southern African Development Community Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː) officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a Landlocked country and Enclave — entirely surrounded by the Republic of South This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Bethuel Pakalitha Mosisili (born March 14, 1945) is the Prime Minister of Lesotho, and has been since May 29, 1998. This came after a disputed election prompted fierce opposition threatening the unstable government. 
Commentators and critics including AIDS activists such as Edwin Cameron have criticised Mandela for his government's ineffectiveness in stemming the AIDS crisis. Education Cameron was educated at Pretoria Boys High School; Stellenbosch University ( Anglo-American Corporation Open Scholarship BA in  After his retirement, Mandela admitted that he may have failed his country by not paying more attention to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely  He has since taken many opportunities to highlight this South African and international tragedy.
President Mandela took a particular interest in helping to resolve the long-running dispute between Gaddafi's Libya, on the one hand, and the United States and Britain on the other, over bringing to trial the two Libyans who were indicted in November 1991 and accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103, which crashed at the Scottish town of Lockerbie on 21 December 1988, with the loss of 270 lives. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi Lockerbie ( Scottish Gaelic: Logarbaidh) is a town in the Dumfries and Galloway region of south-western Scotland. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) As early as 1992, Mandela informally approached President George Bush with a proposal to have the two indicted Libyans tried in a third country. Bush reacted favourably to the proposal, as did President Mitterrand of France and King Juan Carlos of Spain. François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist Early life Juan Carlos was born in Rome, where his grandfather Alfonso XIII of Spain lived in exile after the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic In November 1994 – six months after his election as president – Mandela formally proposed that South Africa should be the venue for the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial. The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years four months and 13 days after the blowing up of Pan Am Flight 103 on 
However, British Prime Minister, John Major, flatly rejected the idea saying the British government did not have confidence in foreign courts. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom  A further three years elapsed until Mandela's offer was repeated to Major's successor, Tony Blair, when the president visited London in July 1997. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to Later the same year, at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) at Edinburgh in October 1997, Mandela warned:
No one nation should be complainant, prosecutor and judge. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, abbreviated to CHOGM, is a biennial Summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. A plaintiff ( Π in Legal shorthand) also known as a claimant or complainant, is the party who initiates a Lawsuit The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the Common law Adversarial system, or the civil law A judge, or justice, is an Official who presides over a Court of law—Nelson Mandela
A compromise solution was then agreed for a trial to be held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands, governed by Scots law, and President Mandela began negotiations with Colonel Gaddafi for the handover of the two accused (Megrahi and Fhimah) in April 1999. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years four months and 13 days after the blowing up of Pan Am Flight 103 on The Scottish court in the Netherlands was the name given to the special High Court of Justiciary set up under Scots law in a disused United States Air Force The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي (not المقراحي as commonly misspelled by the media (born April 1 1952 is a former Libyan Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah (الأمين خليفة فحيمة (born April 4 1956) is a former station manager for Libyan Arab Airlines  At the end of their nine-month trial, the verdict was announced on 31 January 2001. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Fhimah was acquitted but Megrahi was convicted and sentenced to 27 years in a Scottish jail. Megrahi's initial appeal was turned down in March 2002, and former president Mandela went to visit him in Barlinnie prison on 10 June 2002. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
'Megrahi is all alone', Mandela told a packed press conference in the prison's visitors room. 'He has nobody he can talk to. It is psychological persecution that a man must stay for the length of his long sentence all alone. It would be fair if he were transferred to a Muslim country — and there are Muslim countries which are trusted by the West. It will make it easier for his family to visit him if he is in a place like the kingdom of Morocco, Tunisia or Egypt. '
Megrahi was subsequently moved to Greenock jail and is no longer in solitary confinement. On June 28, 2007, the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission concluded its three-year review of Megrahi's conviction and, believing that a miscarriage of justice may have occurred, referred the case to the Court of Criminal Appeal for a second appeal. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC is a non-departmental public body in Scotland, established by the Criminal Procedure (Scotland Act 1995 The Court of Criminal Appeal is the name of existing courts of Scotland and Ireland, and an historic court in England and Wales. 
Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children, has twenty grandchildren, and a growing number of great-grandchildren. His grandson is Chief Mandla Mandela. A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a Tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government Mandla Mandela is the Chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council He is also the grandson of Nelson Mandela. 
Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase who, like Mandela, was also from what later became the Transkei area of South Africa, although they actually met in Johannesburg. The Transkei —which means "the area beyond the Kei River"—is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The couple had two sons, Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (born 1946) and Makgatho Lewanika (born 1950), and two daughters, both named Makaziwe (known as Maki; born 1947 and 1953). Makgatho Lewanika Mandela ( June 26 1950 – January 6 2005) was the son of former South African President Nelson Mandela Makaziwe Mandela (born 1953 known as Maki is the daughter of former South African president Nelson Mandela and his first wife Evelyn Ntoko. Their first daughter died aged nine months, and they named their second daughter in her honor.
The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years, divorcing under the multiple strains of his constant absences, devotion to revolutionary agitation, and the fact she was a Jehovah's Witness, a religion which requires political neutrality. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination
Thembi was killed in a car crash in 1969 at the age of 25, while Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island. All their children were educated at the Waterford Kamhlaba. Waterford Kamhlaba United World College of Southern Africa (UWCSA is one of the twelve international United World Colleges and is located in Mbabane, Swaziland
Evelyn Mase died in 2004.
Mandela's second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, also came from the Transkei area, although they, too, met in Johannesburg, where she was the city's first black social worker. Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born September 26 1936 as Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela) is a South African politician who has held several government They had two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), born 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi), born 1960. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Later, Winnie would be deeply torn by family discord which mirrored the country's political strife; while her husband was serving a life sentence on the Robben Island prison, her father became the agriculture minister in the Transkei. The marriage ended in separation (April, 1992) and divorce (March, 1996), fueled by political estrangement.
Mandela still languished in prison when his daughter Zenani was married to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini in 1973, elder brother of King Mswati III of Swaziland. Mswati III (born Makhosetive on April 19, 1968) of Swaziland is the king of Swaziland and head of the Swazi Royal Family The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa centred at approximately 26o49'S 31o38'E As a member by marriage of a reigning foreign dynasty, she was able to visit her father during his South African imprisonment while other family members were denied access. The Dlamini couple live and run a business in Boston. One of their sons, Prince Cedza Dlamini (born 1976), educated in the United States, has followed in his grandfather's footsteps as an international advocate for human rights and humanitarian aid. Prince Cedza Dlamini (born 1976) grandson of King Sobhuza II of Swaziland and of Nelson Mandela, is The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Thumbumuzi and Mswati's sister, Princess Mantfombi Dlamini, is the chief consort to King Goodwill Zwelithini of KwaZulu-Natal, who "reigns but does not rule" over South Africa's largest ethnic group under the auspices of South Africa's government. A queen consort is the title given to the wife of a reigning king. Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu (b 14 July 1948 at Nongoma) is the reigning king of the Zulu nation under the Traditional Leadership KwaZulu-Natal (kwɑːˌzuːluː nəˈtɑːl often referred to as " KZN " is a province of South Africa. One of Queen Mantfombi's sons is expected to eventually succeed Goodwill as monarch of the Zulus, whose Inkatha Party leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, was the rival of Mandela during much of his presidency. The Zulu ( IsiZulu: amaZulu) are the largest South African ethnic group of an estimated 10-11 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal The Inkatha Freedom Party ( IFP) is a Political party in South Africa. Inkosi Mangosuthu ("Gatsha" Ashpenaz Nathan Buthelezi (born August 27, 1928) is a South African Zulu leader and leader of the
Mandela remarried, once again, in 1998 on his 80th birthday, to Graça Machel née Simbine, widow of Samora Machel, the former Mozambican president and ANC ally who was killed in an air crash 12 years earlier. Graça Machel, DBE (born Graça Simbine on 17 October 1945 in Incadine Gaza Province, Mozambique) is the third wife of former South Samora Moisés Machel ( September 29, 1933 &ndash October 19, 1986) was a Mozambican military commander revolutionary socialist Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa The wedding followed months of international negotiations to set the unprecedented bride-price to be remitted to Machel's clan. Said negotiations were conducted on Mandela's behalf by his traditional sovereign, King Buyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo, born 1964. Ironically, it was this paramount chief's grandfather, the Regent Jongintaba, whose selection of a bride for him prompted Mandela to flee to Johannesburg as a young man. A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal chief or political leader in a regional or local polity or Country typically administered politically
Mandela still maintains a home at Qunu in the realm of his royal nephew (second cousin thrice-removed in Western reckoning), whose university expenses he defrayed and whose privy councillor he remains. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings 
Mandela became the oldest elected President of South Africa when he took office at the age of 77 in 1994. He decided not to stand for a second term as President, and instead retired in 1999, to be succeeded by Thabo Mbeki. Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008
In July 2001 Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer. He was treated with a seven week course of radiation.  In June 2004, at age 85, Mandela announced that he would be retiring from public life. His health had been declining, and he wanted to enjoy more time with his family. Mandela said that he did not intend to hide away totally from the public, but wanted to be in a position "of calling you to ask whether I would be welcome, rather than being called upon to do things and participate in events. My appeal therefore is: Don't call me, I will call you. " Since 2003, he has appeared in public less often and has been less vocal on topical issues.  In his late 80s, he is white-haired and walks slowly with the support of a stick.
In 2003 Mandela's death was incorrectly announced by CNN when his pre-written obituary (along with those of several other famous figures) was inadvertently published on CNN's web site due to a fault in password protection. A premature Obituary is an obituary published whose subject is not actually deceased Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner  In 2007 a fringe right-wing group distributed hoax email and SMS messages claiming that the authorities had covered up Mandela's death and that white South Africans would be massacred after his funeral. Mandela was on holiday in Mozambique at the time. 
After his retirement as President, Mandela went on to become an advocate for a variety of social and human rights organisations. He has expressed his support for the international Make Poverty History movement of which the ONE Campaign is a part. The Make Poverty History campaign (which is written as MAKE POVERTY' HISTORY') is a British and Irish coalition of Charities, religious The ONE Campaign is a US-based nonpartisan non-profit organization which aims to increase United States government funding for and effectiveness of international aid programs 
Mr. Mandela is a vocal supporter of SOS Children's Villages, the world's largest organization dedicated to raising orphaned and abandoned children. SOS Children's Villages is an independent non-governmental international development organisation which has been working to meet the needs and protect the interests and rights of children 
For seventeen days, they are roommates. The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in For seventeen days, they are soulmates. And for twenty-two seconds, they are competitors. Seventeen days as equals. Twenty-two seconds as adversaries. What a wonderful world that would be. That's the hope I see in the Olympic Games.
The Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament, hosted by Gary Player, has raised over R 20 million for children's charities since its inception in 2000. Background and family Gary Player was born in Johannesburg, South Africa, the youngest of Harry and Muriel Player's three children The rand ( sign: R; code: ZAR) is the Currency of South Africa. This annual special event has become South Africa's most successful charitable sports gathering and benefits both the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund and Gary Player Foundation equally for various children's causes around the world.
On 18 July 2007, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders in Johannesburg to contribute their wisdom and independent leadership to address the world's toughest problems. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Graça Machel, DBE (born Graça Simbine on 17 October 1945 in Incadine Gaza Province, Mozambique) is the third wife of former South Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Cleric and activist who rose to Worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent Nelson Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Elders, in a speech he delivered on the occasion of his 89th birthday. The Global Elders or The Elders is a group of Public figures noted as elder statesmen, Peace activists and Human rights advocates 
Archbishop Tutu will serve as the Chair of The Elders. The founding members of this group also include Graça Machel, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson and Muhammad Yunus. Graça Machel, DBE (born Graça Simbine on 17 October 1945 in Incadine Gaza Province, Mozambique) is the third wife of former South Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations Ela Ramesh Bhatt (born on 7 September 1933 in the city of Ahmedabad in India) is the founder of India's Self-Employed Women's Association (or (ɡru hɑɭɛm brʉntlɑn (born Gro Harlem 20 April 1939 Oslo) is a Norwegian politician diplomat and Physician, and an international leader James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Li Zhaoxing ( born October 20, 1940) was the Foreign minister of the People's Republic of China from 2003 to 2007 Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (Máire Mhic Róibín born 21 May 1944 was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997 and the United Nations Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনুস pronounced bn-Latn ''Muhammôd Iunus'' (born 28 June 1940 is a Bangladeshi Banker and Economist
"This group can speak freely and boldly, working both publicly and behind the scenes on whatever actions need to be taken," Mandela commented. "Together we will work to support courage where there is fear, foster agreement where there is conflict, and inspire hope where there is despair. "
Since his retirement, one of Mandela's primary commitments has been to the fight against AIDS. In 2003, he had already lent his support to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign, named after his prison number. 46664 ( four double six six four) is a series of AIDS charity concerts played in honour of Nelson Mandela by South African musicians in the 2000s In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to speak at the XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest The XV International AIDS Conference was held in Bangkok, capital of Thailand, from July 11 to July 16, 2004. His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS on 6 January 2005. Makgatho Lewanika Mandela ( June 26 1950 – January 6 2005) was the son of former South African President Nelson Mandela Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 2003 Mandela criticised the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration in a number of speeches. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The Presidency of George W Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America Criticising the lack of UN involvement in the decision to begin the War in Iraq, he said, "It is a tragedy, what is happening, what Bush is doing. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign But Bush is now undermining the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security " Mandela stated he would support action against Iraq only if it is ordered by the UN. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Mandela also insinuated that Bush may have been motivated by racism in not following the UN and its secretary-general Kofi Annan on the issue of the war. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations "Is it because the secretary-general of the United Nations is now a black man? They never did that when secretary-generals were white". 
He urged the people of the U.S. to join massive protests against Bush and called on world leaders, especially those with vetoes in the UN Security Council, to oppose him. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the "What I am condemning is that one power, with a president who has no foresight, who cannot think properly, is now wanting to plunge the world into a holocaust. " He attacked the United States for its record on human rights and for dropping atomic bombs on Japan during World War II. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks near the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including "If there is a country that has committed unspeakable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America. They don't care. "
As a member of the United States House of Representatives in 1986, Dick Cheney had voted against a congressional resolution calling for Mandela's release from prison. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney (born January 30 1941 is the forty-sixth and current Vice President of the United States. In 2002, Mandela called Cheney a "dinosaur. "
Ismail Ayob was a trusted friend and personal attorney of Mandela for over 30 years. Ismail Mahomed Ayob (born 1942 is a prominent South African Lawyer. In May 2005, Ayob was asked by Mandela to stop selling prints signed by Mandela and to account for the proceeds of their sale. Printmaking is the Process of making artworks by Printing, normally on Paper. This bitter dispute led to an extensive application to the High Court of South Africa by Mandela that year. The High Court of South Africa is a Court of Law in South Africa.  Ayob denied any wrongdoing, and claimed that he was the victim of a smear campaign orchestrated by Mandela's advisors, in particular, lawyer George Bizos. George Bizos (born 1928 in Greece) is a distinguished human rights advocate who fought against Apartheid in South Africa. 
In 2005, and 2006 Ayob, his wife, and son were subject to an attack by Mandela's advisors. The dispute was widely reported in the media, with Ayob being portrayed in a negative light, culminating in the action by Mandela to the High Court. There were public meetings at which Mandela associates attacked Ayob and there were calls for Ayob and his family to be ostracised by society.  The defence of Ismail and Zamila Ayob (his wife, and a fellow respondent) included documents signed by Mandela and witnessed by his secretaries, that, they claimed, refuted many of the allegations made by Nelson Mandela and his advisors. Respondent can mean In legal usage The Appellee or the opposing party in an Appeal The Defendant in a proceeding commenced 
The dispute again made headlines in February 2007 when, during a hearing in the Johannesburg High Court, Ayob promised to pay R700 000 to Mandela, which Ayob had transferred into trusts for Mandela's children, and apologised, although he later claimed that he was the victim of a "vendetta", by Mandela. A feud (ˈfjuːd (referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud or vendetta) is a long-running argument or fight between parties&mdashoften through Guilt  Some media commentators expressed sympathy for Ayob's position, pointing out that Mandela's iconic status would make it difficult for Ayob to be treated fairly. 
Ayob, George Bizos and Wim Trengrove were trustees of the Nelson Mandela Trust, which was set up to hold millions of rands donated to Nelson Mandela by prominent business figures, including the Oppenheimer family, for the benefit of his children and grandchildren. Nicholas "Nicky" F Oppenheimer (born 8 June 1945) is a billionaire South African businessman the chairman of the De Beers  Ayob later resigned from the Trust. In 2006, the two remaining trustees of the Nelson Mandela Trust launched an application against Ayob for disbursing money from the trust without their consent.  Ayob claimed that this money was paid to the South African Revenue Service, to Mandela's children and grandchildren to Mandela himself and to an accounting company for four years of accounting work. The South African Revenue Service (also known as SARS is the section of the South African government responsible for collecting Taxes, Tariffs, Duties 
Bizos and Trengrove refused to ratify the payments to the children and grandchildren of Nelson Mandela and the payments to the accounting firm. A court settlement was reached in which this money, totalling over R700,000 was paid by Ismail Ayob to the trust on the grounds that Ayob had not sought the express consent of the other two trustees before disbursing the money. It was alleged that Ayob made defamatory remarks about Mandela in his affidavit, for which the court order stated that Ayob should apologise. It was pointed out that these remarks, which centred on Nelson Mandela holding foreign bank accounts and not paying tax on these, had not originated from Ayob's affidavit but from Nelson Mandela's and George Bizos's own affidavits. 
In a The New Republic article in December 2006, Nelson Mandela was criticised for a number of positive comments he had made about the diamond industry, specifically regarding blood diamonds. The New Republic ( TNR) is an American Magazine of politics and the arts In relation to diamond trading blood diamond (also called a converted diamond, conflict diamond, hot diamond or a war diamond) refers to a diamond In a letter to Edward Zwick, the director of the motion picture Blood Diamond, Mandela had noted that:
. Edward Zwick (born October 8, 1952 in Chicago Illinois) is an American Film director and film producer noted for his sprawling Blood Diamond is an Academy Award nominated 2006 adventure Drama film co-produced and directed by Edward Zwick and . . it would be deeply regrettable if the making of the film inadvertently obscured the truth, and, as a result, led the world to believe that an appropriate response might be to cease buying mined diamonds from Africa. . . . We hope that the desire to tell a gripping and important real life historical story will not result in the destabilization of African diamond producing countries, and ultimately their peoples. 
The New Republic article claims that this comment, as well as various pro-diamond-industry initiatives and statements during his life and during his time as a president of South Africa, were influenced by both his friendship with Harry Oppenheimer, former chairman of De Beers, as well as an outlook for 'narrow national interests' of South Africa (which is a major diamond producer). Harry Frederick Oppenheimer (28 October 1908 &ndash 19 August 2000 was a prominent South African businessman and one of the world's richest men De Beers and the various companies within the De Beers Family of Companies engage in exploration for diamonds, diamond mining diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacture
Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe who has led the country since independence in 1980, has been widely criticised internationally for the 1980s slaughter of 20,000 Matabele people as well as corruption, incompetent administration, political oppression and cronyism that has ultimately led to the economic collapse of the country. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The Gukurahundi ( Shona: "the early rain which washes away the Chaff before the spring rains" refers to an armed conflict between the Zimbabwe Government
Mandela criticised Mugabe's government in 2000, but since around 2003, in his retirement, Mandela has been silent on Zimbabwe and other international and domestic issues.  This has sometimes led to Mandela being criticised for not using his influence to more effect to persuade Mugabe to moderate his policies. 
Mandela has received many South African, foreign and international honours, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 (which was shared with Frederik Willem de Klerk), the Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II and the Presidential Medal of Freedom from George W. Bush. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This is a comprehensive list of awards honours and other recognitions bestowed on Nelson Mandela. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem or Order of St John is a British -based royal order of Chivalry, and is For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. In July 2004, the city of Johannesburg bestowed its highest honour on Mandela by granting him the freedom of the city at a ceremony in Orlando, Soweto. Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by some municipalities in Australia, Canada, Ireland, France, Italy, New Zealand Orlando is the name of a township in Soweto, South Africa. The township was founded in 1931 and named for Edwin Orlando Leake, Mayor of Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa.
As an example of his popular foreign acclaim, during his tour of Canada in 1998, 45,000 school children greeted him with adulation at a speaking engagement in the SkyDome in the city of Toronto. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page SkyDome redirects here for other uses see SkyDome (disambiguation Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario In 2001, he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen (the only previous recipient, Raoul Wallenberg, was awarded honorary citizenship posthumously). Honorary Canadian citizenship ( French: Citoyenneté canadienne honoraire) is an honour wherein Canadian citizenship is bestowed by the Governor Raoul Wallenberg (August 4 1912 &ndash July 17 1947? was a Swedish Humanitarian of the prominent Swedish Wallenberg family who worked in Budapest While in Canada, he was also made an honorary Companion of the Order of Canada, one of the few foreigners to receive Canada's highest honour. The Order of Canada is the highest civilian honour within the Canadian system of honours, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the order's Latin
In 1990 he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India. Bharat Ratna (translates to Jewel of India or Gem of India in English) is India 's highest Civilian award, awarded for the
In 1992 he was awarded the Atatürk Peace Award by Turkey. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches He refused the award citing human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time, but later accepted the award in 1999. 
Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. One of the most popular was from the The Specials who recorded the song Nelson Mandela in 1983. The Specials (sometimes called The Special AKA) are an English 2 Tone Ska revival band formed in 1977 in Coventry. Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song I Just Called to Say I Love You to Mandela, resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation. Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13 1950 name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris) is an The Academy Award for Best Original Song is one of the awards given annually to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture " I Just Called to Say I Love You " is a song written produced and performed by Stevie Wonder as part of the soundtrack to the 1984 film The SABC redirects here as this is the most common use of the abbreviation in English  In 1985, Youssou N'Dour's album Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artist's first United States release. Youssou N'Dour (jusun̩ˈduːʀ (born October 1, 1959 in Dakar) is a Senegalese Singer and Percussionist. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa.
In 1988, the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute concert at London's Wembley Stadium was a focal point of the anti-apartheid movement, with many musicians voicing their support for Mandela. The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute was a global broadcast event staged on June 11, 1988 at the Wembley Stadium, London original Wembley Stadium was a football Stadium in Wembley, a suburb of north-west London, standing on the site now occupied by the Jerry Dammers, the author of Nelson Mandela, was one of the organisers. Jerry Dammers (born Jeremy Dammers 22 May 1955, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu, South India) is a founder and keyboard player Simple Minds recorded the song Mandela Day for the concert, Santana recorded the instrumental Mandela, and Tracy Chapman performed Freedom Now, dedicated to Mandela and released on her album Crossroads. Simple Minds are a rock band from Scotland, who had their greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s Santana is a flexible number of musicians accompanying Carlos Santana since the late 1960s Tracy Chapman (born March 30, 1964) is an American Singer-songwriter, best known for her singles " Fast Car " " Crossroads is the second Album by African American Singer/songwriter Tracy Chapman, released in 1989 (see 1989 in music Salif Keita from Mali, who played at the concert, later visited South Africa and in 1995 recorded the song Mandela on his album Folon. Salif Keita (born August 25, 1949) is an internationally recognized Afro-pop Singer - Songwriter from Mali. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Folon is the fourth Studio album from Malian artist Salif Keita.
In South Africa, Asimbonanga (Mandela) (we have not seen him) became one of Johnny Clegg's most famous songs, appearing on his Third World Child album in 1987. Jonathan (Johnny Clegg, born June 7, 1953 in Rochdale (near Manchester) Lancashire, ( UK Third World Child is Studio album by South African artist Johnny Clegg and his band Savuka, released in 1987 and produced by Hilton Rosenthal Hugh Masekela, in exile in the UK, sang Bring Him Back Home (Nelson Mandela) in 1987. Hugh Ramopolo Masekela (b Witbank, South Africa, April 4, 1939) is a South African trumpeter, flugelhornist Brenda Fassie's 1989 song Black President, a tribute to Mandela, was hugely popular even though it was banned in South Africa. Brenda Fassie (3 November 1964 &ndash 9 May 2004 was a legendary South African pop singer widely considered a voice for disenfranchised blacks during Apartheid 
In 1990, Hong Kong Cantopop band Beyond released a popular Cantonese song, "Days of Glory". Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Cantopop (Chinese 粵語流行曲 is a colloquial Portmanteau for " Cantonese popular music ". Beyond was a famous rock band in Hong Kong that was founded in 1983 The anti-apartheid song featured lyrics referring to Mandela's heroic struggle for racial equality. 
In 2003, Mandela lent his weight to the 46664 campaign against AIDS, named after his prison number. 46664 ( four double six six four) is a series of AIDS charity concerts played in honour of Nelson Mandela by South African musicians in the 2000s Many prominent musicians performed in concerts as part of this campaign.
A summary of Mandela's life story is featured in the 2006 music video If Everyone Cared by Nickelback. " If Everyone Cared " is a Grammy nominated song the sixth single released from Nickelback 's All the Right Reasons, and the single Nickelback is a Canadian rock band formed in Hanna Alberta by Chad Kroeger, Mike Kroeger, Ryan Peake and then-drummer
Raffi's song "Turn this world around" is based on a speech given by Mandela where he explained the world needs to be "turned around, for the children". Raffi Cavoukian, CM, OBC (born July 8, 1948) is a Canadian children's singer
A tribute concert for Mandela's 90th birthday is scheduled for Hyde Park, London on 27 June 2008. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
In 1997, the film Mandela and De Klerk told the story of Mandela's release from prison. Mandela was played by Sidney Poitier. Sir Sidney Poitier, KBE (ˈpwɑːtie born February 20, 1927) is an Oscar - Golden Globe - BAFTA - and Grammy Goodbye Bafana, a feature film that focuses on Mandela's life, had its world premiere at the Berlin film festival on 11 February 2007. Goodbye Bafana, also released under the name The Color of Freedom, is a 2007 drama film about the relationship between Nelson Mandela Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The film starred Dennis Haysbert as Mandela and chronicled Mandela's relationship with prison guard James Gregory. Dennis Dexter Haysbert (born June 2, 1954) is an American Film and Television Actor. James Gregory may refer to James Gregory (writer (?-2003 South African prison guard author of Goodbye Bafana James Gregory (astronomer
In the final scene of the 1992 movie Malcolm X, Mandela – recently released after 27 years of political imprisonment – appears as a schoolteacher in a Soweto classroom. Malcolm X is a 1992 Biographical film directed by Spike Lee about the African-American activist and Black nationalist Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. He recites a portion of one of Malcolm X's most famous speeches, including the following sentence: "We declare our right on this earth to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence. Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19 1925 February 21 1965 also known as El-Hajj Malik El- Shabazz, was an African American . . " The famous final phrase of that sentence is "by any means necessary. By any means necessary is a translation of a phrase coined by the French intellectual Jean Paul Sartre in his play Dirty Hands. " Mandela informed director Spike Lee that he could not utter the phrase on camera fearing that the apartheid government would use it against him if he did. Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee (born March 20 1957 is an Emmy Award -winning and Academy Award -nominated American Film director, Lee obliged, and the final seconds of the film feature black-and-white footage of Malcolm X himself delivering the phrase.
On 31 March 2004, Sandton Square was renamed Nelson Mandela Square, after a 6-metre statue of Nelson Mandela was installed on the square to honour the famous South African statesman. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Nelson Mandela Square is a Shopping centre in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa.
On 29 August 2007, a statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled at Parliament Square in London by Richard Attenborough, Ken Livingstone, Wendy Woods, and Gordon Brown. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Parliament Square is a square outside the northwest end of the Palace of Westminster in London. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Richard Samuel Attenborough Baron Attenborough Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945 is a British Socialist Politician. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951 is The campaign to erect the statue was started in 2000 by the late Donald Woods, a South African journalist driven into exile because of his anti-apartheid activities. Donald James Woods, CBE ( December 15, 1933 – August 19, 2001) was a white South African journalist and anti- Apartheid Mandela stated that it represented not just him, but all those who have resisted oppression, especially those in South Africa. He also said, "The history of the struggle in South Africa is rich with the stories of heroes and heroines, some of them leaders, some of them followers. All of them deserve to be remembered. "
In 2004, zoologists Brent E. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Hendrixson and Jason E. Bond named a South African species of trapdoor spider in the family Ctenizidae as Stasimopus mandelai, "honoring Nelson Mandela, the former president of South Africa and one of the great moral leaders of our time. Trapdoor spiders (superfamily Ctenizoidea, family Ctenizidae) are medium-sized Mygalomorph Spiders that construct "
Frederik Willem de Klerk
(State President of South Africa)
|President of South Africa|
Andrés Pastrana Arango
|Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||South African politician and anti-Apartheid fighter, President of South Africa (1994–1999)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||18 July 1918|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Transkei, South Africa|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|