Nejd or Najd (literally "highland", Arabic: نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab)
The Arabic word nejd literally means "upland" and was once applied to a variety of regions within the Arabian Peninsula. However, the most famous of these was the central region of the Peninsula roughly bounded on the west by the mountains of the Hejaz and Yemen and to the east by the historical region of Bahrain. al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Bahrain (البحرين al-Baḥrayn) is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain (إقليم البحرين
Medieval Muslim geographers spent a great amount of time deciding the exact boundaries between Hejaz and Nejd in particular, but generally set the western boundaries of Nejd to be wherever the western mountain ranges and lava beds began to slope eastwards, and set the eastern boundaries of Nejd at the narrow strip of red sand dunes known as the Al-Dahna Desert, some 100 km east of modern-day Riyadh. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The southern border of Nejd has always been set at the large sea of sand dunes known today as the Empty Quarter, while the southwestern boundaries are marked by the valleys of Wadi Ranyah, Wadi Bisha, and Wadi Tathlith. The Rub' al Khali ( Arabic: الربع الخالي which translates as Empty Quarter in English, is one of the largest sand Deserts in the
The northern boundaries of Nejd have fluctuated greatly historically and received far less attention from the medieval geographers. In the early Islamic centuries, Nejd was considered to extend as far north as the River Euphrates, or more specifically, the "Walls of Khosrau", constructed by the Persian Empire as a barrier between Arabia and Mesopotamia immediately prior to the advent of Islam. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The regions immediately bordering the Iraqi and Syrian deserts, however, were separated from the rest of Nejd by a great sea of sand dunes known as the Nefud, and were inhabited almost entirely by Bedouin tribes that had much closer relationships with Iraq and Syria than with the interior of Arabia. Al-Nefud or The Nefud ( Arabic, صحراء النفود, ṣahrā' al-nefud) is a Desert in the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula For this reason, in modern times the term "Nejd" is usually applied more specifically to the "plateau of Nejd", with the Nefud desert as its natural northern border. This modern usage of the term encompasses the region of Al-Yamama, which was not always considered part of Najd historically. al-Yamama ( اليمامة, lit " Dove " is an ancient district covering the eastern section of the plateau of Nejd in modern-day Saudi Arabia
Nejd, as its name suggests, is a plateau ranging from 762 m to 1,525 m in height and sloping downwards from west to east. In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The eastern sections (historically better known as Al-Yamama) are marked by oasis settlements, while the rest has traditionally been sparsely occupied by nomadic Bedouins. al-Yamama ( اليمامة, lit " Dove " is an ancient district covering the eastern section of the plateau of Nejd in modern-day Saudi Arabia Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously The main topographical features include the twin mountains of Aja and Salma in the north near Ha'il, and the Tweig mountain range running through its center from north to south. Ha'il (also spelled Hail, Ha'yel, or Hayil Arabic: حائل is an Oasis city in Nejd in northwestern Saudi Arabia Jebel Tuwaiq (pronounced "Twayg" جبل طويق) is a narrow escarpment that cuts through the plataeu of Nejd in central Arabia, running approximately Also important are the various dry river-beds (wadis) such as Wadi Hanifah near Riyadh, Wadi Na'am in the south, Wadi Al-Rumah in the Al-Qassim region in the north, and Wadi Ad-Dawasir at the southernmost tip of Nejd on the border with Najran. Wadi (وادي) (also Vadi) is traditionally a valley In some cases it can refer to a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain Wadi Hanifa ( وادي حنيفة) is a Wadi or valley in the Nejd region in central Saudi Arabia. Al Qassim Province (also spelled Al Qaseem, Al Qasim, or Qassim; ælqɑˈsˁiːm Arabic: منطقة القصيم is one of the thirteen Wadi Al Dawasir ( is a town in Najd, Saudi Arabia, on the Dawasir valley Most Nejdi villages and settlements are located along these wadis, due to ability of these wadis to preserve precious rainwater in the arid desert climate, while others are located near oases. Historically, Nejd itself has been divided into small provinces made up of constellations of small villages and settlements, with each one usually centered around one "capital". These subdivisions are still recognized by Nejdis today, as each province retains its own variation of the Nejdi dialect and Nejdi customs. The most prominent among these provinces are Al-'Aridh, which includes Riyadh and the historical Saudi capital of Dir'iyah; Al-Qassim, with its capital in Buraydah; Sdeir, centered around Al-Majma'ah; Al-Washm, centered around Shagraa; and Jebel Shammar, with its capital, Ha'il. Al-Diriyah ( الدرعية; also spelled Ad-Dir'iyah, Ad-Dar'iyah or Dir'aiyah) is a town in Saudi Arabia located on the northwestern Al Qassim Province (also spelled Al Qaseem, Al Qasim, or Qassim; ælqɑˈsˁiːm Arabic: منطقة القصيم is one of the thirteen Buraydah (Arabic burayda 'بريدة' or Buraidah is the capital of Al-Qassim Province in northcentral Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula Sudair or Sdeir ( سدير) is a historical region in Nejd in central Saudi Arabia, and is located approximately 150 km north of the Saudi capital Al Majma'ah (المجمعة is a city and a Governorate in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. Jebel Shammar ( (Mountain of the Shammar) is a former sovereign state also known as Emirate of Ha'il located in what is today northern Saudi Arabia. Ha'il (also spelled Hail, Ha'yel, or Hayil Arabic: حائل is an Oasis city in Nejd in northwestern Saudi Arabia Under modern-day Saudi Arabia, however, Nejd is divided into three administrative regions: Ha'il, Al-Qassim, and Riyadh, comprising a combined area of 554,000 km². Haʾil (حائل is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the north of the country Al Qassim Province (also spelled Al Qaseem, Al Qasim, or Qassim; ælqɑˈsˁiːm Arabic: منطقة القصيم is one of the thirteen Riyadh Province ʔɑrːijɑːdˁ( Arabic: منطقة الرياض, Mantiqat ar-Riyadh) is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the
Riyadh is the largest city in Nejd, as well as the largest city in the country as a whole, with a population of more than 4,250,000 in 2005. Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city Other cities include Buraydah (505,000) and Unaizah (128,930). Buraydah (Arabic burayda 'بريدة' or Buraidah is the capital of Al-Qassim Province in northcentral Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula Unaizah (also spelled Onaizah, Onizah, or Unayzah; Arabic: عنيزة) is a Saudi Arabian City, located Smaller towns and villages include Kharj, Duwadmi, Zulfi, Majma'a, Shagraa, Tharmada'a, Dhruma, Ghuweyyah, Al-Hareeg, Hotat Bani Tamim, Layla, Sulayyil, and Wadi Ad-Dawasir, the southernmost settlement in Nejd. Al-Kharj ( الخرج) is a city and governorate in Riyadh Province in central Saudi Arabia. Dwadmi, or Dawadmi, is located on top of Najd hill the central area of Saudi Arabia. Al Zulfi (الزلفي is a Saudi Arabian town, located in about 300 kilometers northern the capital Riyadh. Al Majma'ah (المجمعة is a city and a Governorate in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. Shaqraa ( Arabic: شقراء) is Saudi Arabian town, located in about 190 kilometers northern the capital Riyadh. Tharmada'a ( Arabic: ثرمداء) is Saudi Arabian town located in about 170 kilometers northern the capital Riyadh. Dhurma ( ضرما) is a small town located some 40 km to the west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Al Gwei'iyyah (القويعية is a Saudi Arabian town, build in the 5th century BC. Al Hareeq (الحريق is a Saudi Arabian town, belong to Riyadh. Hotat Bani Tamim (حوطة بني تميم is a a Saudi Arabian town, belonging to Riyadh, with a population estimated at 36000 Layla is a town in central Saudi Arabia, located at. It is the principle town of the Al-Aflaj oasis in Ar Riyad Province, some 330 km south As Sulayyil (السليل is a city in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. Wadi Al Dawasir ( is a town in Najd, Saudi Arabia, on the Dawasir valley
Prior to the formation of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the native population of Nejd consisted mainly of members of several Arabian tribes, who were either nomads (bedouins), or sedentary farmers and merchants. The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously The rest of the population consisted mainly of Arabs who were, for various reasons, unaffiliated with any tribes, and who mostly lived in the towns and villages of Nejd working in various trades such as carpentry and metallurgy (Sonnaa' or tradesmen). This article is about the skilled manual worker meaning of the term for other uses see Tradesperson (disambiguation A tradesman is a skilled manual worker There was also a small segment of the population made up of African slaves or freedmen.
The most famous Nejdi tribes in the pre-Islamic era were Banu Hanifa, who occupied the area around modern-day Riyadh, 'Anizzah, Banu Tamim, who occupied areas further north, the tribe of 'Abs who were centered in Al-Qassim, the tribe of Tayy, centered around modern-day Ha'il, and tribe of Banu 'Amir in southern Nejd. Banu Hanifa ( بنو حنيفة) were an ancient Arab tribe inhabiting the area of Al-Yamama in the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. `Anizzah ( عنزة, `Anizah, `Aniza) are the largest Arab tribal confederation of the Arabian Peninsula This is not the Sub-clan of Quraish, for that see Banu Taim Banī Tamīm or Banu Tamim or Banu Tameem The Banu Abs بني عبس are an ancient Bedouin tribe from central Arabia, they branch from the powerful Ghatafan tribes Tayy ( طيء) is a large and ancient Arabian tribe belonging to the southern or Qahtanite branch of Arab tribes Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah or Banu 'Amir ( بنو عامر بن صعصعة) were a large and ancient Arab tribal confederation originating from central and By the 20th century, many of the ancient tribes had morphed into new confederations or immigrated to other areas of the Middle East, and many tribes from other regions of the Peninsula had moved into Nejd. However, a large proportion of native Nejdis today still belong to these ancient Nejdi tribes or to their newer incarnations. The royal family of Saudi Arabia, Al Saud, for example, trace their lineage to Banu Hanifa. The House of Saud ( Arabic: آل سعود romanized Āl Suʿūd is the Royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the eve of the formation of Saudi Arabia, the major nomadic tribes of Nejd included Qahtan, Mutayr (the successor tribe to 'Abs), Shammar (the successor tribe to Tayy), 'Utaybah, Subay', Harb, the Suhool, and the Dawasir. Mutayr ( مطير; also spelled Mutair and Mtayr) is a large Sunni tribe of the Arabian Peninsula. ' Utaybah ( عتيبة, also spelled Uteibah, Otaibah, Otibah, and Oteibah) is a large Sunni Muslim Tribe Subay' ( سبيع, also spelled Sbay', Sbei', and Subei) are a Sunni Muslim tribe of central Saudi Arabia Harb ( حرب) is one of the largest tribes in Arabia. It is a Qahtani tribe (related to old Qahtan tribe The Suhool ( السهول, sing Sahli) are an Arab tribe of the region of Nejd in central Saudi Arabia. The al Dawasir ( is an Arabian Bedouin tribe divided into clans and families In addition to those tribes, many of the sedentary population belonged to Banu Tamim, 'Anizzah, Banu Hanifah, Banu Khalid, and Banu Zayd. `Anizzah ( عنزة, `Anizah, `Aniza) are the largest Arab tribal confederation of the Arabian Peninsula Banu Hanifa ( بنو حنيفة) were an ancient Arab tribe inhabiting the area of Al-Yamama in the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. Bani Khalid ( بني خالد) is an Arab tribal confederation of eastern and central Arabia.
Most of the nomadic tribes are now settled either in cities such as Riyadh, or in special settlements, known as hijras, that were established in the early part of the 20th centuries as part of a country-wide policy undertaken by King Abdul-Aziz to put an end to nomadic life. Nomads still exist in the Kingdom, however, in very small numbers - a far cry from the days when they made up the majority of the people of the Arabian Peninsula.
Since the formation of modern Saudi Arabia, Nejd, and particularly Riyadh, has seen an influx of immigrants from all regions of the country and from virtually every social class. The native Nejdi population has also largely moved away from its native towns and villages to the capital, Riyadh. However, most of these villages still retain a small number of their native inhabitants. About a quarter of the population of Nejd, including about a third of the population of Riyadh, are non-Saudi expatriates, including both skilled professionals and unskilled laborers.
Slavery was abolished in Saudi Arabia by King Faisal in 1962. King Faisal may refer to Faisal of Saudi Arabia Faisal I of Iraq Faisal II of Iraq King Faisal Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Some of those freed slaves chose to continue working for their former slave-owners, particularly those whose former owners were members of the royal family. The majority, however, have had to fend for themselves and largely occupy the lowest rungs of the economic ladder. They also tend to live in the poorer sections of cities such as Riyadh.
Practically all Nejdis are Sunni Muslims, either nominally or in practice. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The region is known across the Islamic world for its puritanical interpretation of Islam and is generally considered a bastion of religious conservatism. In reality, however, many other parts of the Kingdom are no less conservative or religious than Nejd. Other religions, such as Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism, are represented in Nejd by members of the expatriate communities. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
The people of Nejd have spoken Arabic, in one form or another, for practically all of recorded history. As in other regions of the Peninsula, there is a divergence between the dialect of the nomadic Bedouins and the dialect of the sedentary townspeople. The variation, however, is far less pronounced in Nejd as it is elsewhere in the country, and the Nejdi sedentary dialect seems to be descended from the Bedouin dialect, just as most sedentary Nejdis are descendants of nomadic Bedouins themselves. The Nejdi dialect is seen by some to be the least foreign-influenced of all modern Arabic dialects, due to the isolated location and harsh climate of the Nejdi plateau, as well as the apparent absence of any substratum from a previous language. Indeed, not even the ancient South Arabian language appears to have been widely spoken in Nejd in ancient times, unlike southern Saudi Arabia, for example. Within Nejd itself, the different regions and towns have their own distinctive accents and sub-dialects. However, these have largely merged in recent times and have become heavily influenced by Arabic dialects from other regions and countries. This is particularly the case in Riyadh.
Prior to Islam, Nejd was dominated by mostly nomadic tribes such as Tamim, Tayy', 'Amir, 'Anizzah, 'Abs, Taghlib, and others. Banu Taghlib or Taghlib ibn Wa'il ( بنو تغلب) were a large and powerful Arabian tribe of Mesopotamia and northern Arabia. Banu Hanifa, Kindah, and sections of Tayy' and Tamim seemed to have also established themselves as sedentary townspeople. The Kindah (كندة kingdom was a vassal kingdom ruled from Qaryah dhat Kahl (the present-day Qaryat al-Faw) in Central Arabia. Kindah are believed to have established the first known kingdom in Nejd, in the 3rd century C.E.. The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
At the dawn of Islam, the tribes of Nejd sent delegations expressing allegiance to the Prophet Muhammad in Mecca. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In Religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has encountered the Supernatural or the divine and serves as an intermediary IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored However, according to Muslim sources, most of these tribes renounced Islam as soon as Muhammad had died, with some even claiming prophets of their own. The most famous of these "apostates", as the Muslims called them, was Musaylimah (dubbed "the Liar") of Banu Hanifah. Musaylimah (مسيلمة or Maslamah ibn Ḥabīb (مسلمة بن حبيب was one of a series of men who claimed to be a Prophet around the same time as Muhammad Musaylima then entered into an alliance with a female claimant to divine revelation, Sajah Al-Tamimiyyah, who although belonging to Tamim, was supported by her relatives from the powerful tribe of Taghlib. The newly-proclaimed successor to Muhammad's political authority, Abu Bakr, promptly dispatched troops to suppress the rebellions in Nejd and elsewhere in Arabia. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Early life Abu Bakr was born at Mecca some time in the year 573 CE, in the Banu Taym branch of the Quraysh tribe It appears, however, that resistance in central Nejd (better known in those times as Yamamah) was especially fierce. After some initial failures, Abu Bakr finally sent his most able general, Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, to fight Musaylimah with 4,000 men. Khālid ibn al-Walīd (592-642 ( خالد بن الوليد) also known by Sunnis as Sayf-'ullah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God, God's Withdrawn A terrible battle ensued in 'Aqraba (approximately 30 km north of modern Riyadh), but the Muslims were victorious and Musaylimah was killed in battle. Khalid successfully did away with any lingering resistance in the rest of Yamamah, and the once mighty Banu Hanifa were broken beyond recovery.
Once these "Wars of the Apostates" (see Ridda Wars) had been concluded, the Muslims in Medinah directed the energies of their restive compatriots towards conquering the possessions of the neighboring Byzantine and Persian empires. The Ridda wars (Arabic حروب الردة also known as the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabic tribes against the The tribes of Nejd participated in great numbers, especially Banu Tamim, changing the demographics of both Nejd and the conquered provinces of Syria and Iraq. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
In the early Umayyad era, the region fell under the sway of Kharijites, an Islamic sect that mixed political egalitarianism with intense religious puritanism. Kharijites (Arabic Khawārij خوارج literally "Those who Went Out" is a general term embracing various Muslims who while initially supporting the Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, The Kharijite leader in Nejd was himself a member of Banu Hanifa by the name of Najdah ibn 'Amir, and his followers were known as Najdat. Najdah ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi ( نجدة بن عامر الحنفي; d The Najdat were the sub-sect of the Kharijite movement that followed Najda ibn 'Amir al-Hanafi in the late 7th century and briefly ruled over the historical Najdah was able to subdue all of Nejd along with the historical province of Bahrain, and was close to gaining control over the holy cities in Hejaz as well. Bahrain (البحرين al-Baḥrayn) is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain (إقليم البحرين As with most Kharijite movements, however, the Najdat's fanaticism led the movement to consume itself through in-fighting, and Najdah himself was assassinated for being allegedly lacking in religious zeal. Their short-lived state quickly fell apart and the region reverted to being a political backwater. During the next century, the region of Yamamah fell, at least nominally, under the authority of the Caliphate's viceroys of Bahrain (not to be confused with the modern-day islands of Bahrain). al-Yamama ( اليمامة, lit " Dove " is an ancient district covering the eastern section of the plateau of Nejd in modern-day Saudi Arabia A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. Bahrain (البحرين al-Baḥrayn) is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain (إقليم البحرين The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf
In 866, a descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima launched a doomed and bloody insurrection in Mecca and Jeddah against the Abbasids. Events By Place Asia Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the The rebel, Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Ukhaidhir, fled to Yamamah and was able to take control of the town of Al-Khidhrima (modern-day Al-Kharj), where he established the independent kingdom of the Banu Ukhaidhir. al-Yamama ( اليمامة, lit " Dove " is an ancient district covering the eastern section of the plateau of Nejd in modern-day Saudi Arabia Al-Kharj ( الخرج) is a city and governorate in Riyadh Province in central Saudi Arabia. Banu Ukhaidhir ( بنو الأخيضر) established a kingdom in Al-Yamamah (central Arabia) in 866 C The Ukhaidhirites rejected Abbasid authority and are believed to have followed the moderately Shi'a Zaydi school of Islam. Banu Ukhaidhir ( بنو الأخيضر) established a kingdom in Al-Yamamah (central Arabia) in 866 C Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a Shī'a Madhhab It is unclear how much of Nejd fell under the direct authority of the Ukhaidhirites, though it probably did not extend further north than the area of Wadi Hanifa. Banu Ukhaidhir ( بنو الأخيضر) established a kingdom in Al-Yamamah (central Arabia) in 866 C Wadi Hanifa ( وادي حنيفة) is a Wadi or valley in the Nejd region in central Saudi Arabia. They did not seem to have had much of an effect on the religious orientation of their subjects, and the great historian of Shi'ism, Madelung, remarks in Encyclopedia of Islam that other Zaydis in the Islamic world took little notice of them, and that they probably did not give much attention to religious scholarship. Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam. It's been speculated that Ibn Al-Ukhaidhir's family already had extensive family ties with the tribes of Bani 'Amir that were dominant in Nejd at the time, and that that may have been the decisive factor in gaining him control over the region. Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah or Banu 'Amir ( بنو عامر بن صعصعة) were a large and ancient Arab tribal confederation originating from central and The Ukhaidhirite state lasted until some time in the late 11th century, when it was destroyed by the radical Qarmatians of neighboring Al-Ahsa. The Qarmatians, Arabic Qarāmita قرامطة (also spelled "Carmathians" "Qarmathians" "Karmathians" etc
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