A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city, town or suburb. American and British English spelling differences are one aspect of American and British English differences. In biological terms a community is a group of interacting Organisms sharing an environment. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.
The spatial division of cities into districts or neighbourhoods is one of the few universals of urban life from the earliest cities to the present. In the words of the great urban scholar Lewis Mumford, “Neighbourhoods, in some primitive, inchoate fashion exist wherever human beings congregate, in permanent family dwellings; and many of the functions of the city tend to be distributed naturally—that is, without any theoretical preoccupation or political direction—into neighbourhoods. ”  Most of the earliest cities around the world as excavated by archaeologists have evidence for the presence of social neighbourhoods. . Historical documents shed light on neighbourhood life in numerous historical preindustrial or nonwestern cities. 
Neighbourhoods are typically generated by social interaction among people living near one another. In this sense they are local social units not directly under the control of city or state officials. In some preindustrial urban traditions, basic municipal functions such as protection, social regulation of births and marriages, cleaning and upkeep are handled informally by neighbourhoods and not by urban governments; this pattern is well documented for historical Islamic cities. 
In addition to social neighbourhoods, most ancient and historical cities also had administrative districts used by officials for taxation, record-keeping, and social control.  Administrative districts are typically larger than neighbourhoods and their boundaries may cut across neighbourhood divisions. In some cases, however, administrative districts coincided with neighbourhoods, leading to a high level of regulation of social life by officials. For example, in the T’ang period Chinese capital city Chang’an, neighbourhoods were districts and there were state officials who carefully controlled life and activity at the neighbourhood level. 
Neighbourhoods in preindustrial cities often had some degree of social specialization or differentiation. Ethnic neighbourhoods were important in many past cities and remain common in cities today. Economic specialists, including craft producers, merchants, and others, could be concentrated in neighbourhoods, and in societies with religious pluralism neighbourhoods were often the specialized by religion. One factor contributing to neighbourhood distinctiveness and social cohesion in past cities was the role of rural to urban migration. This was a continual process in preindustrial cities, and migrants tended to move in with relatives and acquaintances from their rural past. 
Over and above these general and individual country definitions, neighbourhoods have several advantages as an area for policy analysis as well as an arena for social action:
But in addition to these benefits, considerable research indicates that strong and cohesive neighbourhoods and communities are linked –quite possibly causally linked – to decreases in crime, better outcomes for children, and improved physical and mental health. The social support that a strong neighbourhood may provide can serve as a buffer against various forms of adversity.
Good starting places for documentation of these effects can be found in the evidence reviewed by Robert Putnam in Bowling Alone (Simon & Schuster, 2000), and by Robert Sampson in the Annual Review of Sociology, 2002.
For all these reasons, both social scientists and activists may be rewarded by neighbourhood study and involvement. For further description of community benefits, plus guidance for and examples of successful neighbourhood action, see also the section on Promoting Neighborhood Action (Chapter 26, Section 12) in the Community Tool Box, online at http://ctb.ku.edu.
There is some evidencethat neighbourhoods tend to form personalities based upon certain sociological characteristics of the female inhabitants.
In the mainland of the People's Republic of China, the term is generally used for the urban administrative division found immediately below the district level, although an intermediate, subdistrict level exists in some cities. Komshi (komşu " Neighbor " or Komšiluk denotes the neighborhood in the Balkans. Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Examples of administrative divisions English terms In many of the following terms corresponding to British cultural influence areas of relatively low mean population They are also called streets (administrative terminology may vary from city to city). Neighbourhoods encompass 2,000 to 10,000 families. Within neighbourhoods, families are grouped into smaller residential units or quarters of 100 to 600 families and supervised by a residents' committee; these are subdivided into residents' small groups of fifteen to forty families. A residential community is a Community, usually a small Town or City, that is composed mostly of residents, as opposed to commercial A residential community is a Community, usually a small Town or City, that is composed mostly of residents, as opposed to commercial In most urban areas of China, neighbourhood, community, residential community, residential unit, residential quarter have the same meaning: 社区 or 小区 or 居民区 or 居住区, and is the direct sublevel of a subdistrict (街道办事处), which is the direct sublevel of a district (区), which is the direct sublevel of a city (市). A residential community is a Community, usually a small Town or City, that is composed mostly of residents, as opposed to commercial Subdistrict is a low level Administrative division of a country Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status (See Political divisions of China)
In Canada and the United States, neighbourhoods are often given official or semi-official status through neighbourhood associations, neighbourhood watches, or block watches. See also Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Due to China 's large Population and area the political divisions of China have consisted Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A homeowners' association (abbrev HOA) may be A legal entity created by a real estate developer for the purpose of developing managing and selling a community A neighborhood watch (also called a crime watch or neighborhood crime watch) is a organized group of citizens devoted to Crime and Vandalism These may regulate such matters as lawn care and fence height, and they may provide such services as block parties, neighbourhood parks, and community security. A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes Clover and other plants which are maintained at a low even height A fence is a freestanding structure designed to restrict or prevent movement across a boundary A block party is a large public celebration in which many members of a single Neighborhood congregate either to observe an event of some importance or simply A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human Security is the condition of being protected against danger loss and criminals In some other places the equivalent organisation is the parish, though a parish may have several neighbourhoods within it depending on the area. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches
In localities where neighbourhoods do not have an official status, questions can arise as to where one neighbourhood begins and another ends. Many cities may use districts and wards as official divisions of the city, rather than traditional neighbourhood boundaries.
The term has no official or statistical purpose in the United Kingdom, but is often used as a generic term to refer to a small area within a town or city. The label is commonly used to refer to organisations which relate to such a very local structure, such as neighbourhood policing or Neighbourhood watch schemes. The Neighbourhood Watch scheme in the United Kingdom is a partnership where people come together to make their communities safer
In addition, government statistics for local areas are often referred to as neighbourhood statistics, although the data themselves are broken down usually into districts and wards for local purposes. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. In Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, a ward is an Electoral district