|Publisher||Nature Publishing Group (United Kingdom)|
|Publication history||1869 to present|
Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on November 4, 1869. An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of Knowledge which is taught or Researched at the college or university level In Academia, Pedagogy, Physical sciences, Earth sciences, Human sciences and Social sciences Nature Publishing Group (NPG is an international Publishing company that publishes Scientific journals It is a division The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located An International Standard Serial Number ( ISSN) is a unique eight-digit number used to identify a print or electronic Periodical publication. For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Although most scientific journals are now highly specialized, Nature is one of the few journals, along with other weekly journals such as Science and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that still publishes original research articles across a wide range of scientific fields. Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding In many fields of scientific research, important new advances and original research are published as articles or letters in Nature. An article is a stand-alone section of a larger written work These nonfictional Prose compositions appear in Magazines Newspapers Academic journals
Research scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but summaries and accompanying articles make many of the most important papers understandable for the general public and to scientists in other fields. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices Toward the front of each issue are editorials, news and feature articles on issues of general interest to scientists, including current affairs, science funding, business, scientific ethics and research breakthroughs. An editorial, leader (UK or leading article (UK is an article in a Newspaper or Magazine that expresses the opinion of the Editor Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life There are also sections on books and arts. The remainder of the journal consists mostly of research articles, which are often dense and highly technical. Due to strict limits on the length of articles, in many cases the printed text is actually a summary of the work in question with many details relegated to accompanying supplementary material on the journal's website.
Nineteenth-century Britain was home to a great deal of scientific progress; particularly in the latter half of the 19th century, Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances.  The most respected scientific journals of this time were the refereed journals of the Royal Society, which had published many of the great works from Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday through to early works from Charles Darwin. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Michael Faraday, FRS ( September 22 1791 – August 25 1867) was an English Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the 1850s to the 1860s.  According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as “organs of science,” in essence, a means of connecting the public to the scientific world. 
Nature, first created in 1869, was not the first magazine of its kind. One journal to precede Nature was titled Recreative Science: A Record and Remembrancer of Intellectual Observation, which, created in 1859, began as a natural history magazine and progressed to include more physical observational science and technical subjects and less natural history.  The journal’s name changed from its original title to Intellectual Observer: A Review of Natural History, Microscopic Research, and Recreative Science and then later to the Student and Intellectual Observer of Science, Literature, and Art.  While Recreative Science had attempted to include more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology, the Intellectual Observer broadened itself further to include literature and art as well.  Similar to Recreative Science was the scientific journal titled Popular Science Review, created in 1862, which covered different fields of science by creating subsections titled ‘Scientific Summary’ or ‘Quarterly Retrospect,’ with book reviews and commentary on the latest scientific works and publications.  Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were titled the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, founded in 1864 and 1868, respectively.  The journal most closely related to Nature in its editorship and format was titled The Reader, created in 1864; the publication mixed science with literature and art in an attempt to reach an audience outside of the scientific community, similar to Popular Science Review. 
These similar journals all ultimately failed. The Popular Science Review was the longest to survive, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in 1881; Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student and Intellectual Observer in 1871. The Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in 1885. The Reader terminated in 1867, and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, until June 1870. 
Not long after the conclusion of The Reader, a former editor, Norman Lockyer, decided to create a new scientific journal titled Nature. Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, FRS ( May 17, 1836 &ndash August 16, 1920) was an English scientist and astronomer  First owned and published by Alexander MacMillan, Nature was similar to its predecessors in its attempt to “provide cultivated readers with an accessible forum for reading about advances in scientific knowledge. ” Janet Browne has proposed that “far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived, born, and raised to serve polemic purpose. ” Many of the early editions of Nature consisted of articles written by members of a group that called itself the X Club, a group of scientists known for having liberal, progressive, and somewhat controversial scientific beliefs relative to the time period. The X Club was a Dining club of nine men who supported the theories of Natural selection and academic liberalism in late 19th century England.  Initiated by Thomas Henry Huxley, the group consisted of such important scientists as Joseph Hooker, Herbert Spencer, and John Tyndall, along with another five scientists and mathematicians; these scientists were all avid supporters of Darwin’s theory of evolution, a theory which, during the latter-half of the 19th century, received a great deal of criticism among more conservative groups of scientists. Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895 was an English Biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy Joseph Hooker ( November 13, 1814 &ndash October 31, 1879) was a career United States Army officer fought in the Mexican-American Herbert Spencer ( April 27, 1820 – December 8, 1903) was an English Philosopher; prominent classical liberal John Tyndall FRS ( August 2, 1820 &ndash December 4, 1893) was a prominent 19th century Irish Physicist.  Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors. John Maddox, editor of Nature from 1966 to 1973 as well as from 1980 to 1995, suggested at a celebratory dinner for the journal’s centennial edition that perhaps it was the journalistic qualities of Nature that drew readers in; “journalism” Maddox states, “is a way of creating a sense of community among people who would otherwise be isolated from each other. Sir John Royden Maddox (born 27 November, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea, Wales) a trained Chemist and Physicist This is what Lockyer’s journal did from the start. ” In addition, Maddox mentions that the financial backing of the journal in its first years by the Macmillan family also allowed the journal to flourish and develop more freely than scientific journals before it. 
Nature underwent a great deal of development and expansion during the 20th century, particularly during the latter half of the 90's.
In 1919, Sir Richard Gregory followed Sir Norman Lockyer to become the second editor of the journal. Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, FRS ( May 17, 1836 &ndash August 16, 1920) was an English scientist and astronomer  Gregory helped to establish Nature in the international scientific community. His obituary by the Royal Society stated: “Gregory was always very interested in the international contacts of science, and in the columns of Nature he always gave generous space to accounts of the activities of the International Scientific Unions. ” During the years 1945 to 1973, editorship of Nature changed three times, first to A. J. V. Gale and L. J. F. Brimble in 1945 (who in 1958 became the sole editor), then to Sir John Maddox in 1965, and finally to David Davies in 1973. Sir John Royden Maddox (born 27 November, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea, Wales) a trained Chemist and Physicist  In 1980, Sir John Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until 1995. Sir John Royden Maddox (born 27 November, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea, Wales) a trained Chemist and Physicist Dr. Philip Campbell has since become Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications. Dr Philip Campbell is the Editor -in-Chief of Nature, the prominent Scientific journal and is also Editor-in-Chief of Nature publications within 
In 1970, Nature first opened its Washington office; other branches opened in New York in 1985, Tokyo and Munich in 1987, Paris in 1989, San Francisco in 2001, and Boston in 2004. Starting in the 1980’s, the journal underwent a great deal of expansion, launching over ten new journals. These new journals comprise the Nature Publishing Group, which was created in 1999 and includes Nature, Nature Research Journals, Stockton Press Specialist Journals and Macmillan Reference (renamed NPG Reference).
In 1997, Nature created its own website, www. nature. com, and in 1999 Nature Publishing Group began its series of Nature Reviews.  Some articles and papers are available for free on the Nature Web site. Others require the purchase of premium access to the site.
Nature claims a readership of over 300,000 senior scientists and executives and over 600,000 total readers. The journal has a circulation of around 65,000 but studies have concluded that on average the journal is shared by as many as 10 people. 
Having an article published in Nature is very prestigious, and the articles are often highly cited, which can lead to promotions, grant funding, and attention from the mainstream media. Because of these positive feedback effects, competition among scientists to publish in high-level journals like Nature and its closest competitor, Science, can be very fierce. Positive feedback, sometimes referred to as "cumulative causation" is a Feedback loop system in which the system responds to perturbation in the same direction Nature's impact factor, a measure of how many citations a journal generates in other works, was 29. The impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the Citations to science and social science journals. 273 in 2005 (as measured by Thomson ISI), among the highest of any science journal. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960.
As with most other professional scientific journals, articles undergo an initial screening by the editor, followed by peer review (in which other scientists, chosen by the editor for expertise with the subject matter but who have no connection to the research under review, will read and critique articles), before publication. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are In the case of Nature, they are only sent for review if it is decided that they deal with a topical subject and are sufficiently ground-breaking in that particular field. As a consequence, the majority of submitted articles are rejected without review.
According to Nature's mission statement:
It is intended, FIRST, to place before the general public the grand results of Scientific Work and Scientific Discovery; and to urge the claims of Science to a more general recognition in Education and in Daily Life; and, SECONDLY, to aid Scientific men themselves, by giving early information of all advances made in any branch of Natural knowledge throughout the world, and by affording them an opportunity of discussing the various Scientific questions which arise from time to time. A mission statement is a brief statement of the purpose of a Company, Organization, or Group.
Many of the most significant scientific breakthroughs in modern history have been first published in Nature. The following is a selection of scientific breakthroughs published in Nature, all of which had far-reaching consequences, and the citation for the article in which they were published.
Due to the intense competition to publish in Nature and the subsequent large volumes of submitted manuscripts, errors and irregularities in peer review are inevitable. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are There are a number of well-known cases in Nature where such anomalies in the peer-review process occurred.
A series of five fraudulent papers by Jan Hendrik Schön were published in Nature in the 2000-2001 period. Jan Hendrik Schön (born 1970 is a German Physicist who briefly rose to prominence after a series of apparent breakthroughs that were later discovered to be fraudulent The papers, about superconductivity, were revealed to contain falsified data and other scientific fraud. Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain Materials generally at very low Temperatures characterized by exactly zero electrical resistance In 2003 the papers were retracted by Nature. The Schön Scandal was not limited to Nature. Other prominent journals such as Science and Physical Review retracted Schön's papers. Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific Physical Review (frequently abbreviated as Phys Rev) is one of the oldest and most-respected Scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of 
Before publishing one of its most famous discoveries, Watson and Crick's 1953 paper on the structure of DNA, Nature did not send the paper out for peer review at all. The Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid was an article published by James D John Maddox, Nature's editor, stated that "the Watson and Crick paper was not peer-reviewed by Nature. Sir John Royden Maddox (born 27 November, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea, Wales) a trained Chemist and Physicist . . the paper could not have been refereed: its correctness is self-evident. No referee working in the field . . . could have kept his mouth shut once he saw the structure. . . "
An earlier error occurred when Enrico Fermi submitted his breakthrough paper on the weak interaction theory of beta decay. In Nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of Radioactive decay in which a Beta particle (an Electron or a Positron) is emitted Nature turned down the paper because it was considered too remote from reality.  Fermi's paper was published by Zeitschrift für Physik in 1934, and finally published by Nature 5 years later, after Fermi's work had been widely accepted. The Zeitschrift für Physik (Journal of Physics was a German Academic journal published from 1920 until 1997 
When Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for research initially rejected by Nature and published only after Lauterbur appealed the rejection,Nature acknowledged more of its own missteps in rejecting papers in an editorial titled "Coping with Peer Rejection":
Nature is edited and published in the United Kingdom by Nature Publishing Group, a subsidiary of Macmillan Publishers which in turn is owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Nature Publishing Group (NPG is an international Publishing company that publishes Scientific journals It is a division Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held International Publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Verlagsgruppe Georg von Holtzbrinck is a Stuttgart -based Publishing holding company which owns publishing companies worldwide Nature has offices in London, New York City, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Boston, Tokyo, Paris, Munich, and Basingstoke. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The City of New York The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Basingstoke is a town in northeast Hampshire, England It lies across a Valley at the source of the River Loddon. Nature Publishing Group also publishes other specialized journals including Nature Neuroscience, Nature Biotechnology, Nature Methods, the Nature Clinical Practice series of journals, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology and the Nature Reviews series of journals. Nature Neuroscience is a Scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group, the publisher of Nature.
In 2007, Nature Publishing Group began publishing Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, “the official journal of the American Society of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics,”; Molecular Therapy, the American Society of Gene Therapy’s official journal, as well as and the International Society for Microbial Ecology (ISME) Journal. Nature Publishing Group launched Nature Photonics in 2007 and Nature Geoscience in 2008. Nature Chemistry is slated to commence publication in 2009.
Nature Publishing Group actively supports the self-archiving process and in 2002 was one of the first publishers to allow authors to post their contributions on their personal websites, by requesting an exclusive licence to publish, rather than requiring authors to transfer copyright. In December 2007, Nature Publishing Group introduced the Creative Commons attribution-non commercial-share alike unported licence for those articles in Nature journals that are publishing the primary sequence of an organism's genome for the first time.