Nature, in the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. "Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. A phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν, pl φαινόμενα - phenomena) is any observable occurrence Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism Manufactured objects and human interaction are not considered part of nature unless qualified in ways such as "human nature" or "the whole of nature". Human nature is the concept that there are a set of logical characteristics including ways of thinking feeling and acting that all 'normal' human beings have in common Nature is generally distinguished from the supernatural. The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events It ranges in scale from the subatomic to the galactic. A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite Particle smaller than an Atom. A galaxy is a massive gravitationally bound system consisting of Stars an Interstellar medium of gas and dust, and Dark matter
The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "the course of things, natural character. " Natura was a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. Physis (grc φύσις is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as " Nature "  This is shown in the first written use of the word φύσις, in connection with a plant.  The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy This usage was confirmed during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena 
Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" may refer to the general realm of various types of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects – the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth, and the matter and energy of which all these things are composed. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness – wild animals, rocks, forest, beaches, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the latter being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human or human-like consciousness or mind. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Consciousness has been defined loosely as a constellation of attributes of Mind such as Subjectivity, Self-awareness, Sentience, and the MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The word nature means the universe, with all its phenomena.  Natura was a Latin translation of the Greek word physis (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. Physis (grc φύσις is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as " Nature "  The word φύσις occurs very early in Greek philosophy, generally in similar senses to those of the modern English word nature.  This is shown in the first written use of the word φύσις, in connection with a plant by Homer. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the  The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy This usage was confirmed during the advent of modern scientific method. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), for example, is translated "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" often Principia The etymology of the word "physical" shows its use as a synonym for "natural" in about the mid-15th century. 
Earth (or, "the earth") is the only planet known to support life, and as such, its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences) is an all-embracing term for the Sciences related to the planet The interior of Earth, similar to the other Terrestrial planets, is Chemically divided into layers Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Within the solar system, it is third nearest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. A terrestrial planet, telluric planet or rocky planet is a Planet that is primarily composed of Silicate rocks Within our Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of  Precipitation varies widely with location, from several metres of water per year to less than a millimetre. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to About 70 percent of the surface is covered by salt-water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'
Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates, which have changed relatively quickly several times. In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere The interior remains active, with a thick layer of molten mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field. The mantle is a part of an Astronomical object. The interior of the Earth, similar to the other Terrestrial planets, is Chemically divided In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges
The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of lifeforms, which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods, and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the 
Earth is estimated to have formed 4. 55 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and other planets. The formation and evolution of the Solar System is estimated to have begun  The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten, the outer layer of the planet cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Condensing water vapor, augmented by ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans. General properties of water vapor Evaporation/sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface it is said to have evaporated Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia A comet is a small Solar System body that orbits the Sun and when close enough to the Sun exhibits a visible coma (atmosphere or a tail — The question of the origin of water on Earth, or more accurately put the question of why there is clearly more Water on the Earth than on the other planets of the Solar  The highly energetic chemistry is believed to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago. 
Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. In Geology, a supercontinent is a Landmass comprising more than one Continental core or Craton. Roughly 750 million years ago, the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break apart. For the Genus of Metalmark butterflies, see Rodinia (butterfly. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart about 180 million years ago. Pannotia, first described by Ian W D Dalziel in 1997 is a hypothetical Supercontinent that existed from the Pan-African orogeny about 600 million years ago to the Pangaea, Pangæa or Pangea (pænˈdʒiːə from παν pan, meaning entire, and Γαῖα Gaea, meaning Earth in 
There is significant evidence, still being discussed among scientists, that a severe glacial action during the Neoproterozoic era covered much of the planet in a sheet of ice. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1000 to 542 +/- 0 This hypothesis has been termed the "Snowball Earth", and it is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion in which multicellular life forms began to proliferate about 530-540 million years ago. The Snowball Earth Hypothesis as it was originally proposed]] Evidence The Snowball Earth hypothesis was originally devised to explain the apparent presence of The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was the seemingly rapid appearance of most major groups of complex Animals around, as evidenced by the 
Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions. The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was the seemingly rapid appearance of most major groups of complex Animals around, as evidenced by the An extinction event (also known as mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE is a sharp decrease in the number of Species in a relatively short period  The last mass extinction occurred some 65 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals, which then resembled shrews. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Over the past 65 million years, mammalian life diversified. 
Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright.  The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the Earth more rapidly than any previous life form, affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements By comparison, the Oxygen Catastrophe, produced by the proliferation of algae during the Siderian period, required about 300 million years to culminate. The Oxygen Catastrophe was a massive environmental change believed to have happened during the Siderian period at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic The Siderian (saɪˈdɪəriən sideros meaning "iron" is the first Geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2500 )
The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred. The Holocene extinction event is the widespread ongoing Mass extinction of Species during the modern Holocene epoch.  Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years. Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist researcher ( Sociobiology, Biodiversity) theorist ( The biosphere is the broadest level of ecological study the global sum of all Ecosystems.  The extent of the current extinction event is still being researched, debated and calculated by biologists. 
The atmosphere of the Earth serves as a key factor in sustaining the planetary ecosystem. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by the planet's gravity. This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Dry air consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and other inert gases, carbon dioxide, etc. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. "Inert gases" is also used in a narrower sense for Noble gases An inert gas is any Gas that is not reactive with elements ; but air also contains a variable amount of water vapor. General properties of water vapor Evaporation/sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface it is said to have evaporated The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude, and has a scale height of about 8 kilometres at the Earth's surface: the height at which the atmospheric pressure has declined by a factor of e (a mathematical constant equal to 2. A scale height is a term often used in scientific contexts for a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The Mathematical constant e is the unique Real number such that the function e x has the same value as the slope of the tangent line 71. . . ).  The ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were worked out by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930 Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes.
Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. It contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and almost all of its Water vapor and Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. The term thermohaline circulation (THC refers to the part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is thought to be driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder.
Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding In Meteorology, a cyclone refers to an area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals dependent on its growth for their food.
The planetary climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the planet's orbit. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences The albedo of an object is the extent to which it diffusely reflects light from the sun Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets
The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes. A tropical climate is a kind of Climate typical in the Tropics. Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers (specifically no month having an average temperature of 10 °C or higher Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane. A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 A rotation is a movement of an object in a circular motion A two- Dimensional object rotates around a center (or point) of rotation In Astronomy, axial tilt is the Inclination angle of a planet's rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. The orbital plane of an object orbiting another is the geometrical plane in which the orbit is embedded. Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the planet is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons. Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' Southern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is South of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'
Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is currently limited to only a few days. In Mathematics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain dynamical systems – that is systems whose state evolves with time – that may exhibit dynamics that See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary Overall, two things are currently happening worldwide: (1) temperature is increasing on the average; and (2) regional climates have been undergoing noticeable changes. 
Although there is no universal agreement on the definition of life, scientists generally accept that the biological manifestation of life is characterized by organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli and reproduction. Reproduction is the Biological process by which new individual Organisms are produced Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism The biosphere is the broadest level of ecological study the global sum of all Ecosystems. Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. The term cell growth is used in two different ways in Biology. An adaptation is a characteristic of an Organism that has been favored by Natural selection and In Physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment Reproduction is the Biological process by which new individual Organisms are produced  Life may also be said to be simply the characteristic state of organisms.
Properties common to terrestrial organisms (plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea and bacteria) are that they are cellular, carbon-and-water-based with complex organization, having a metabolism, a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Protists (ˈproʊtɨst are a diverse group of eukaryotic Microorganisms Historically protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have An entity with these properties is generally considered life. However, not every definition of life considers all of these properties to be essential. Human-made analogs of life may also be considered to be life. Artificial life (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine Systems related to Life, its processes
The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer shell — including air, land, surface rocks and water — within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. The biosphere is the broadest level of ecological study the global sum of all Ecosystems. From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere (air). Geophysiology ( Geo, Earth + Physiology, the study of living bodies is the study of interaction among living organisms on the Earth operating The lithosphere (IPA, from the Greek λίθος for "rocky" + σφαίρα for "sphere" is the solid outermost shell of a rocky Planet. A hydrosphere (from Greek ύδωρ - hydor, " Water " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " Currently the entire Earth contains over 75 billion tons (150 trillion pounds or about 6. 8 x 1013 kilograms) of biomass (life), which lives within various environments within the biosphere. Biomass, in Ecology, is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or Ecosystem at a given time 
Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is plant life, on which animal life depends very heavily for its existence.  More than 2 million species of plant and animal life have been identified to date, and estimates of the actual number of existing species range from several million to well over 50 million.  The number of individual species of life is constantly in some degree of flux, with new species appearing and others ceasing to exist on a continual basis.  The total number of species is presently in rapid decline. 
Life, as we understand it, is currently only known to exist on the planet Earth. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 The origin of life is still a poorly understood process, but it is thought to have occurred about 3. In the Natural sciences, Abiogenesis, or origin of life, is the study of how Life on Earth emerged from Inanimate Organic 9 to 3. 5 billion years ago during the hadean or archean eons on a primordial earth that had a substantially different environment than is found at present. The Hadean (ˈheɪdiən is the geologic eon before the Archean.  These life forms possessed the basic traits of self-replication and inheritable traits. Once life had appeared, the process of evolution by natural selection resulted in the formation of ever-more diverse life forms. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of
Species that were unable to adapt to the changing environment and competition from other life forms became extinct. However, the fossil record retains evidence of many of these older species. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. Current fossil and DNA evidence shows that all existing species can trace a continual ancestry back to the first primitive life forms. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known 
The advent of photosynthesis in very basic forms of plant life worldwide allowed the sun's energy to be harvested to create conditions allowing for more complex life. Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. The resultant oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere and gave rise to the ozone layer. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were worked out by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930 The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of yet more complex cells called eukaryotes. The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and Plastids (e Animals Plants fungi, and Protists are eukaryotes (juːˈkærɪɒt or -oʊt Organisms whose cells are organized into complex  Cells within colonies became increasingly specialized, resulting in true multicellular organisms. With the ozone layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation, life colonized the surface of Earth. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays
The first form of life to develop on the Earth were microbes, and they remained the only form of life on the planet until about a billion years ago when multi-cellular organisms began to appear. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually  Microorganisms are single-celled organisms that are generally smaller than the human eye can see. They include Bacteria, Fungi, Archaea and Protista.
These life forms are found in almost every location on the Earth where there is liquid water, including the interior of rocks within the planet.  Their reproduction is both rapid and profuse. The combination of a high mutation rate and a horizontal gene transfer ability makes them highly adaptable, and able to survive in new environments, including outer space. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies.  They form an essential part of the planetary ecosystem. However some microorganisms are pathogenic and can post health risk to other organisms. A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious
The distinction between plant and animal life is not sharply drawn, with some categories of life that stand between or across the two. Originally Aristotle divided all living things between plants, which generally do not move, and animals. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Plantae) and Animalia. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for In biological Taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a Taxonomic rank in either (historically the highest rank or (in the new three-domain system Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts. Bacterial life is sometimes included in flora, and some classifications use the term bacterial flora separately from plant flora.
Among the many ways of classifying plants are by regional floras, which, depending on the purpose of study, can also include fossil flora, remnants of plant life from a previous era. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all People in many regions and countries take great pride in their individual arrays of characteristic flora, which can vary widely across the globe due to differences in climate and terrain. Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface.
Regional floras commonly are divided into categories such as native flora and agricultural and garden flora, the latter of which are intentionally grown and cultivated. Some types of "native flora" actually have been introduced centuries ago by people migrating from one region or continent to another, and become an integral part of the native, or natural flora of the place to which they were introduced. This is an example of how human interaction with nature can blur the boundary of what is considered nature.
Another category of plant has historically been carved out for weeds. Though the term has fallen into disfavor among botanists as a formal way to categorize "useless" plants, the informal use of the word "weeds" to describe those plants that are deemed worthy of elimination is illustrative of the general tendency of people and societies to seek to alter or shape the course of nature. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Similarly, animals are often categorized in ways such as domestic, farm animals, wild animals, pests, etc. according to their relationship to human life.
Animals as a category have several characteristics that generally set them apart from other living things, though not traced by scientists to having legs or wings instead of roots and leaves. Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular (although see Myxozoa), which separates them from bacteria, archaea and most protists. Animals Plants fungi, and Protists are eukaryotes (juːˈkærɪɒt or -oʊt Organisms whose cells are organized into complex Multicellular organisms are Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having Differentiated cells that perform specialized functions The Myxozoa ( Etymology: Greek: myx- "slime" or "mucus" + zoa "animals" are a group of parasitic The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Protists (ˈproʊtɨst are a diverse group of eukaryotic Microorganisms Historically protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this They are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. A heterotrophs, or chemoorganotrophy ( Greek heterone = (another and trophe = nutrition is an Organism that requires Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ A cell wall is a tough flexible and sometimes fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the Cell membrane, which provides the cell with structural
With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera), animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus "pore" and ferre "to bear" are Animals Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism These include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and a nervous system, which sends and processes signals. Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself There is also typically an internal digestive chamber. Digestion is the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed The eukaryotic cells possessed by all animals are surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. Collagen is the main Protein of Connective tissue in Animals and the most abundant protein in Mammals making up about 50% of the whole-body protein Not to be confused with Peptidoglycan. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain Oligosaccharide chains ( Glycans) covalently attached This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and spicules, a framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganized during development and maturation, and which supports the complex anatomy required for mobility. Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce This article is about the skeletal structure See also Spicule (solar physics and Spicule (glass manufacture.
All forms of life interact with the environment in which they exist, and also with other life forms. Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( In the 20th century this premise gave rise to the concept of ecosystems, which can be defined as any situation where there is interaction between organisms and their environment.
Ecosystems are composed of a variety of abiotic and biotic components that function in an interrelated way. In Biology, abiotic components are non-living Chemical and Physical factors in the environment.  The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors that are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem. Some of the more important components are: soil, atmosphere, radiation from the sun, water, and living organisms.
Each living organism has a continual relationship with every other element that makes up its environment. Within the ecosystem, species are connected and dependent upon one another in the food chain, and exchange energy and matter between themselves as well as with their environment. Food chains, also called food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an Ecosystem. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. 
Every species has limits of tolerance to factors that affect its survival, reproductive success and ability to continue to thrive and interact sustainably with the rest of its environment, which in turn may have effects on these factors for many other species or even on the whole of life. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.  The concept of an ecosystem is thus an important subject of study, as such study provides information needed to make decisions about how human life may interact in a way that allows the various ecosystems to be sustained for future use rather than used up or otherwise rendered ineffective. For the purpose of such study, a unit of smaller size is called a microecosystem. Microecosystems can exist in locations which are precisely defined by critical environmental factors within small or tiny spaces For example, an ecosystem can be a stone and all the life under it. A macroecosystem might involve a whole ecoregion, with its drainage basin. An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or " A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, 
The following ecosystems are examples of the kinds currently under intensive study:
Another classification can be made by reference to its communities, such as in the case of a human ecosystem. Human ecosystems are complex cybernetic systems that are increasingly being used by Ecological Anthropologists and other scholars to examine the ecological Regional groupings of distinctive plant and animals best adapted to the region's physical natural environment, latitude, altitude, and terrain are known as biomes. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar climatic conditions such as communities of Plants Animals and The broadest classification, today under wide study and analysis, and also subject to widespread arguments about its nature and validity, is that of the entire sum of life seen as analogous to a self-sustaining organism; a theory studied as earth system science (less formally known as Gaia theory). Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences) is an all-embracing term for the Sciences related to the planet The Gaia hypothesis is an ecological Hypothesis proposing that the Biosphere and the physical components of the Earth ( Atmosphere 
Although humans currently comprise only about one-half of one percent of the total living biomass on Earth, the human effect on nature is disproportionately large (thus generating the appearance of such terms as man-nature continuum, humanized nature or human environment). Because of the extent of human influence, the boundaries between what we regard as nature and "made environments" is not clear cut except at the extremes. Even at the extremes, the amount of natural environment that is free of discernible human influence is presently diminishing at an increasingly rapid pace, or, according to some, has already disappeared.
The development of technology by the human race has allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources and has helped to alleviate some of the risk from natural hazards. In spite of this progress, however, the fate of human civilization remains closely linked to changes in the environment. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements There exists a highly complex feedback-loop between the use of advanced technology and changes to the environment that are only slowly becoming understood.  Manmade threats to the Earth's natural environment include pollution, deforestation, and disasters such as oil spills. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Humans have contributed to the extinction of many plants and animals. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa.
Humans employ nature for both leisure and economic activities. The acquisition of natural resources for industrial use remains the primary component of the world's economic system. Some activities, such as hunting and fishing, are used for both sustenance and leisure, often by different people. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Agriculture was first adopted around the 9th millennium BCE. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period Ranging from food production to energy, nature influences economic wealth. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός
Although early humans gathered uncultivated plant materials for food and employed the medicinal properties of vegetation for healing, most modern human use of plants is through agriculture. The clearance of large tracts of land for crop growth has led to a significant reduction in the amount available of forestation and wetlands, resulting in the loss of habitat for many plant and animal species as well as increased erosion. 
Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been directly modified by human activity. Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Ecologists consider wilderness areas to be an integral part of the planet's self-sustaining natural ecosystem (the biosphere). Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( The biosphere is the broadest level of ecological study the global sum of all Ecosystems.
The word, "wilderness", derives from the notion of wildness; in other words that which is not controllable by humans. See also Wilderness Wildness is literally the quality of being wild or untamed, but further to this it has been defined as The word's etymology is from the Old English wildeornes, which in turn derives from wildeor meaning wild beast (wild + deor = beast, deer). Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time  From this point of view, it is the wildness of a place that makes it a wilderness. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness. " Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild. " This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without very noticeable human interference.
Beauty in nature has long been a common theme in life and in art, and books emphasizing beauty in nature fill large sections of libraries and bookstores. That nature has been depicted and celebrated by so much art, photography, poetry and other literature shows the strength with which many people associate nature and beauty. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing Why this association exists, and what the association consists of, is studied by the branch of philosophy called aesthetics. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Beyond certain basic characteristics that many philosophers agree about to explain what is seen as beautiful, the opinions are virtually endless. 
Looked at through the lens of the visual arts, nature and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography An early tradition of landscape art began in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). For the art of designing external spaces see Landscape architecture. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Tang Dynasty art ( Chinese: 唐朝艺术 Pinyin: Tángcháo Yìshù refers to the Art in China during the Tang Dynasty ( The tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art. Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world Artists learned to depict mountains and rivers "from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature … as if seen through the eyes of a bird. " In the 13th century, the Song Dynasty artist Shi Erji listed "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature," as one of the 12 things to avoid in painting. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 
In the Western world the idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the 1800s, especially in the works of the Romantic movement. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the British artists John Constable and JMW Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 John Constable ( 11 June 1776 &ndash 31 March 1837 Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775 &ndash 19 December 1851 was an English Romantic landscape painter, Watercolourist and Before that, paintings had been primarily of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, which had formerly been viewed as a threatening place. Increasingly the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture.  This artistic movement also coincided with the Transcendentalist movement in the Western world. Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in Literature, Religion, Culture, and Philosophy that emerged in New England in the
Many scientists, who study nature in more specific and organized ways, also share the conviction that nature is beautiful; the French mathematician, Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) said:
The scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful. Jules Henri Poincaré ( 29 April 1854 &ndash 17 July 1912) (ˈʒyl ɑ̃ˈʁi pwɛ̃kaˈʁe was a French Mathematician
If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth knowing, life would not be worth living. Of course I do not here speak of that beauty which strikes the senses, the beauty of qualities and of appearance; not that I undervalue such beauty, far from it, but it has nothing to do with science; I mean that profounder beauty which comes from the harmonious order of the parts and which a pure intelligence can grasp. 
A common classical idea of beautiful art involves the word mimesis, the imitation of nature. Mimesis ( μίμησις from μιμεîσθαι) is a critical and Philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings including Also in the realm of ideas about beauty in nature is that the perfect is implied through symmetry, equal division, and other perfect mathematical forms and notions. Plato 's Theory of Forms asserts that Forms (or Ideas) and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess
Some fields of science see nature as matter in motion, obeying certain laws of nature which science seeks to understand. Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element Hydrogen. The electrically neutral Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding For this reason the most fundamental science is generally understood to be "physics"—the name for which is still recognizable as meaning that it is the study of nature. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion.
Matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed. It constitutes the observable universe. In Big Bang Cosmology, the observable universe is the region of space bounded by a Sphere, centered on the observer that is small enough that The visible components of the universe are now believed to compose only 4 percent of the total mass. The remainder is believed to consist of 23 percent cold dark matter and 73 percent dark energy. In Physics and cosmology, dark matter is hypothetical Matter that does not interact with the electromagnetic force but whose presence can be inferred from In Physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical exotic form of Energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe  The exact nature of these components is still unknown and is currently under intensive investigation by physicists.
The behavior of matter and energy throughout the observable universe appears to follow well-defined physical laws. In Big Bang Cosmology, the observable universe is the region of space bounded by a Sphere, centered on the observer that is small enough that A physical law or scientific law is a Scientific generalization based on empirical Observations of physical behavior (i These laws have been employed to produce cosmological models that successfully explain the structure and the evolution of the universe we can observe. Physical cosmology, as a branch of Astronomy, is the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its The mathematical expressions of the laws of physics employ a set of twenty physical constants that appear to be static across the observable universe. A physical Constant is a Physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and constant in time  The values of these constants have been carefully measured, but the reason for their specific values remains a mystery.
Outer space, also simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " Outer space is used to distinguish it from airspace (and terrestrial locations). Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and Territorial waters or more generally any specific three-dimensional There is no discrete boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and space, as the atmosphere gradually attenuates with increasing altitude. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Outer space within the solar system is called interplanetary space, which passes over into interstellar space at what is known as the heliopause. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. The heliosphere is a bubble in space "blown" into the Interstellar medium (the hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the Galaxy) by the
Outer space is certainly spacious, but it is far from empty. Outer space is sparsely filled with several dozen types of organic molecules discovered to date by microwave spectroscopy, blackbody radiation left over from the big bang and the origin of the universe, and cosmic rays, which include ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles. Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by Rotational spectroscopy or microwave spectroscopy studies the absorption and emission Electromagnetic radiation (typically in the Microwave The Big Bang is the cosmological model of the Universe that is best supported by all lines of scientific evidence and Observation. For the 1962 Bruce Conner film see Cosmic Ray (film Cosmic rays are energetic particles originating from space that impinge on An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge The nucleus of an Atom is the very dense region consisting of Nucleons ( Protons and Neutrons, at the center of an atom A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite Particle smaller than an Atom. There is also some gas, plasma and dust, and small meteors. In Physics and Chemistry, plasma is an Ionized Gas, in which a certain proportion of Electrons are free rather than being bound Dust is a general name for minute Solid particles with Diameters less than 500 micrometers. Additionally, there are signs of human life in outer space today, such as material left over from previous manned and unmanned launches which are a potential hazard to spacecraft. Some of this debris re-enters the atmosphere periodically. Space debris or orbital debris, also called space junk and space waste are the objects in Orbit around Earth created by humans that no
Although the planet Earth is currently the only known body within the solar system to support life, current evidence suggests that in the distant past the planet Mars possessed bodies of liquid water on the surface.  For a brief period in Mars' history, it may have also been capable of forming life. At present though, most of the water remaining on Mars is frozen. If life exists at all on Mars, it is most likely to be located underground where liquid water can still exist. 
Conditions on the other terrestrial planets, Mercury and Venus, appears to be too harsh to support life as we know it. The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University But it has been conjectured that Europa, the fourth-largest moon of Jupiter, may possess a sub-surface ocean of liquid water and could potentially host life. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as 
Recently, the team of Stéphane Udry have discovered a new planet named Gliese 581 c, which is an extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581. Stéphane Udry (born 1961 in Sion Switzerland) is an astronomer at the University of Geneva in Switzerland, whose current work is primarily Gliese 581 c (ˈgliːzə is a " Super-earth " An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a Planet beyond the Solar System, orbiting around other Stars As of September 2008 312 According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red dwarf star is a small and relatively cool Star, of the Main sequence, either late K A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth Gliese 581 (ˈgliːzə is a Red dwarf Star with spectral type M3V located 20 Gliese 581 c appears to lay in the habitable zone of space surrounding the star, and therefore could possibly host life as we know it. In Astronomy a habitable zone ( HZ) is a region of space where conditions are favorable for Life as it may be found on Earth. A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth Life is a state that distinguishes Organisms from non-living objects such as non-life and dead organisms being manifested by growth through Metabolism