The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is Canada's leading organization for scientific research and development. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
The NRC was established in 1916 under the pressure of World War I to advise the government on matters of science and industrial research. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In 1932, laboratories were built on Sussex Street in Ottawa. Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality.
With the impetus of World War II, the NRC grew rapidly and for all practical purposes became a military science and weapons research organization. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It undertook a number of important projects, which included participation with the United States and Britain in the development of chemical and germ warfare agents, the explosive RDX, the proximity fuse, radar, and submarine detection techniques. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships A special branch know as the Examination Unit was involved with cryptology and the interception of enemy radio communications. The NRC was also engaged in atomic fission research at the Montreal Laboratory, then the Chalk River Laboratories Ontario. Tube Alloys was the code-name for the British Nuclear weapon directorate during World War II, when the very possibility of nuclear weapons was kept at such a high The Chalk River Laboratories (also known as CRL, Chalk River Labs and formerly the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, CRNL) is a Canadian
Post-WWII, the NRC reverted to its pre-war civilian role and a number of wartime activities were spun off to newly formed organizations. Military research continued under a new organization, the Defence Research Board. Defence Research and Development Canada, also Defence R&D Canada or DRDC ( Recherche & développement pour la défense Canada, R & D pour la défense Atomic research went to the newly created Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Foreign signal intelligence gathering was passed on to the newly created Communications Research Establishment. The Communications Security Establishment Canada ( CSEC or CSE) (Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications Canada ( CSTC or CST) is During the 1950s, the medical research funding activities of the NRC were handed over to the newly formed Medical Research Council of Canada. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. Finally, on May 1, 1978, with the rapid post-war growth of Canadian universities the NRC's role in university research funding in the natural sciences was passed to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC is a Canadian government division that provides grants for research in the Natural sciences
Under financial pressure in the 1980s, the federal government produced what popularly became known as the Neilson Report, which recommended across-the-board financial cuts to all federal government organizations, including the NRC. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. This led to staff and program cutbacks. Recovery was slow, but the NRC has managed to regain its status as Canada's single most important scientific and engineering research institution among many other Canadian government scientific research organizations. Expenditures by federal and provincial organizations on scientific research and development accounted for about 10% of all such spending in Canada in 2006
Today, much of the NRC's focus is on developing partnerships with private and public-sector technology companies, both nationally and internationally. The Council will be celebrating its centenary in 2016.
Some of the many innovations by NRC personnel included the artificial pacemaker, development of canola (rapeseed) in the 1940s, the Crash Position Indicator in the 1950s, and the Cesium Beam atomic clock in the 1960s. For other uses see Pacemaker (disambiguation A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s An atomic clock is a type of Clock that uses an Atomic resonance Frequency standard as its timekeeping element More recently, the NRC has been highly influential in the field of audio. A great deal of research at the NRC has gone into the designs of many popular speakers from Canadian speaker manufacturers like Energy Loudspeakers and Paradigm Electronics. History Paradigm is a Canadian company specializing in the production of in-wall on-wall and freestanding loudspeakers as well as subwoofers Some of their research has also influenced speaker designs around the world.
Specialized agencies and services which have branched out of the NRC include:
The NRC reports yearly within the Treasury Board Secretariat's Results-Based Management Framework. The Canadian Space Agency ( CSA or in French, l' Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the Canadian government Defence Research and Development Canada, also Defence R&D Canada or DRDC ( Recherche & développement pour la défense Canada, R & D pour la défense Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. The Communications Security Establishment Canada ( CSEC or CSE) (Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications Canada ( CSTC or CST) is The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC is a Canadian government division that provides grants for research in the Natural sciences The NRC is currently guided by a strategic plan for 2006-2011: Science at Work for Canada .
Close to 4,000 people across Canada are employed by the NRC. In addition, the Council also employs guest workers from universities, companies, and public and private-sector organizations. 
The NRC is managed by a governing council. Current members of the council are: Patricia Béretta, Louis Brunel, Pierre Coulombe (President and Chairman), Delwyn Fredlund, Wayne Gulliver, James Hatton, Joseph Hubert, Pascale Michaud, Gilles Patry, Alan Pelman, Louise Proulx, René Racine, Salma Rajwani, Inge Russell, Katherine Schultz, Barbara Stanley, Howard Tennant, Jean-Claude Villiard, and Louis Visentin.
According to the Canadian Security Intelligence Service website, the NRC headquarters in Ottawa "was a prime espionage target" during the Cold War. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service ( CSIS) (Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité ( SCRS) is the primary Intelligence agency of the Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the 
(CISTI includes NRC Research Press)