|Type||Public radio network|
|First air date||April 1971|
|Net income||US$18. Public broadcasting refers to radio television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A financial endowment is a Transfer of Money or Property donated to an Institution, usually with the stipulation that it be invested The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been In business revenue or revenues is Income that a company receives from its normal business activities usually from the sale of goods and services Net income is equal to the Income that a firm has after subtracting costs and Expenses from the total Revenue. 9 million|
|Owner||National Public Radio, Inc.|
|Key people||Kevin Klose, President|
John A. Kevin Klose (b Toronto, Ontario, Canada, c 1940 is the president of National Public Radio (NPR the United States' largest nonprofit Herrmann, Jr. , Foundation Chair
|Launch date||April 1971|
|Former names||Association of Public Radio Stations|
National Educational Radio Network
|Affiliation||World Radio Network|
National Public Radio (NPR) is a privately- and publicly-funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to public radio stations in the United States. The Association of Public Radio Stations was a radio network in the United States from 1973 to 1977 The National Educational Radio Network (NERN was a means of distributing radio programs in the United States between 1951 and 1970 WRN (formerly World Radio Network, is a private London, England–based company that provides transmission services for radio and television broadcasters worldwide In Broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast Radio shows and Television shows to multiple individual stations without going through Public broadcasting refers to radio television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  NPR was created in 1970, following congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, which established the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and also led to the creation of the Public Broadcasting Service. The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 ( set up Public broadcasting in the United States, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and eventually President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB is a private non-profit corporation created by an act of the United States Congress and partially funded by the United States The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the The network was founded in 1970 with 30 employees and 90 public radio stations as charter members.
Like its fellow public radio networks American Public Media and Public Radio International, NPR produces and distributes news and cultural programming. American Public Media is the second largest producer of public radio programs after National Public Radio. Public Radio International ( PRI) is a Minneapolis -based American Public radio organization with locations in Boston, New York Its member stations are not required to broadcast all these programs and most public radio stations broadcast programs from all three providers. Its flagships are two drive time news broadcasts, Morning Edition and the afternoon All Things Considered; both are carried by nearly all NPR member stations and in 2002 were second and third-most popular radio programs in the country. Drive time is Prime time for Radio Broadcasting. It consists of the morning hours when listeners wake up get ready and/or head to work or school and Morning Edition is an American Radio news program produced and distributed by National Public Radio (NPR All Things Considered (ATC is a news radio program in the United States broadcast on the National Public Radio network In a Harris poll conducted in 2005, NPR was voted the most trusted news source in the US. 
NPR was founded on February 24, 1970. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  It took over the National Educational Radio Network. The National Educational Radio Network (NERN was a means of distributing radio programs in the United States between 1951 and 1970 NPR hit the airwaves in April 1971 with coverage of the United States Senate hearings on the Vietnam War. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia All Things Considered debuted May 3, 1971, hosted by Robert Conley. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. NPR was primarily a production and distribution organization until 1977, when it merged with the Association of Public Radio Stations. The Association of Public Radio Stations was a radio network in the United States from 1973 to 1977 As a membership organization, NPR was now charged with providing stations with training, program promotion, and management; representing public radio before Congress; and providing content delivery mechanisms such as satellite delivery.
NPR suffered an almost fatal setback in 1983 when efforts to expand services created a deficit of nearly US$7 million. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been After a Congressional investigation and the resignation of NPR's president, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting agreed to lend the network money in order to stave off bankruptcy. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB is a private non-profit corporation created by an act of the United States Congress and partially funded by the United States  In exchange, NPR agreed to a new arrangement whereby the annual CPB stipend it had received directly would be divided among local stations instead; they then support NPR productions on a subscription basis. NPR also agreed to turn its satellite service into a cooperative venture, making it possible for non-NPR shows to get national distribution. It took NPR another three years to pay off all its debt. 
NPR is a membership corporation. Massachusetts Avenue, abbreviated Mass Ave, is a major diagonal transverse road in Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Member stations are required to be noncommercial or educational radio stations, have at least five full-time professional employees, operate for at least 18 hours per day, and not be designed solely to further a religious philosophy or be used for classroom programming. Each member station receives one vote at the annual NPR board meetings—exercised by its designated Authorized Station Representative ("A-Rep").
To oversee the day to day operations and prepare its budget, members elect a Board of Directors. This board is composed of ten A-Reps, five members of the general public, and the chair of the NPR Foundation. Terms are for three years and rotate such that some stand for election every year.
The original purposes of NPR, as ratified by the Board of Directors, are the following:
As of 2007, the Board of Directors of NPR included the following members:
On 2008-03-06, Ken Stern left his position as CEO by mutual agreement, after having lead NPR during its most lucrative decade. The Daily Me is a term coined by MIT Media Lab founder Nicholas Negroponte as a virtual daily newspaper customized for the individual tastes 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Ken Stern is a former Chief Executive Officer of National Public Radio. He was replaced on an interim basis by Dennis L. Haarsager. .
According to the 2005 financial statement, NPR makes just over half of its money from the fees and dues it charges member stations to receive programming, although some of this money originated at the CPB itself, in the form of pass-through grants to member stations.  About 2% of NPR's funding comes from bidding on government grants and programs, chiefly the Corporation for Public Broadcasting; the remainder comes from member station dues, foundation grants, and corporate underwriting. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB is a private non-profit corporation created by an act of the United States Congress and partially funded by the United States Typically, NPR member stations raise about one-third of their budget through on-air pledge drives, one-third from corporate underwriting, and one-third from grants from state governments, university grants, and grants from the CPB itself. A pledge drive is an extended period of Fundraising activities generally used by Public broadcasting stations to increase contributions
Over the years, the portion of the total NPR budget that comes from government has been decreasing. Budget (from French bougette, purse generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues During the 1970s and early 1980s, the majority of NPR funding came from the federal government. Steps were being taken during the 1980s to completely wean NPR from government support, but the 1983 funding crisis forced the network to make immediate changes. More money to fund the NPR network was raised from listeners, charitable foundations and corporations, and less from the federal government. A foundation is a legal categorization of Nonprofit organizations. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business
In contrast to commercial radio, NPR does not carry traditional commercials, but has advertising in the form of brief statements from major donors, such as Allstate, Merck, and Archer Daniels Midland. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand The Allstate Corporation is the largest publicly held personal lines insurer in the United States and the second-largest of all personal lines insurers in the Merck & Co Inc ( also known as Merck Sharp & Dohme or MSD outside the USA and Canada, is one of the largest Pharmaceutical companies The Archer Daniels Midland Company ( is a conglomerate based in Decatur Illinois. These statements are called "underwriting spots", not commercials, and, unlike commercials, are governed by FCC restrictions; they cannot advocate a product or contain any "call to action". An underwriting spot is an announcement made on Public broadcasting outlets especially in the United States in exchange for funding In 2005, corporate sponsorship made up 23% of the NPR budget.  Because NPR is not as dependent on revenue from underwriting spots as commercial stations are on revenue from advertising, its programming decisions may be less ratings-driven.
On November 6, 2003, NPR was given over US$225 million from the estate of the late Joan B. Kroc, the widow of Ray Kroc, founder of McDonald's Corporation. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Joan Beverly Kroc (born Mansfield) ( August 27, 1928 &ndash October 12, 2003) was the third wife of McDonald's CEO Ray Raymond Albert Kroc ( October 5, 1902 - January 14, 1984) took over the then small-scale McDonald's Corporation franchise in 1954 and This was a record—the largest monetary gift ever to a cultural institution.  For context, the 2003 annual budget of NPR was US$101 million. In 2004 that number increased by over 50% to US$153 million due to the Kroc gift, as the bequest required that US$34 million be spent to shore up operating reserves.  NPR has dedicated the earnings from the remainder of the bequest to expanding its news staff and reducing some member stations' fees. The 2005 budget was about US$120 million.
NPR's major production facilities have been based in Washington, D.C. since its creation. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D On November 2, 2002, a West Coast production facility, dubbed "NPR West", opened in Culver City, California. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000 See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States Culver City is a city in western Los Angeles County California. NPR opened NPR West to improve its coverage of the western United States, to expand its production capabilities (shows produced there include News & Notes and Day to Day), and to create a fully functional backup production facility capable of keeping NPR on the air in the event of a catastrophe in Washington. News & Notes is a National Public Radio program focusing on African American issues and issues affecting and all People of color. Day to Day (D2D is a one-hour weekday American radio Newsmagazine distributed by National Public Radio (NPR and produced by NPR in collaboration
According to a 2003 Washington Monthly story, about 20 million listeners tune into NPR each week. The Washington Monthly is a monthly Magazine of United States Politics and Government that is based in Washington D On average they are 50 years old and earn an annual income of US$78,000. Its audience is predominantly white; only about 10% are either African American or Hispanic. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent, which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America Many of its listeners consider NPR to be at the apex of journalistic integrity. Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people While Arbitron does track public radio listenership, they do not include public radio in their published rankings of radio stations. Arbitron ( is a Radio audience research company in the United States which collects listener data on radio audiences similar to that collected by Nielsen Media
NPR station generally do not subscribe to the Arbitron rating service and are not included in published ratings and rankings like Radio & Records. Radio & Records ( R&R) was a weekly trade magazine that tracked radio airplay from the various genres including pop country R&B and many others This market data is provided by Radio Research Consortium, a non-profit corporation which subscribes to the Aribtron service and distributes the data to NPR and other non-commercial stations and on its website. The Radio Research Consortium (RRC is a non-profit research company based in Olney Maryland which provides listener data on radio audiences to non-commercial stations 
In recent years, NPR has made some changes to appeal to younger listeners and to minority groups. From 2002 until 2004, Tavis Smiley hosted a show targeted towards African Americans, but left the network, claiming that the organization did not provide enough support to make his production truly successful. Tavis Smiley (born September 13, 1964) is an author journalist political commentator and Talk show host (Smiley returned to public radio in April 2005 with a weekly show distributed by PRI.) NPR stations have long been known for carrying classical music, but the amount of classical programming carried on NPR stations and other public radio outlets in the U. Public Radio International ( PRI) is a Minneapolis -based American Public radio organization with locations in Boston, New York Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music S. has been declining. Many stations have shifted toward carrying more news, while others have shifted to feature more contemporary music that attracts a younger audience.
NPR produces a morning and an afternoon news program, both of which also have weekend editions with different hosts. It also produces hourly news briefs around the clock. NPR formerly distributed the World Radio Network, a daily compilation of news reports from international radio news, but no longer does so. WRN (formerly World Radio Network, is a private London, England–based company that provides transmission services for radio and television broadcasters worldwide
Individual NPR stations can broadcast programming from sources that have no formal affiliation with NPR. Car Talk is a Radio Talk show broadcast weekly on National Public Radio stations throughout the United States and elsewhere Thomas Louis Magliozzi (or 'Click' was born in 1936 and is the older brother (to Ray Magliozzi) of Click and Clack The Tappet Brothers, the hosts of Raymond F Magliozzi (born ca 1948 is a co-host (with older brother Tom Magliozzi) of NPR 's weekly radio show Car Talk. WBUR refers to one of two stations in Massachusetts WBUR AM and FM both owned by Boston University. Dee Dee Bridgewater (born May 27, 1950) is an American Jazz Singer. WBGO (883 FM, "Jazz 88" is a public Radio station broadcasting from Newark New Jersey. WBUR refers to one of two stations in Massachusetts WBUR AM and FM both owned by Boston University. Piano Jazz is a weekly one hour radio show produced and distributed by National Public Radio. Marian McPartland (b March 20, 1918) born Margaret Marian Turner in Slough England, is a Jazz Pianist, Composer Says You! is a weekly entertainment program distributed by Pipit & Finch in the United States. WGBH-TV WGBH (897 FM MHz) is a Public radio station located in Boston Massachusetts. The Business is a weekly half hour show focusing on Film industry news from National Public Radio and KCRW, hosted by longtime film industry journalist The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking i KCRW (899 MHz FM) is a Public radio station broadcasting from the campus of Santa Monica College in Santa Monica California World Cafe is a two-hour long nationally syndicated music Radio program that originates from WXPN, a non-commercial station on the campus of the University WXPN (885 FM) is a non-commercial public Radio station operated by the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia that broadcasts KUHF is a public radio station serving Houston Texas. It operates on a frequency of 88 If these programs are distributed by another distributor, a public radio station must also affiliate with that network to take that network's programming.
Many shows produced or distributed by Public Radio International—such as This American Life , Living on Earth and Whad'Ya Know?—are broadcast on public radio stations, but are not affiliated with NPR. Public Radio International ( PRI) is a Minneapolis -based American Public radio organization with locations in Boston, New York This American Life ( TAL) is a weekly hour-long Radio program produced by Chicago Public Radio and hosted by Ira Glass. Living on Earth is a weekly hour-long and award-winning environmental news program distributed by Public Radio International. Whad'Ya Know? is an American comedy interview and quiz radio show created by host Michael Feldman in 1985. PRI and NPR are separate production and distribution organizations with distinct missions, and each competes with the other for programming slots on public radio stations.
Most public radio stations are NPR member stations and affiliate stations of PRI at the same time. The two organizations have different governance structures and missions and relationships with stations. Other popular shows, like A Prairie Home Companion and Marketplace, are produced by American Public Media, the national programming unit of Minnesota Public Radio. A Prairie Home Companion is a live Radio Variety show created and hosted by Garrison Keillor. Marketplace is a Radio program that focuses on business the economy and events that influence them American Public Media is the second largest producer of public radio programs after National Public Radio. Minnesota Public Radio ( MPR) a 501(c(3 non-profit organization is one of the premier Public radio stations producing programming for radio Internet These programs were distributed by Public Radio International prior to APM's founding. The Pacifica Radio Network also provides some programming to some NPR stations, notably the news program Democracy Now!. Pacifica Radio is a network of five independently operated non-commercial listener-supported Radio stations in the United States that is known for its progressive Democracy Now! is a syndicated program of news analysis and opinion aired by more than 700 Radio and Television, satellite Additionally, NPR member stations distribute a series of podcast-only programs, such as On Gambling with Mike Pesca, Groove Salad, and Youthcast, which are designed for younger audiences. A podcast is a series of audio or Video digital-media files which is distributed over the Internet by syndicated Download
In a December 2005 column run by NPR ombudsman and former Vice President Jeffrey Dvorkin denied allegations that NPR relies heavily on conservative think-tanks. An ombudsman ( English plural conventionally ombudsmen) is an official usually (but not always appointed by the government or by parliament who is charged with Jeffrey A Dvorkin (born September 15 1946 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada) is a Canadian - American Journalist. A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such  In his column, Dvorkin listed the number of times NPR had cited experts from conservative and liberal think tanks in the previous year. However, according to MediaMatters, the numbers he reported indicate an overwhelmingly conservative bias. Media Matters for America (or MMfA) is a 501(c(3 Non-profit organization founded in 2004 by Journalist and Author His own tally showed that 63% of NPR experts from think tanks came from from right-leaning organizations while only 37% came from left-leaning organizations. 
In 2003, some critics accused NPR of being supportive of the invasion of Iraq. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia 
NPR has been criticized for tailoring its content to the preferences of an audience drawn from a liberal "educated" audience. While members of NPR's audience are more likely to be college educated than those who listen to other radio outlets, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, progressive media watchdog group, disputes the claim of a liberal bias. Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting ( FAIR) is a progressive Media criticism organization based in New York City, founded in 1986 Media bias in the United States  A study conducted by researchers at UCLA and the University of Missouri found that while NPR is "often cited by conservatives as an egregious example of a liberal news outlet", "[b]y our estimate, NPR hardly differs from the average mainstream news outlet. The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United The University of Missouri (also known as the University of Missouri–Columbia, Mizzou, or MU) is a public land-grant and research Its score is approximately equal to those of Time, Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report and its score is slightly more conservative than The Washington Post's. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D " According to the study, NPR is more liberal than the average U. S. voter and more conservative than the average American Democrat.
The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA), a pro-Israel American media monitoring organization based in Boston, has been particularly critical of NPR. The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA is a Boston -based non-profit pro-Israel media watchdog group which was founded in 1982 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. CAMERA director Andrea Levin has said that "We consider NPR to be the most seriously biased mainstream media outlet," a statement that the Boston Globe describes as having “clearly gotten under her target's skin. Andrea Levin is director of the Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA, a pro-Israel American nonprofit tax-exempt organization based in Boston The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily Newspaper in Boston and in New England, ” NPR's then-Ombudsman, Jeffrey A. Dvorkin, said in a 2002 interview that CAMERA used selective citations and subjective definitions of what it considers pro-Palestinian bias in formulating its findings, and that he felt CAMERA's campaign was "a kind of McCarthyism, frankly, that bashes us and causes people to question our commitment to doing this story fairly. And it exacerbates the legitimate anxieties of many in the Jewish community about the survival of Israel. "
A 2004 FAIR study concluded that "NPR’s guestlist shows the radio service relies on the same elite and influential sources that dominate mainstream commercial news, and falls short of reflecting the diversity of the American public. Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting ( FAIR) is a progressive Media criticism organization based in New York City, founded in 1986 "
Public radio broadcasting has been parodied for its dull reputation. Saturday Night Live had a recurring segment called The Delicious Dish, a parody of public radio weekend programs modeled on the programs Splendid Table' or Good Food, produced by NPR member station KCRW in Santa Monica. Saturday Night Live ( SNL) is a weekly late-night 90-minute American Sketch comedy / Variety show based in New York City Delicious Dish was a recurring comedy sketch from the Saturday Night Live television comedy series KCRW (899 MHz FM) is a Public radio station broadcasting from the campus of Santa Monica College in Santa Monica California
The hosts (played by Ana Gasteyer and Molly Shannon) speak in a dispassionate style about their favorite, usually bland & uninteresting, foods. Ana Kristina Gasteyer (born May 4, 1967) is an American actress and Comedian. Molly Helen Shannon (born September 16, 1964) is an American actress and writer
Noam Chomsky has criticized NPR as being biased toward ideological power and status quo. He cites the fact that limits of debate are very consciously curtailed. He says that since they are located in ideological center cities (like Washington DC) they have to carefully consider what kind of dissenting opinion is acceptable. If it goes way beyond acceptable dissent, it cannot be broadcast.
Supporters contend that NPR does its job well. A study conducted in 2003 by the polling firm Knowledge Networks and the University of Maryland’s Program on International Policy Attitudes showed that those who get their news and information from public broadcasting (NPR and PBS) are better informed than those whose information comes from other media outlets, including cable and broadcast TV networks and the print media. The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research The Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA is an institution devoted to research on the public opinion of international politics The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the In particular, 80% of Fox News viewers held at least one of three common misperceptions about the Iraq War; only 23% of NPR listeners and PBS viewers were similarly misinformed.