The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Il Popolo d'Italia ( Italian for "The People of Italy" was an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini on November 15 Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini The party ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under a totalitarian system. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private
It is currently the only party whose reformation is explicitly banned by the Constitution of Italy: "it shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatever, the dissolved fascist party" ("Transitory and Final Provisions", Disposition XII). The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62
The policies of the National Fascist Party evolved over time. Initially the party harboured anti-clerical and republican values, but always maintained a nationalist agenda combined with degrees of statism and fervent anti-communism. The party adopted large elements of its policies from the authoritarian wing of the former Italian Nationalist Association. The Italian Nationalist Association, Associazione Nazionalista Italiana (ANI was Italy's first nationalist political party founded in 1910 The party officially abandoned all republican values when trying to earn the support of the monarchy to form a government. Also, upon coming to power, the party eventually abandoned anti-clerical policies for the tactical purpose of gaining the support of Catholic groups, and later Mussolini the PNF endorsed the signing of the Lateran Treaty which created the Vatican City and normalized relations between Italy and the Church which had been badly damaged since the forced annexation of the Papal States in 1870. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory
In power, the party attempted to form an economic policy that was a "third way" between capitalism and socialism, this was called Corporatism. Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic In theory, trade unions and businesses would unite to form a cooperative organization to establish wages, hours of labour, and other issues. However when attempted to be put into practice, corporatism was heavily criticized by the industries who had provided financing in the past to Mussolini to protect them from socialism, and demanded that he keep the labour movement weakened to maintain their support, to which Mussolini and the party agreed, causing corporatism to favour businesses over workers who could only be in Fascist unions.
In foreign policy, the party promised to return Italy to being an important world power, and claimed that Italy would become a New Roman Empire by having Italy militarily dominate the Mediterranean as part of their policy of "Mare Nostrum" ("Our Sea") and push for colonial expansion in Africa. The Italian colonial empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas during the " Scramble for Africa Mare Nostrum ( Latin for Our Sea) was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. The Fascists' inter-war period interventionist approach brought Italy to occupy the Greek island of Corfu in 1923, the regime allowed the annexation of the Italian occupied city of Fiume in 1924, and from the 1920s to 1934, the regime succeeded in negotiations with Britain and France in expanding the Italian colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan until they were formally unified into the colony of Italian Libya in 1934. Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea Rijeka (other Croatian dialects Rika and Reka, Reka Italian and Hungarian: Fiume, Sankt Veit am Pflaumb is Tripolitaniajpg|thumb|250px|Tripolitania]] Tripolitania or Tripolitana ( Arabic: طرابلس, Transliterated: Tarābulus) is a historic Libya 5210 Wan Caza Luca Galuzzi 2007jpg|thumb|Wan Caza dunes in Fezzan Italian Libya was a unified colony of Italian North Africa ( Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI established in 1934 in what represents present-day Libya
In 1935, the party advocated and proceeded to bring Italy into a colonial war with Ethiopia. The war was meant as an act of restoring Italian national pride on the international stage that had been damaged in Italy's failure to win a previous colonial war with Ethiopia in 1896.
The war with Ethiopia succeeded in 1936, but left Italy isolated with only one other country supporting Italy, Germany under the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Although Hitler's Nazi Party was largely similar and to a significant degree based on that of the PNF, the two two ideologies in both countries had differences. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Fascists distrusted Hitler's aims at annexing Austria as they feared the next target would be German-populated areas of Italian-held Tyrol, moreover Austrian independence protected Italy from any such aggression, and Austria's fascist regime had maintained good relations with Italy so that in 1934, following the assassination of Austrian leader Engelbert Dollfuss by Austrian Nazis, Mussolini and the PNF promised Austria military support if Germany attempted annexation. Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Also, unlike the Nazi Party, the PNF did not support anti-Semitism as a number of its members were Jewish, including Mussolini's mistress and PNF propaganda director Margherita Sarfatti. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Margherita Sarfatti ( April 8, 1880 &mdash October 30, 1961) was an Italian journalist Art critic, patron collector Nevertheless, the two regimes stood eye-to-eye on other policy issues, such as both regimes' opposition to the Treaty of Versailles and both regimes' fervent anti-communism and interventionist attitude toward combatting communist influence. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I.
It was anti-communist sentiment that brought the two regimes to ally in the Axis Pact in 1936, and support the nationalist forces of Francisco Franco in Spain against leftist republican forces during the Spanish Civil War. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of In 1938, Mussolini pressured the PNF to implement anti-Semitic racial policies to maintain good relations with Germany to which they reluctantly agreed. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility These measures were opposed by a number of Fascists including Mussolini's son-in-law and foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano. Gian Galeazzo Ciano Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari ( March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944) was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
Founded in Rome on November 7, 1921, it marked the transformation of the paramilitary Fasci Italiani di Combattimento into a more coherent political group (the Fasci di Combattimento had been founded by Mussolini in Milan's Piazza San Sepolcro, on March 23, 1919). Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The PNF was instrumental in directing and popularizing support for Mussolini's ideology. In the early years, groups within the PNF called Blackshirts built a base of power by violently attacking socialists and their institutions in the rural Po Valley thereby gaining the support of landowners. For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering
The PNF was the main agent of an attempted coup d'état on October 28, 1922, the March on Rome. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Even though the coup failed in giving power directly to the PNF, it nonetheless resulted in a parallel agreement between Mussolini and King Victor Emmanuel III that made Mussolini the head of the Italian government. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and
After the drastic modifying of electoral legislation (the Acerbo Law), the PNF clearly won the highly controversial elections of April 1924. The Acerbo Law was a Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and forced through the Italian Parliament in 1923 Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In early 1925, Mussolini dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a total dictatorship. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. From that point onward, the PNF was effectively the only legally permitted party in the country. This status was formalized by a law passed in 1928 and Italy remained a one-party state until the end of the Fascist regime in 1943. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
After taking sole power, the Fascist regime began to impose Fascist ideology and symbolism throughout the country. Party membership in the PNF became necessary to seek employment or gain government assistance. The fasces adorned public buildings, Fascist mottos and symbols were displayed on art, and a personality cult was created around Mussolini as the nation's saviour and was called "Il Duce", "The Leader". Fasces (ˈfæsiːz a Plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle" symbolize summary power and Jurisdiction A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise The Italian parliament was replaced in duties by the Grand Council of Fascism solely filled with PNF members. The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. The PNF promoted Italian imperialism in Africa and staunchly promoted racial segrgation and white supremacy of Italian settlers in the colonies.
The Grand Fascist Council, following a requast of Dino Grandi, overthrew Mussolini on July 24 1943. The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. Dino Grandi ( June 4 1895 — May 21 1988) Conte ( Count) di Mordano was an Italian Fascist politician minister Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. The party was officially banned by Pietro Badoglio's government on July 27. Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
After the Nazi-engineered Unternehmen Eiche liberated Mussolini in September, the PNF was revived as the Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano - PFR; September 13), as the single party of the Northern and Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic (the Salò Republic). Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Gran Sasso raid refers to Operation Eiche ( German for 'Oak' the daring rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German Paratroopers Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the For other meanings of Salò or Salo see Salo (disambiguation. Its secretary was Alessandro Pavolini. Alessandro Pavolini ( September 27, 1903 &ndash April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician journalist and essayist notable for his The PFR did not outlast Mussolini's execution and the disappearance of the Salò state in April 1945. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
- "Il Duce!", "The Leader!"
- "Viva Il Duce!", "Long live the Leader!"
- "Eja, Eja, Eja, Alalà!" (Equivalent in English to Hip Hip Hurray!)
- Viva la Morte, ("Long live death (sacrifice). ")
- Credere, Obbedire, Combattere ("Believe, Obey, Fight")
- Libro e moschetto - fascista perfetto, ("The book and the musket - make the perfect Fascist. ")
- Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato, ("Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State. ")
- Se avanzo, seguitemi. Se indietreggio, uccidetemi. Se muoio, vendicatemi, ("If I advance, follow me. If I retreat, kill me. If I die, avenge me")
- "War is to man as motherhood is to woman. "
Secretaries of the PNF
- Michele Bianchi (November 1921 - January 1923)
- multiple presidency (January 1923 - October 1923)
- Triumvirate: Michele Bianchi, Nicola Sansanelli, Giuseppe Bastianini
- Francesco Giunta (October 15 1923 - April 22 1924)
- multiple presidency (April 23 1924 - February 15 1925)
- Quadrumvirate: Roberto Forges Davanzati, Cesare Rossi, Giovanni Marinelli, Alessandro Melchiorri
Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology What constitutes a definition of Fascism and fascist Governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious The Arrow Cross Party ( Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement" was a Far-right Austrofascism (Austrofaschismus is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938 Brazilian Integralism (Integralismo brasileiro was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932 Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of Fascism with Theology or religious tradition This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given in English to a Far-right ultra- nationalist Antisemitic, fascist movement and political party The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini The general term Japanese fascism has been used to refer to Japanese nationalist thinking its ideological foundation and the outlines of its political implementation Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German National syndicalism is a variant of Syndicalism typically associated with the Labor movement in Italy which would later become a basis of Benito Mussolini This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism This is a list of political parties organizations and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General The Beer Hall Putsch (also known as the Munich Putsch) was a failed Coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday November 8 Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Acerbo Law was a Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and forced through the Italian Parliament in 1923 Actual Idealism was a form of Idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a 'grounded' idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people Black Brigades (Brigate Nere were one of the Fascist Paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy) For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, Class collaboration is a principle of social organization that forms part of Fascist philosophy Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology. The position of fascism on the political spectrum is a point of contention As there were many different manifestations of Fascism, especially during the interwar years there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle" was an influential essay written by Kenneth Burke in 1939 which offered a rhetorical analysis of Adolf Hitler Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. The Italian Nationalist Association, Associazione Nazionalista Italiana (ANI was Italy's first nationalist political party founded in 1910 The Hitler salute (Hitlergruß also known in Germany during World War II as the Deutscher Gruß (literally German Greeting) or in English as the The quadrumvirs were a group of four leaders that led Benito Mussolini 's March on Rome in October 1922 The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight with palm down Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern during the late 1920s and early 1930s which stated that Social democracy was a variant Third Position is the name applied to a nationalist political strand that seeks to emphasise its opposition to both Communism and Capitalism. Enrico Corradini (1865 &mdash 1931 was an Italian Novelist Essayist journalist and nationalist political figure Michele Bianchi ( 22 July 1883 &ndash 3 February 1930) was an eminent Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader The term triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men" is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Cesare Rossi ( November 10, 1904 - November 11, 1952) was an Italian rower who competed in the 1928 Summer Olympics Giovanni Marinelli ( October 18 1879 &mdash January 11 1944) was an Italian Fascist political leader Roberto Farinacci ( October 16 1892 &mdash April 28 1945) was a leading Italian Fascist politician and important Augusto Turati ( April 16 1888 &mdash August 27 1955) was an Italian journalist and Fascist politician Giovanni Giuriati ( August 4 1876 - May 6 1970) was an Italian Fascist politician Achille Starace ( August 18 1889 &mdash April 29 1945) was a prominent leader of Fascist Italy prior to and during World Ettore Muti ( May 2 1902 &mdash August 24 1943) was an Italian Fascist Aldo Vidussoni (1914 Fogliano Redipuglia, in Gorizia &mdash1982 Cagliari) was an Italian Lawyer and Fascist politician Carlo Scorza 1897 - 1988 was an Italian member of Partito Nazionale Fascista that rose to the position of segretary of the party before the end of Fascism in 1943 The Communist Party of Italy (Partito Comunista d’Italia was an Italian Political party which existed from 1921 to 1926 The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) Organisation of Communists of Italy (Marxist-Leninists (in Italian: Organizzazione dei Comunisti d'Italia (marxisti-leninisti) initially known as Communist The Proletarian Unity Party ( Partito di Unità Proletaria, PdUP was a Political party in Italy. Proletarian Democracy ( Democrazia Proletaria, DP was a Political party in Italy. The Movement of Unitarian Communists ( Movimento dei Comunisti Unitari, CU was a communist political party in Italy. The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa The Italian Reform Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Riformista Italiano) was formed in 1912 by those leading reformist politicians who were expelled from the The United Socialist Party ( Italian: Partito Socialista Unitario, PSU) was a socialist political party in Italy 1922-1930 The Labour Democratic Party ( Partito Democratico del Lavoro) was a progressive party founded in 1943 by some former members of the Italian Reform Socialist Party, The Italian Democratic Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI is a minor social-democratic Italian political party. The United Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Unitario, PSU was a social-democratic political party in Italy 1949-1951 The Italian Democratic Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI is a minor social-democratic Italian political party. The Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity ( Partito Socialista Italiano di Unità Proletaria, PSIUP was a Political party in Italy from 1964 The Unified PSI–PSDI ( PSI–PSDI Unificati) was the name of the party formed by the union of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI and the Italian Democratic The Democratic Party of the Left ( Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS was a post- communist democratic-socialist political party in Italy The Italian Socialists ( Socialisti Italiani, SI were a social-democratic political party active in Italy from 1994 to 1998 The Democrats of the Left ( Democratici di Sinistra, DS was a left-wing Italian political party and part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition The Green Lists was an green Italian political party. It was founded in 1986 and merged in 1991 with the Rainbow Greens to form the Federation Rainbow Greens ( Verdi Arcobaleno) was a green Italian political party. The Action Party ( Partito d'Azione, Pd'A was an Italian Political party. See Italian Radicals (disambiguation. The Radical Party ( Partito Radicale) was an Italian political party. The Democratic Alliance ( Alleanza Democratica, AD was an Italian Political party founded in 1993 with the intent of becoming the container of an The Democratic Union ( Unione Democratica, UD was a small social-liberal party in Italy. Movement for Democracy – The Net ( Movimento per la Democrazia – La Rete) was an Italian political party led by Leoluca Orlando. For other uses of the term "The Democrats" see Democrat The Democrats ( I Democratici) is a former Italian party launched by The European Republicans Movement ( Movimento Repubblicani Europei, MRE of Italy was a small Center left liberal party. The Italian Liberal Party ( Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI was a liberal Italian political party. The Union of the Centre ( Unione di Centro, UdC was a small Italian political party, founded in 1994 after the disbanding of the Italian Liberal Party The Liberal Party ( Partito Liberale, PL was a minor liberal Italian political party. The Patto Segni (Segni Pact PATTO was a Christian-democratic and liberal political party in Italy. The Italian Renewal ( Rinnovamento Italiano, RI was an Italian political party The United Consumers ( Consumatori Uniti) was a political party in Italy. The Southern Democratic Party ( Partito Democratico Meridionale, PDM was a centrist Italian political party based in Calabria. Middle-of-the-Road Italy ( Italia di Mezzo IdM was an Italian centrist political grouping founded in 2006 by Marco Follini, Senate member Democracy Is Freedom – The Daisy ( Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita, DL was a centrist Italian political party. The Social Democratic Party of South Tyrol ( Sozialdemokratische Partei Südtirols, SPS was a regionalist social-democratic and hard-line German-speaking Party founded in Veneto by Fabio Padovan and Giorgio Vido for the 2000 regional elections merged in the Liga Fronte Veneto in 2001 The Sardinia Project ( Progetto Sardegna, PS was a progressive regionalist political party active in Sardinia, Italy. The Sicilian Alliance ( Alleanza Siciliana) is a minor autonomist and national-conservative political party in Sicily, Italy. The Italian People's Party ( Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI was a christian-democratic political party in Italy. Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise The Italian People's Party ( Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI was a christian-democratic political party in Italy History The party emerged The Christian Democratic Centre ( Centro Cristiano Democratico, CCD was a christian-democratic party in Italy. The United Christian Democrats ( Cristiani Democratici Uniti, CDU was a christian-democratic party in Italy. The Christian Democrats for the Republic ( Cristiani Democratici per la Repubblica, CDR was a christian-democratic Italian political party. The Democratic Union for the Republic ( Unione Democratica per la Repubblica, UDR was a short-lived centrist political party in Italy. European Democracy ( Democrazia Europea, DE was a minor christian-democratic Italian political party. The Uomo Qualunque Front ( Fronte dell'Uomo Qualunque, FUQ was a short-lived national-liberal, poujadist and conservative party in Italy The Monarchist National Party ( Partito Nazionale Monarchico) was an Italian political party founded in 1946 uniting conservatives liberal-conservatives conservative liberals The People's Monarchist Party ( Partito Monarchico Popolare) was a conservative party founded in 1954 by a split from the National Monarchist Party. The Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity ( Partito Democratico Italiano di Unità Monarchica, PDIUM was the continuation of the Italian Democratic Party ( The National Democracy ( Democrazia Nazionale, DN party was a spin-off of Movimento Sociale Italiano, after the electoral defeat of 1976 The Italian Social Movement, later Italian Social Movement–National Right ( Movimento Sociale Italiano–Destra Nazionale, MSI-DN was a neo-fascist The Popular Democratic Front (FDP Fronte Democratico Popolare per la libertà la pace il lavoro was a Coalition of Italian political parties for the The Alliance of Progressives ( Alleanza dei Progressisti) was a left-wing electoral coalition in Italy in 1994 The Olive Tree ( L'Ulivo) was a denomination used for several successive Centre-left Italian political coalitions from 1995 to 2007 The Union ( Italian: L'Unione) was an Italian Centre-left Political party coalition led by Romano Prodi, the The Rose in the Fist ( Rosa nel Pugno, RnP was an Italian political federation of parties founded in 17 November 2005 and disbanded The National Democratic Union ( Unione Democratica Nazionale) was a coalition of parties for the 1946 general election, formed basically by the Italian Liberal The National Bloc ( Blocco Nazionale) was a political coalition for the 1948 general election formed by the Italian Liberal Party; Republicans Liberals Reformers ( Repubblicani Liberali Riformatori) was a federation of parties in Italy. The Pact of Italy ( Patto per l'Italia) was a centrist electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Mario Segni and Mino Martinazzoli in 1994 The Pact of Democrats ( Patto dei Democratici, PD was an electoral alliance in Italy The Pole of Freedoms ( Polo delle Libertà) was a center-right electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 The Pole of Good Government ( Polo del Buon Governo) was a centre-right electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 Casa delle Libertà ( CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms) was a major Italian Center-right Political alliance led by The National Bloc of Freedom ( Blocco Nazionale della Libertà) was a short-lived Italian political coalition of monarchist parties most of which participated to the foundation Alternativa Sociale ( Social Alternative) was a Coalition of neo-fascist political parties in Italy.
| Historical Italian political parties (active parties: simple version, in 2007)|
Communist: Communist Party of Italy, Italian Communist Party, Organisation of Communists of Italy (Marxist-Leninists), Proletarian Unity Party, Proletarian Democracy, Movement of Unitarian Communists
Socialist and social-democratic: Italian Socialist Party, Italian Reform Socialist Party, United Socialist Party (1922), Labour Democratic Party, Italian Socialist Workers' Party, United Socialist Party (1949), Italian Democratic Socialist Party, Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity, Unified Socialist Party, Democratic Party of the Left, Italian Socialists, Democrats of the Left
Green: Green Lists, Rainbow Greens
Social liberal: Action Party, Radical Party, Democratic Alliance, Democratic Union, Movement for Democracy – The Net, The Democrats, European Republicans Movement,
Liberal: Italian Liberal Party, Union of the Centre, Liberal Party
Centrist: Patto Segni, Italian Renewal, United Consumers, Southern Democratic Party, Middle-of-the-Road Italy, Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Regionalist: Social Democratic Party of South Tyrol, Fronte Marco Polo, Sardinia Project, Sicilian Alliance
Christian democratic: Italian People's Party (1919), Christian Democracy, Italian People's Party (1994), Christian Democratic Centre, United Christian Democrats, Christian Democrats for the Republic, Democratic Union for the Republic, European Democracy
Conservative: Uomo Qualunque Front, Monarchist National Party, People's Monarchist Party, Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity, National Democracy
Fascist and neo-fascist: National Fascist Party, Italian Social Movement–National Right
Leftist coalition: Popular Democratic Front, Alliance of Progressives,
Centre-left coalition:The Olive Tree, The Union, Rose in the Fist
Liberal coalition: National Democratic Union, National Bloc, Republicans, Liberals, Reformers
Centrist coalition: Pact for Italy, Pact of Democrats
Centre-right coalition: Pole of Freedoms, Pole of Good Government, House of Freedoms
Conservative coalition: National Bloc of Freedom
Neo-fascist coalition: Social Alternative
Liste civetta: For the Abolition of Scorporo, New Country
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