|Part of a series of articles on|
Costa Rican Americans
Puerto Rican Americans
|History of Hispanic and Latino Americans|
History of Mexican-Americans
|Christian Latinos · Santeria|
Latino Jews · Latino Muslims
|Hispanic and Latino American politics|
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
LULAC · NALFO · SHPE
National Council of La Raza
Association of Hispanic Arts · MEChA · UFW
National Society of Hispanic MBAs
Literature · Studies · Art · Music
|English · Spanish in the United States|
Spanish · Spanglish · Ladino language
|Communities with Hispanic majority|
Puerto Rico-related topics
|Latino and Hispanic Portal|
The National Council of La Raza (NCLR) is a non-profit and non-partisan advocacy group in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent, which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America Argentine Americans are raised and educated Citizens of the United States although not all U A Bolivian American is an immigrant or descendant of Bolivian immigrants to the United States Chilean Americans are a group of people who emigrated from Chile to the United States, and their descendants Colombian Americans are citizens of the United States who trace their nationality or heritage from the South American nation of Colombia. A Costa Rican American is an inhabitant of the United States who is of Costa Rican descent or birth A Cuban American ( Cubanoamericano) is a United States citizen who traces his or her "national origin" to Cuba. A Dominican American (also Dominican-York) is an American who has ancestry from the Dominican Republic (not to be mistaken for Dominicans from the Commonwealth An Ecuadorian American is any person in the United States who is of Ecuadorian ancestry A Guatemalan American is an American of Guatemalan decent The number of Guatemalans in the U A Honduran American is an American of Honduran descent The number of Hondurans in the U See also History of Mexican-Americans Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican ancestry Nicaraguan American ( Spanish: Nicaragüense Americano) are Americans of Nicaraguan ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United States A Panamanian American is any United States citizen or resident who traces his or her ancestry to the Central American nation of Panama. A Paraguayan American is an American of Paraguayan birth or descent A Peruvian American is an Immigrant or descendant of immigrants from Peru that arrived in the United States. Puerto Ricans in the United States (also referred to as the "Puerto Rican Diaspora," " Nuyorican " "Stateside Puerto Ricans" "mainland Salvadoran Americans are residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent Spanish American ( Hispano Americano, derived from la ''[[Hispania]]'' now known as es ''[[Spain España]]'' the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula An Uruguayan American is any person in the United States who is of Uruguayan ancestry or birth including both citizens and non-citizens Venezuelan Americans are Citizens and residents of the United States who trace their heritage to the South American nation of Venezuela. The history of Latinos and Hispanics in the United States is wide-ranging spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States The history of Mexican-American people is wide-ranging spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. Latinos and Hispanics are predominantly Christian in the United States Santería, also known as La Regla de Lukumi (Lukumi's Rule and The Way of the Saints is an Afro-Cuban religious tradition derived from traditional beliefs The history of the Jews in the Americas dates back to Christopher Columbus and his first cross- Atlantic voyage on August 3, 1492 Latino Muslims are Latin Americans whose religion is Islam. In countries such as the United States, where due to a historical misunderstanding Hispanic and Latino Americans have received a growing share of the national vote by their growing number The Chicano Movement of the 1960s also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, also known as El Movimiento, it is an extension of the Mexican The National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials ( NALEO) is a leadership organization of elected and appointed Latino The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC comprises 21 Democratic Members of the United States Congress of Hispanic descent The League of United Latin American Citizens ( LULAC) is a political advocacy group for Latinos in the United States. History Established in 1998 NALFO the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations set out to become the uniting force for Latin-based fraternities and sororities The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE was founded in Los Angeles California, in 1974 by a group of Engineers employed by the city of Los Association of Hispanic Arts is a New York -based Non-profit organization that promotes the work of Hispanic artists Word origin and usage The term "mecha" is derived from the Japanese abbreviation for the English word " mechanical " Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> Overview The United Farm Workers of America (UFW is a labor Latino studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestry in America Latin music has long influenced American popular music Jazz, Rhythm and blues, and even Country music. Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. The Spanish language is the second most-common language in the United States after English. Spanglish espanglish, espaninglish, el Spanish broken, ingléspañol, ingleñol The following is a partial list of United States cities towns and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50% of the population is Hispanic or Latino See also Puerto Rico The following is a list of topics about the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. This article contains a list of notable Hispanic and Latino Americans, citizens of the United States with ancestry or origins in Hispanic America or Spain La Raza (literally "The Race" is sometimes used to denote people of Chicano (i A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic Elections Advocacy Advocacy is the pursuit of influencing outcomes –including public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political economic and social systems The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It is not to be confused with La Raza Unida. The Raza Unida Party (RUP (Partido de la Raza Unida is a United States third Political party. Its stated focus is on reducing poverty and discrimination, and improving opportunities for Hispanics. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically According to the organization's website available at www. nclr. org, it is "the largest national Hispanic civil rights and advocacy organization in the United States" and "serves all Hispanic subgroups in all regions of the country". NCLR receives funding from philanthropic organizations, such as the Ford Foundation, and corporations, such as Citigroup and Wal-Mart. Philanthropy is the act of donating money goods services time and/or effort to support a socially beneficial cause with a defined objective and with no financial or material The Ford Foundation is a Private foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that were chartered in 1936 by A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business Wal-Mart Stores Inc (or Walmart as written in its new logo is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large discount department stores NCLR serves its constituency by means of its Affiliates, nearly 300 community-based organizations. The NCLR is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and maintains eight regional offices in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The City of New York Phoenix (ˈfiːˌnɪks O'odham Skikik, Yavapai Wasinka, Western Apache Fiinigis, Navajo Hoozdo, San Juan (saŋ hwaŋ (from the Spanish San Juan Bautista, " Saint John the Baptist " is the Capital and largest municipality in The current president is Janet Murguía. Janet Murguia is a prominent civil rights leader for the Mexican and Hispanic communities of the United States 
NCLR works on a variety of different issues affecting the Latino community in the U. S. such as health, housing, education, workforce development, and youth leadership. NCLR’s Institute for Hispanic Health works to reduce the incidence, burden, and impact of health conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. The NCLR Homeownership Network operates in 20 states and provides counseling on purchasing a home and managing the investment after purchase. NCLR also has both early childhood and secondary education programs which stress literacy, college preparation, and parent involvement. The organization’s education programs also address the needs of Latino and English language learner students through a network of community-based charter schools. In addition, NCLR works to increase employment opportunities for Latino youth through its Escalera program. Youth leadership is also stressed in the Líderes initiative that links youth development organizations around the country into one national network. Through all these programs, NCLR provides technical assistance to its network of community-based organizations around the country working on the same issues.
NCLR’s policy team also works on a range of similar issues including civic engagement, criminal and juvenile justice, wealth-building, housing, education, health, and that for which they are most well-known, immigration. The organization advocates on behalf of Hispanics in the United States by conducting research and informing policy-makers about how proposed or existing legislation affects the Latino community.
The NCLR grew out of efforts to form a national civil rights organization that would advocate for Mexican Americans. In the early 1960s, the National Organization for Mexican American Services (NOMAS) persuaded the Ford Foundation to fund a study of Mexican Americans. The Foundation went further, hiring Herman Gallegos, Dr. Julian Samora, and Dr. Ernesto Galarza to consult with other leaders on ways to improve conditions for Mexican American communities. 
As a result of these discussions, Gallegos, Samora and Galarza founded the Southwest Council of La Raza (SWCLR) in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1968. Phoenix (ˈfiːˌnɪks O'odham Skikik, Yavapai Wasinka, Western Apache Fiinigis, Navajo Hoozdo, The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. Financial support from the Ford Foundation, the National Council of Churches, and the United Auto Workers allowed the SWCLR to get off the ground, and the organization received 501(c)(3) status later that year. The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian Template talkInfobox Union for usage -->The United Automobile Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America International 501(c is a provision of the United States Internal Revenue Code ( listing 28 types of Non-profit organizations exempt from some federal 
In 1972, the SWCLR lost federal funding for refusing to endorse Richard Nixon during his reelection campaign. The United States presidential election of 1972 was waged on the issues of radicalism and the Vietnam War. 
In 1973, the SWCLR became a national organization, changed its name to the National Council of La Raza, and moved its headquarters to Washington, D. C. Early disagreements among the leadership led the Ford Foundation to threaten to withhold funding, resulting in President Henry Santiestevan's resignation and the election of Raul Yzaguirre. Raul Humberto Yzaguirre (born July 22 1939 in San Juan Texas) is an American Civil rights activist. 
In 1973, the NCLR bylaws were amended to require equal representation of women on the board of directors. 
Beginning in about 1975, the NCLR began expanding its focus to include the issues of non-Mexican American Latinos. See also History of Mexican-Americans Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican ancestry This policy was made official in 1979. By 1980, the NCLR was funded almost entirely by the federal government. When the Reagan Administration slashed social funding, the NCLR was forced to cut back the scale of its operations. The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by As a result, the organization began focusing on national policy and concentrating its efforts in Washington, D. C. After the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, state governments exerted more control over the disbursement of welfare funds, which led to the development of the NCLR's Field Advocacy Project to influence decisions at the state and local levels. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 ( PRWORA,) is a United States federal law considered to be a fundamental shift in both the method Welfare is financial assistance paid to people by governments
NCLR is often criticized by commentators for allegedly espousing separatist or irredentist sentiments. Irredentism is any position advocating Annexation of territories administered by another State on the grounds of common Ethnicity or prior historical possession Anti-illegal immigration websites, such as American Patrol (which has been labeled a hate group by the SPLC) and The American Resistance, accuse NCLR of encouraging illegal immigration to the United States, and the latter hosts an exhaustive list of companies and organizations that donate to the NCLR. Glenn Spencer is an Activist who advocates greater vigilance in securing the United States–Mexico border against Illegal immigration The Southern Poverty Law Center ( SPLC) is an American Non-profit legal organization internationally known for its tolerance education programs its legal  However, the organization states on its website that it “has repeatedly recognized the right of the United States, as a sovereign nation, to control its borders. Moreover, NCLR has supported numerous specific measures to strengthen border enforcement. ” It also backs up this statement with evidence. 
Some critics, including conservative talk radio host George Putnam, consider NCLR exclusionary in its approach to civil rights. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Talk radio is a Radio format containing discussion about topical issues George Putnam ( July 14, 1914 – September 12, 2008) was an American Television News reporter and Talk  The most powerful person to criticize NCLR was Republican congressman Charlie Norwood of Georgia's ninth district. Charles Whitlow Norwood Jr DDS ( July 27, 1941 &ndash February 13, 2007) was an American politician and Dentist In a December 2005 edition of the conservative publication Human Events, Representative Norwood criticized congressional earmarking of four million dollars for NCLR housing initiatives. Human Events is a weekly conservative Magazine founded in 1944. He said that "we ought not to send taxpayer's money to people who absolutely advocate perhaps using that money for the country not to follow the law of the land and not to secure our country's borders. " NCLR wrote a letter to Rep. Norwood explaining that funding is given to a subsidiary of the organization called the Raza Development Fund which provides funding for affordable housing, health care centers and educational facilities.  NCLR also offered to meet with Rep. Norwood to further discuss any doubts he had about the organization or its work.
On September 20, 2006, Representative Norwood issued a press release calling NCLR a "radical [. . . ] pro-illegal immigration lobbying organization that supports racist groups calling for the secession of the western United States as a Hispanic-only homeland" and accusing the organization of undermining "the ability of state and local police to fight criminal illegal aliens. "
The NCLR immediately issued a press release to refute Norwood's claims and to demand an apology. He offered to extend an apology on seven conditions:
1. Denounce and sever all ties with MEChA and any other organizations with which they are now or have ever been associated or funded which held to the racist doctrines published by MEChA. 2. Denounce the statement "Por La Raza todo [sic]. Fuera de La Raza nada" [“For the race everything, outside the race nothing”] as repugnant, racist, and totally incompatible with American society or citizenship. 3. Repudiate all claims that any current American territory rightfully belongs to Mexico. 4. Acknowledge the right of all Americans to live wherever they choose in the United States, and that no section or region of this country should be segregated by race or ethnic heritage. 5. Commit to sponsorship of nationwide educational programs to combat racism and anti-Semitism in the Hispanic community. 6. Seek neutral, third party supervision to ensure that all community and individual assistance programs offered by La Raza and groups supported by La Raza are accessible to all Americans, regardless of race or ethnicity, and that participation in those programs is fully compliant with Equal Opportunity laws. 7. Acknowledge the internationally recognized borders of the United States, the right of the citizens of the United States to determine immigration policy through the democratic process, and the right of the United States to undertake any and all necessary steps including military action to effectively enforce immigration law and defend its borders against unauthorized entry.
NCLR responded to Norwood's conditions apology in a point-by-point press release defending its policies, which it claims have never been racially or ethnically exclusionary, never supported and does not endorse the notion of a “Reconquista” or “Aztlán,” has never used, and unequivocally rejects, the motto “Por La Raza todo. Fuera de La Raza nada", has supported numerous measures to ensure that all Americans have the freedom to choose where to live, and stated that its programs are already covered by civil rights laws administered by independent agencies at the federal, state, and local level.  It also disputes the charge that it supports illegal immigration, constantly reiterating its support for effective and reasonable border security and immigration-law enforcement. In a speech in San Diego, NCLR CEO Janet Murguía stated: "First, as a sovereign nation, the United States has the right to determine who comes and who stays. . . [It also] has a right to consider enforcement at a variety of levels, including border enforcement, interior enforcement, and workplace enforcement. . . We support enforcement. . . [because] as Americans, we recognize it's the right thing to do. "