The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 25 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, and the honoring of persons who have excelled in playing, managing, and serving the sport. A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations".
The word Cooperstown is often used as shorthand (or a metonym) for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, just as the expression "Hall of Fame" is understood to mean the National Baseball Hall of Fame. In Rhetoric, metonymy (mɨˈtɒnɨmi is the use of a word for a concept or object associated with the concept/object originally denoted by the word
Jeff Idelson is the acting president since March 25, 2008, when Dale Petroskey was forced to resign for "fail[ing] to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" while making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Dale Petroskey (born August 17 1955 is the Executive Vice President of Marketing for the Texas Rangers Baseball Club fiduciary duty is a legal relationship of confidence or trust between two or more parties most commonly a fiduciary or Trustee and a principal " 
The Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939 by Lee Ferrick Andrews, grandson of Edward Clark, who was a founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Edward C Clark or Edward S Clark ( December 19, 1811 &ndash October 14, 1882) was a founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company Singer Corporation is a manufacturer of sewing machines first established as I Stephen C. Clark was owner of a local hotel and sought to bring tourists to Cooperstown, which had been damaged by the Great Depression, which significantly reduced the local tourist trade, and by Prohibition, which had devastated the local hops industry. In the United States, the term Prohibition refers to the period from 1920 to 1933 during which the sale manufacture and transportation of alcohol for consumption Hops are the female Flower cones of the hop plant ( Humulus lupulus) The erroneous claim that U.S. Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Abner Doubleday (June 26 1819 &ndash January 26 1893 was a career United States Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War.
Major League Baseball, seeing the marketing opportunity, soon began cooperating with the Hall of Fame in promotion and the acquisition of artifacts for display.
Recent improvements to the museum include an $8 million library and research facility that opened in 1994, and other renovations which were completed in spring 2005.
In 2002, Baseball As America was launched, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years. The Hall of Fame has also sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not see it. In January 2006, the Hall of Fame also announced a partnership with Citgo to launch a traveling exhibit about Latin America's contributions to baseball. Citgo Petroleum Corporation (or Citgo) is a United States -incorporated Venezuela -owned refiner and marketer of Gasoline, lubricants Petrochemicals It is also an annual presence at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, as it receives space at the Fest. The Major League Baseball All-Star Game, also popularly known as the "Midsummer Classic" is an annual Baseball game between players from the National League
Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, but the pantheon of players, managers, umpires, executives, and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall. In Baseball, the head coach of a team is called the manager (or more formally the field manager) this individual controls matters In Baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game including beginning and ending the game enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds making The first five men elected were superstars Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, named in 1936. Tyrus Raymond "Ty" Cobb (December 18 1886 – July 17 1961 nicknamed " The Georgia Peach," was a baseball player and is regarded by historians George Herman Ruth Jr (February 6 1895 &ndash August 16 1948 also popularly known as " Babe " " The Bambino " and " The Sultan of Johannes Peter "Honus" Wagner (ˈhɑnəs ˈwæɡnɚ February 24 1874 &ndash December 6 1955) nicknamed " The Flying Dutchman Christopher "Christy" Mathewson ( August 12 1880 &ndash October 7 1925) nicknamed "Big Six" "The Christian Gentleman" Walter Perry Johnson ( November 6, 1887 – December 10, 1946) nicknamed "The Big Train" was an American right-handed As of January 2008, 286 individuals had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 228 players, 19 managers (many of whom also played), 8 umpires, and 31 builders, executives, and organizers. Thirty men have also been awarded the Ford C. Frick Award for excellence in broadcasting, while 57 have received the J. G. Taylor Spink Award for excellence in baseball writing. The Ford C Frick Award is an award bestowed annually by the National Baseball Hall of Fame in the United States to a Broadcaster for "major contributions The J G Taylor Spink Award is the highest award given by the Baseball Writers Association of America (BBWAA to its members
Players are currently inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers Association of America (or BBWAA), or the Veterans Committee, which is now composed of living Hall of Famers; additional special committees, some including recipients of the two major awards, are also regularly formed to make selections. Baseball Writers' Association of America ( BBWAA) is a professional association for Baseball Journalists writing for daily Newspapers, Magazines The Veterans Committee, officially the National Baseball Hall of Fame Committee on Baseball Veterans, is a committee of the U Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee (which removes from consideration players of clearly lesser qualification) is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more. From a final ballot typically including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players; until the late 1950s, voters were advised to cast votes for the maximum 10 candidates. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player who is named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to later ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration, even by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored the eligibility of these dropped players; while their names will not appear on future BBWAA ballots, they may be considered by the Veterans Committee.
Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction even though they have not met all requirements. This resulted in the induction of Addie Joss, who was elected in 1978 despite only playing in nine seasons due to his death from meningitis. Adrian Joss ( April Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement, then that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972. Roberto Clemente Walker (August 18 1934 &ndash December 31 1972 was a professional baseball player and a Major League Baseball Right fielder. New Year's Eve is on December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year and the day before New Year's Day.
|Lineup for Yesterday|
|Z is for Zenith|
The summit of fame.
These men are up there.
These men are the game.
|— Ogden Nash, Sport magazine (January 1949)|
The five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. Frederic Ogden Nash ( August 19, 1902 &ndash May 19, 1971) was an American Poet best known for writing pithy and funny SPORT magazine was the original major general interest American sports magazine In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline; Joe DiMaggio received a vote in 1945, for example. Joseph Paul DiMaggio, born Giuseppe Paolo DiMaggio Jr ( November 25, 1914 &ndash March 8, 1999) nicknamed Joltin' Joe From the 1946 election until the 1954 election, an official one-year waiting period was in effect. (DiMaggio, for example, retired after the 1951 season and was first eligible in the 1953 election. ) The modern rule establishing a wait of five years was passed in 1954, although an exception was made for Joe DiMaggio because of his high level of previous support, thus permitting him to be elected within four years of his retirement. Contrary to popular belief, no formal exception was made for Lou Gehrig, other than to hold a special one-man election for him. Henry Louis "Lou" Gehrig ( June 19 1903  – June 2 1941) born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig, was an American There was no waiting period at that time and Gehrig met all other qualifications, so he would have been eligible for the next regular election after he retired during the 1939 season, but the BBWAA decided to hold a special election at the 1939 Winter Meetings in Cincinnati, specifically to elect Gehrig (most likely because it was known that he was terminally ill, making it uncertain that he would live long enough to see another election). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS, sometimes called Maladie de Charcot, or in the United States Lou Gehrig's Disease) is a progressive Nobody else was on that ballot, and the numerical results have never been made public. Since no elections were held in 1940 or 1941, the special election permitted Gehrig to enter the Hall while still alive.
If a player fails to be elected by the BBWAA within 20 years of his retirement from active play, he may be selected by the Veterans Committee, which now votes every odd-numbered year. However, only players whose careers began in 1943 or later will be eligible for election by the main Veterans Committee, in accordance with changes to the voting process for that body instituted in July 2007. These changes also established three separate committees to select other figures:
Players of the Negro Leagues have also been considered at various times, beginning in 1971. Part of the History of baseball in the United States series The Negro leagues were American professional Baseball leagues In 2005 the Hall completed a study on African American players between the late 19th century and the integration of the major leagues in 1947, and conducted a special election for such players in February 2006; seventeen figures from the Negro Leagues were chosen in that election, in addition to the eighteen previously selected.
Predictably, the selection process catalyzes endless debate among baseball fans over the merits of various candidates. Even players already elected remain for years the subjects of discussions as to whether their elections were deserved or in error. For example, Bill James' book Whatever Happened to the Hall of Fame? goes into detail about who he believes does and does not belong in the Hall of Fame. George William “Bill” James (born October 5, 1949, in Holton Kansas) is a Baseball writer historian and statistician whose work has been Whatever Happened to the Hall of Fame?: Baseball Cooperstown and the Politics of Glory is a book by famed baseball Sabermetrician and author Bill
According to the Hall of Fame, approximately 350,000 visitors enter the museum each year, and the running total has surpassed 14 million. These visitors see only a fraction of its 35,000 artifacts, 2. 6 million library items (such as newspaper clippings and photos) and 130,000 baseball cards. A quick rundown of what there is to see at the museum follows.
The most lasting controversy in Hall of Fame elections has been the actions and composition of the Veterans Committee established in 1953. The Veterans Committee, officially the National Baseball Hall of Fame Committee on Baseball Veterans, is a committee of the U The Veterans Committee, officially the National Baseball Hall of Fame Committee on Baseball Veterans, is a committee of the U  While few of the BBWAA selections have been particularly controversial, prior to its 2001 restructuring the Veterans Committee had, at times, seemed to pass over the most worthy candidates in order to enshrine contemporaries and teammates of the committee members. Beginning in 1970 the Veterans Committee made some selections that baseball analyst and writer Bill James later called "simply appalling". George William “Bill” James (born October 5, 1949, in Holton Kansas) is a Baseball writer historian and statistician whose work has been  He emphasized eight who played for either the New York Giants or St. Louis Cardinals of the 1920s, when Committee leader Frankie Frisch was their teammate: Jesse Haines, Dave Bancroft, Chick Hafey, Ross Youngs, George Kelly, Jim Bottomley, Fred Lindstrom and Travis Jackson. The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball team based in, that currently play in the National League West Division. The St Louis Cardinals (also referred to as "the Cards " or "the Redbirds " are a professional Baseball team based in St Francis "Frankie" Frisch ( September 9, 1898 — March 12, 1973) nicknamed the Fordham Flash, or The Old Flash Jesse Joseph "Pop" Haines, ( July 22, 1893 &ndash August 5, 1978) was a right-handed Major League Baseball Pitcher David James "Beauty" Bancroft ( April 20, 1891 - October 9, 1972) was an American Baseball player who played Charles James "Chick" Hafey ( February 12, 1903, Berkeley California – July 2, 1973, Calistoga California) Ross Middlebrook Youngs ( April 10, 1897 - October 22, 1927) was a Major League Baseball Outfielder best known for his superb George Lange Kelly September 10, 1895, San Francisco California - October 13, 1984, Burlingame California) James Leroy Bottomley ( April 23, 1900 &ndash December 11, 1959) was born in Oglesby Illinois and grew up in Nokomis Illinois Frederick Charles Lindstrom ( November 21 1905 - October 4 1981) was a Major League Baseball player during the 1920s and 1930s Travis Calvin Jackson ( November 2, 1903 in Waldo Arkansas - July 27, 1987) was a Major League Baseball player during the Bottomley and Bancroft are the only two who James concedes to be "marginal Hall of Famers". (The last three were elected after Frisch's 1973 death. )
In 2001, the Veterans Committee was reformed to comprise the living Hall of Fame members and other honorees.  The revamped Committee held three elections—in 2003 and 2007 for both players and non-players, and in 2005 for players only. The 2003 elections to select inductees to the Baseball Hall of Fame proceeded in keeping with rules enacted in 2001 The 2007 elections to select inductees to the Baseball Hall of Fame proceeded according to revised rules enacted in 2001 The 2005 elections to select inductees to the Baseball Hall of Fame proceeded in keeping with rules enacted in 2001 No individual was elected in that time, sparking criticism among some observers who expressed doubt whether the new Veterans Committee would ever elect a player. The Committee members – most of whom were Hall members – were accused of being reluctant to elect new candidates in the hope of heightening the value of their own selection. After no one was selected for the third consecutive election in 2007, Hall of Famer Mike Schmidt noted, "The same thing happens every year. Michael Jack Schmidt (born September 27, 1949 in Dayton Ohio) is a former professional Baseball player who played his entire Career The current members want to preserve the prestige as much as possible, and are unwilling to open the doors. " In 2007, the committee and its selection processes were again reorganized; the main committee now includes all living members of the Hall, and will vote on a reduced number of candidates from among players whose careers began in 1943 or later. Separate committees, including sportswriters and broadcasters, will select umpires, managers and executives, as well as players from earlier eras.
In the first election to be held under the 2007 revisions, two managers and three executives were elected in December 2007 as part of the 2008 election process. The elections to select the 2008 class of inductees to the Baseball Hall of Fame proceeded according to revised rules enacted in 2001 and further revamped in 2007 The next Veterans Committee elections will be held in 2009, with both the main committee and the panel for pre-World War II players voting. The main committee will vote in odd-numbered years, while the pre-WWII panel will vote every five years.
A further controversy erupted in 1972, when it emerged that some historic items given to the Hall had been sold on the collectibles market. It subsequently transpired that these had been lent to the Baseball Commissioner's Office, from where they had been taken and sold to offset personal financial problems by an assistant to Commissioner Bowie Kuhn, possibly without verifying their ownership. The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball. Bowie Kent Kuhn (October 28 1926 &ndash March 15 2007 was an American Lawyer and sports administrator who served as the 5th commissioner of Major League Baseball Under pressure from the New York Attorney General, the Commissioner's Office made reparations, but damage had been done to the Hall of Fame's reputation.
An ongoing controversy facing the Hall of Fame is that of the status of Shoeless Joe Jackson and Pete Rose. Joseph Jefferson Jackson ( July 16, 1888 &ndash December 5, 1951) nicknamed "Shoeless Joe", was an American Jackson and Rose were both banned from baseball for life for actions related to gambling on their own teams—Jackson was determined to have cooperated with those who conspired to lose the 1919 World Series on purpose, and Rose voluntarily accepted a permanent spot on the ineligible list in return for MLB's promise to make no official finding in relation to alleged betting on the Cincinnati Reds when he was their manager in the 1980s. The 1919 World Series matched the American League champion Chicago White Sox against the National League champion Cincinnati Reds. The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati Ohio, USA (Baseball's Rule 21, prominently posted in every clubhouse locker room, mandates permanent banishment from the sport for having a gambling interest of any sort on a game in which a player or manager is directly involved. ) While Jackson and Rose had outstanding playing careers that would usually merit Hall of Fame induction, the Hall of Fame disallows election of anyone on the permanent suspension list. (Many others have been permanently suspended, but none have Hall of Fame qualifications on the level of Jackson or Rose. A select few, such as Hal Chase and Eddie Cicotte, would be reasonable candidates had they not been barred. Chase defensively In his day Hal Chase was almost universally considered one of the best fielders in the game -- not just at first base but at any position even compared Edward Victor "Eddie" Cicotte ( June 19 1884 &ndash May 5 1969) (pronounced Sigh-Cottie nicknamed "Knuckles" was an ) Baseball fans are deeply split on the issue of whether these two should be exonerated or remain banned. Writer Bill James, though he advocates Rose eventually making it into the Hall of Fame, compared the people who want to put Jackson in the Hall of Fame to "those women who show up at murder trials wanting to marry the cute murderer. "
The Hall has also recently changed its stance regarding team membership. Although all the teams for which a player played are usually listed in the text of the plaque, most are depicted wearing the cap of one specific team. The rules of the Hall indicate that the player will be depicted wearing the cap of his "primary" team. Although the Hall always had the final decision-making power regarding which cap would appear, for many years the Hall deferred to the wishes of players for whom more than one team could fit the description of "primary" team, and allowed each player in that category to choose the cap which would appear on his plaque.
For example, Nolan Ryan, born and raised in Texas, entered the Hall in 1999 wearing a Texas Rangers cap on his plaque, although he spent only five seasons with the Rangers, and had longer and more successful tenures with the Astros (nine seasons, 1980–88) and Angels (eight seasons, 1972–79). Lynn Nolan Ryan Jr (born January 31, 1947 in Refugio, Texas) is a retired American Right-handed Pitcher in The Texas Rangers are an American professional baseball team based in Arlington Texas, United States, representing the Dallas-Ft The Houston Astros are a Professional baseball team based in Houston Texas. The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim are a professional baseball team based in Anaheim, California. Ryan's only championship was as a member of the Mets in 1969. "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis. The 1969 World Series was played between the New York Mets and the Baltimore Orioles, with the Mets prevailing in 5 games to accomplish one of the greatest upsets Ryan finished his career with the Rangers, reaching his 5000th strikeout and 300th win, and throwing the last two of his record-setting seven career no-hitters.
Another notable incident was Reggie Jackson, who chose a New York Yankees cap over an Oakland A's cap, even though he had played twice as long for the Kansas City/Oakland A's (ten seasons, 1967-75, 1987) and won three World Series (1972-73-74), as opposed to two (1977-78) with the Yankees (five seasons, 1977-81). Reginald Martinez Jackson (born May 18 1946) nicknamed " Mr The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. The Oakland Athletics are a professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. The 1972 World Series matched the American League champion Oakland Athletics against the National League champion Cincinnati Reds, with The 1973 World Series matched the defending champion Oakland Athletics against the New York Mets, with the A's winning in seven games to repeat as World Champions The 1974 World Series matched the two-time defending champion Oakland Athletics against the Los Angeles Dodgers with the A’s winning the Series in 5 games The 1977 World Series matched the returning American League champion New York Yankees against the Los Angeles Dodgers of the National League The 1978 World Series matched the defending champion New York Yankees against the Los Angeles Dodgers in a rematch of the 1977 Series, with the Yankees
Carlton Fisk went into the hall with a Boston Red Sox cap on his plaque in 2000 despite playing with the Chicago White Sox longer and posting more significant numbers with the White Sox. Carlton Ernest Fisk (born December 26 1947 in) is a former Major League Baseball Catcher who played for 24 years with the Boston Red Sox The Boston Red Sox are a Professional baseball team based in Boston Massachusetts, and are the reigning (2007 World Series Champions. The Chicago White Sox are a professional Baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. Fisk's choice of the Red Sox was likely because of Fisk being a New England native as well as his famous walk-off home run in Game Six of the 1975 World Series with which he is most associated. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the The 1975 World Series was between the Boston Red Sox and Cincinnati Reds.
Wade Boggs was in a similar situation; he won his only championship as a member of the 1996 New York Yankees, for whom he played from 1993-97, but posted his best career numbers in eleven years (1982-92) wearing the Boston Red Sox uniform. Wade Anthony Boggs (born June 15 1958 in Omaha Nebraska) is a former Third baseman in Major League Baseball, primarily with the Boston Red Sox The 1996 World Series matched the defending champion Atlanta Braves against the New York Yankees, with the Yankees winning in six games to capture their first The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. The Boston Red Sox are a Professional baseball team based in Boston Massachusetts, and are the reigning (2007 World Series Champions. Boggs was also plagued by newspaper reports that the expansion Tampa Bay Devil Rays gave him financial compensation in return for selecting a Devil Rays cap for his plague, though he has denied that any such condition was part of his contract. The Tampa Bay Rays are a Major League Baseball franchise based in St 
In light of those reports, and other rumors that teams were offering number retirement, money or organizational jobs in exchange for the cap designation, in 2001 the Hall decided to change the policy on cap logo selection. Although the decision-making process would be a mutual responsibility, the Hall, not the players, would have the final say in such matters. Boggs would eventually be depicted wearing a Boston cap for his 2005 induction, despite his acrimonious relationship with Red Sox management.
Gary Carter, inducted in 2003, was the first to test this new policy; he won his only championship with the 1986 New York Mets, and wanted his induction plaque to depict him wearing a Mets cap, even though he had spent twelve years (1974-84, 1992) with the Montreal Expos as opposed to five (1985-89) with the Mets. Gary Edmund Carter (born April 8 1954 nicknamed "Kid" or "Kid Carter" was a Major League Baseball Catcher from 1974-1992 The 1986 World Series pitted the New York Mets against the Boston Red Sox. "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis. Franchise history Creation of the franchise In 1960 Montreal lost its International League team the Montreal Royals (an affiliate of The Hall of Fame decided that his plaque would instead show Carter with an Expos cap.
Catfish Hunter, though harboring no ill will towards either of his employers, the Oakland Athletics and New York Yankees, could not decide which cap he preferred, as he had been successful with both teams. James Augustus "Catfish" Hunter ( April 8, 1946 – September 9, 1999) was a Major League Baseball right-handed Starting The Oakland Athletics are a professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. Hunter's plaque shows him wearing a cap without a logo.
|Baseball Hall of Fame balloting|
|Members: alphabetical list | chronological list|