The Nara period (奈良時代 Nara-jidai?) of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. The written history of Japan begins with brief references in the 1st century AD Twenty-Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts The covers the period from around 100000 to 30000 BC when the earliest Stone tool implements have been found to around 14000 BC at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds The is the time in Japanese prehistory from about 14000 BC to 400 BC. The is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. The is an era in the History of Japan from around 250 to 538 The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era The, was a period in the History of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592-645 although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura Shogunate, officially established in 1192 by the first Kamakura Shogun The was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336. The Muromachi period ( Japanese: 室町時代 Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era The, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japan 's history The came at the end of the Warring States Period in Japan, when the political unification that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate took place The Nanban trade ( Japanese: 南蛮貿易 nanban-bōeki, "Southern barbarian trade" or the Nanban trade period ( Japanese: 南蛮貿易時代 The, also referred to as the Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868 are the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate came to an end The, or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan 's political and social structure The, or Taishō era, is a period in the History of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign Japan participated in from 1914 to 1917 as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific The, or Shōwa era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Shōwa ( Hirohito) from December 25, 1926 to refers to the Ideology in the Empire of Japan that Militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation and that the strength of the military is At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, British Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952 Japan emerged as a global Economic power is the current era name in Japan. The Heisei era started on January 8, 1989, just one day after the death of the reigning Emperor Hirohito The economic history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth after the Meiji Revolution to be the first non European Power and after the Second World War The history of Education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court The military history of Japan is characterised by a long period of Feudal Wars, followed by domestic stability and then foreign conquest The naval history of Japan can be said to begin in early interactions with states on the Asian continent in the early centuries of the 1st millennium, reaching a pre-modern peak This is the glossary of Japanese history including the major terms titles and events the casual (or brand-new reader might find useful in understanding articles on the subject The written history of Japan begins with brief references in the 1st century AD Twenty-Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts For the area code see Area code 710. For the Los Angeles-area freeway see Interstate 710. Events By Place Asia Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital ending the Nara period, and beginning the Heian period.  Empress Gemmei (元明天皇 Gemmei Tennō) established the capital of Heijō-kyō (平城京, present-day Nara). (661 &ndash December 29 721 was the 43rd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family. in Nara, was the Imperial Palace of Japan (710-784 AD during most of the Nara Period. is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. Except for 5 years (740-745), when the capital was briefly moved again, it remained the capital of Japanese civilization until Emperor Kammu (桓武天皇 Kammu Tennō) established a new capital Nagaoka-kyō (長岡京) in 784 before moving to Heian-kyō (平安京), or Kyoto (京都), a decade later in 794. (737&ndash806 was the 50th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession was the Capital of Japan from 784 to 794. Its location was reported as Otokuni District, Yamashiro Province, and Nagaokakyo Kyoto Events By Place Asia The Japanese capital moves away from Nara, ending the Nara period. (IPA /kʲoːto / is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. Events By Place Asia Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital ending the Nara period, and beginning the Heian period.
Most of Japanese society during this period was agricultural in nature, centered around villages. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. Most of the villagers followed the Shinto religion, based around the worship of natural and ancestral spirits (kami). is the native religion of Japan and was once its State religion.
The capital at Nara was modeled after Chang'an (長安, present-day Xi'an, 西安), the capital city of Tang China (唐). Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National In many other ways, the Japanese upper classes patterned themselves after the Chinese, including adopting Chinese written characters (Japanese: kanji, 漢字), fashion, and the religion of Buddhism. is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with Hiragana (ひらがな 平仮名 Katakana Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
Concentrated efforts by the imperial court to record and document its history produced the first works of Japanese literature during the Nara period. The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family. Works such as the Kojiki (古事記) and the Nihon shoki (日本書紀) were political in nature, used to record and therefore justify and establish the supremacy of the rule of the emperors within Japan. The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
With the spread of written language, the writing of Japanese poetry, known in Japanese as waka (和歌), began. When Japanese poets first encountered Chinese poetry, it was at its peak in the Tang Dynasty. See Waka and Tanka (disambiguation for other usages Waka (和歌 or Yamato uta is a genre of Japanese poetry Over time, personal collections were referenced to establish the first large collection of Japanese poetry known as Man'yōshū (万葉集) sometime after 759. is the oldest existing collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods The anthology is one of the most revered of Japan's Events By Place Europe The Franks capture Narbonne; the Saracens are completely driven out of France. Chinese characters were used to express sounds of Japanese until kana were invented. is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities Kana is a general term for the syllabic Japanese scripts Hiragana (ひらがな and Katakana (カタカナ as well as the old system The Chinese characters used to express the sounds of Japanese are known as man'yōgana (万葉仮名). is an ancient Writing system which employs Chinese characters to represent the Japanese language.
Before the Taihō Code (大宝律令 Taihō-ritsuryō) was established, the capital was customarily moved after the death of an emperor because of the ancient belief that a place of death was polluted. The was an administrative reorganization enacted in 701 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period. Reforms and bureaucratization of government led to the establishment of a permanent imperial capital at Heijō-kyō (平城京), or Nara, in AD 710. in Nara, was the Imperial Palace of Japan (710-784 AD during most of the Nara Period. is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. For the area code see Area code 710. For the Los Angeles-area freeway see Interstate 710. It is to be noted that the capital was moved shortly (for reasons described later in this section) between 740 and 745; to Kuni-kyō (恭仁京, present-day Kizugawa) between 740 and 744, to Naniwa-kyō (難波京, present-day Osaka) in 744-745, to Shigarakinomiya (紫香楽宮, present-day Shigaraki) in 745 , but was moved back to Nara in 745. Kuni-kyō (恭仁京 or Kuni no miyako) was the capital city of Japan between 740 and 744 with the palace (恭仁宮 Kuni-kyū or Kuni no miya) built is a city in southern Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on March 12, 2007 after the towns of Kamo, Kizu and is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū was a town located in Kōka District, Shiga, Japan. It is an ancient centre for pottery making The capital at Nara, which gave its name to the new period, was styled after the grand Chinese Tang Dynasty (唐, 618–907) capital at Chang'an (長安). China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Events By Place Asia The Sui Dynasty ends and the Tang Dynasty begins in China. Events By Place Asia Oleg leads the Kievan Rus' in a campaign against Constantinople (see Rus'-Byzantine Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Nara was Japan's first truly urban center. It soon had a population of 200,000 (representing nearly 4% of the country's population) and some 10,000 people worked in government jobs.
Economic and administrative activity increased during the Nara period. Roads linked Nara to provincial capitals, and taxes were collected more efficiently and routinely. Coins were minted, if not widely used. Outside the Nara area, however, there was little commercial activity, and in the provinces the old Shōtoku land reform systems declined. also known as, was a Regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan. By the mid-eighth century, shōen (荘園, landed estates), one of the most important economic institutions in medieval Japan, began to rise as a result of the search for a more manageable form of landholding. The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A was a field or manor in Japan. The Japanese term comes from the Tang dynasty Chinese term Zhuangyuan. Local administration gradually became more self-sufficient, while the breakdown of the old land distribution system and the rise of taxes led to the loss or abandonment of land by many people who became the "wave people," or furōsha (浮浪者). Some of these formerly "public people" were privately employed by large landholders, and "public lands" increasingly reverted to the shōen.
Factional fighting at the imperial court continued throughout the Nara period. Imperial family members, leading court families, such as the Fujiwara (藤原), and Buddhist priests all contended for influence. The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) descending from the Nakatomi clan, was a powerful family of Regents in Japan that monopolized the regent positions Earlier this period, Prince Nagaya seized power at the court after the death of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Fuhito was succeeded by four sons, Muchimaro, Umakai, Fusasaki, and Maro. They put Emperor Shōmu, the prince by Fuhito's daughter, on the throne. In 729, they arrested Nagaya and regained control. However, as the first outbreak of smallpox spread from Kyushu in 735, all four brothers were killed two years later, resulting in temporary shrinking of Fujiwara's dominance. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. It is without doubt that the Emperor was heavily shocked to this disaster, and he moved the palace three times in only five years since 740, until he eventually returned to Nara. In the late Nara period, financial burdens on the state increased, and the court began dismissing nonessential officials. In 792 universal conscription was abandoned, and district heads were allowed to establish private militia forces for local police work. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Irene is confirmed empress of the Byzantine Empire. Decentralization of authority became the rule despite the reforms of the Nara period. Eventually, to return control to imperial hands, the capital was moved in 784 to Nagaoka-kyō (長岡京) and in 794 to Heian-kyō (平安京, Capital of Peace and Tranquility), about twenty-six kilometers north of Nara. Events By Place Asia The Japanese capital moves away from Nara, ending the Nara period. was the Capital of Japan from 784 to 794. Its location was reported as Otokuni District, Yamashiro Province, and Nagaokakyo Kyoto Events By Place Asia Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital ending the Nara period, and beginning the Heian period. By the late eleventh century, the city was popularly called Kyoto (京都, capital city), the name it has had ever since. (IPA /kʲoːto / is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan.
Some of Japan's literary monuments were written during the Nara period, including the Kojiki (古事記) and Nihon shoki (日本書紀), the first national histories, compiled in 712 and 720 respectively; the Man'yōshū (万葉集, Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves), an anthology of poems; and the Kaifūsō (懐風藻, Fond Recollections of Poetry), an anthology written in Chinese by Japanese emperors and princes. The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. Events By Place Europe Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. Events By Place Asia The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀 one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed is the oldest existing collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods The anthology is one of the most revered of Japan's is the oldest collection of Chinese poetry ( kanshi) written by Japanese poets
Another major cultural development of the era was the permanent establishment of Buddhism. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Buddhism was introduced by Baekje in the sixth century, but had a mixed reception until the Nara period, when it was heartily embraced by Emperor Shōmu (聖武天皇 Shōmu Tennō). Baekje (18 BCE – 660 CE or Paekche, was a kingdom located in southwest Korea The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Emperor Shōmu (聖武天皇 Shōmu Tennō) (701 – June 4, 756) was the 45th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional Shōmu and his Fujiwara consort were fervent Buddhists and actively promoted the spread of Buddhism, making it the "guardian of the state" and a way of strengthening Japanese institutions.
During Shōmu's reign, the Tōdai-ji (東大寺, lit. is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. Eastern Great Temple) was built, and within it was placed the Buddha Dainichi (Great Sun Buddha), a sixteen-metre-high, gilt-bronze statue. This Buddha was identified with the Sun Goddess, and a gradual syncretism of Buddhism and Shinto ensued. Shōmu declared himself the "Servant of the Three Treasures" of Buddhism: the Buddha, the law or teachings of Buddhism, and the Buddhist community. The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, the Three Refuges, or the Triple Gem, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge
The central government also established temples called kokubunji (国分寺) in the provinces. Before the modern prefecture system was established the land of Japan was divided into tens of kuni (国 countries) usually known in The Tōdai-ji was the kokubunji of Yamato Province (大和国, present-day Nara Prefecture, 奈良県). was a province of Japan, located in Kinai, corresponding to present-day Nara Prefecture in Honshū. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> is a prefecture in the Kinki region on Honshū Island, Japan
Although these efforts stopped short of making Buddhism the state religion, Nara Buddhism heightened the status of the imperial family. Buddhist influence at court increased under the two reigns of Shōmu's daughter. As Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken Tennō, r. Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku-tennō) (718 &ndash August 28, 770) was both the 46th and the 48th imperial ruler 749-758) she brought many Buddhist priests into court. Events By Place Europe June — Aistulf succeeds his brother Ratchis as king of the Lombards. Events By Place Asia Emperor Junnin succeeds Empress Kōken on the throne of Japan. Kōken abdicated in 758 on the advice of her cousin, Fujiwara no Nakamaro (藤原 仲麻呂). Events By Place Asia Emperor Junnin succeeds Empress Kōken on the throne of Japan. Fujiwara no Nakamaro (藤原仲麻呂 706 - October 21, 764) later renamed Emi no Oshikatsu, was an aristocrat ( Kuge) When the retired empress came to favor a Buddhist faith healer named Dōkyō (道鏡), Nakamaro rose up in arms in 764 but was quickly crushed. Dōkyō (道鏡 700 - 772 was a Nara Period Japanese monk of the Dharma character school. Events By Place Asia Empress Shōtoku succeeds Emperor Junnin on the throne of Japan. Kōken charged the ruling emperor with colluding with Nakamaro and had him deposed. Kōken reascended the throne as Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku Tennō, r. 764–770). Events By Place Asia Empress Shōtoku succeeds Emperor Junnin on the throne of Japan. Events By Place Asia Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. The empress commissioned the printing of 1 million prayer charms—the Hyakumanto dharani (百万塔陀羅尼) —many examples of which survive. The Hyakumanto Darani, or the One Million Pagodas and Dharani Prayers is known as the earliest Printing in the world The small scrolls, dating from 770, are among the earliest printed works in the world. Events By Place Asia Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. Shōtoku had the charms printed to placate the Buddhist clergy. She may even have wanted to make Dōkyō emperor, but she died before she could act. Her actions shocked Nara society and led to the exclusion of women from imperial succession and the removal of Buddhist priests from positions of political authority.
Many of the Japanese artworks and imported treasures from other countries during the era of Emperors Shōmu and Shōtoku are archived in Shōsō-in of Tōdai-ji temple. The is the treasure house that belongs to Tōdai-ji, Nara The building is in the azekura log-cabin style with a raised floor They are called Shōsōin treasures, and illustrate the cosmopolitan culture also known as Tempyō culture. Imported treasures show various influences of Silk Road areas, including China, Korea, India, and Islamic Empire. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Also, Shosoin stores more than 10,000 paper documents so-called Shōsōin documents (正倉院文書). These are records written in the reverse side of the sutra or in the wrapping of imported items, and survived as a result of reusing wasted official documents. Shōsōin documents contribute greatly to the research of Japanese political and social systems of the Nara period, while they even indicate the development of Japanese writing systems (such as katakana). is a Japanese Syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with Hiragana, Kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet
The Nara court aggressively imported Chinese civilization by sending diplomatic envoys to the Tang (唐) court every twenty years (known as Kentō-shi, 遣唐使). China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Many Japanese students, both lay and Buddhist priests, studied in Chang'an (長安) and Luoyang (洛陽). Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. One student named Abe no Nakamaro (阿倍 仲麻呂) passed the Chinese civil examination to be appointed to governmental posts in China. was a scholar administrator and waka poet in the Nara period. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. He served as Governor-General in Annam (安南) or Chinese Vietnam from 761 through 767. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially This article is about the year 761 For the number see 761 (number. ---- Events By Place Europe A period of Anarchy begins in Bulgaria. Many students who returned to their homeland were promoted to high government posts like Kibi no Makibi (吉備 真備). Kibi no Makibi (吉備真備 695–775 was a Japanese scholar and noble during the Nara period.
Tang China never sent official envoys to Japan, for Japanese kings, or emperors as they styled themselves, did not seek investiture from the Chinese emperor. A local Chinese government in Lower Yangzi Valley sent a mission to Japan to return Japanese envoys who entered China through Balhae (渤海). Alternate meaning Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926 ( Bohai in Chinese, Пархэ in Russian) was an The Chinese local mission could not return home due to the rebellion of An Lu Shan, ending up to be naturalized in Japan. The An Shi Rebellion ( took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16 755 to February 17 763.
Relations with the Korean kingdom of Silla (新羅) were initially peaceful, with regular diplomatic exchanges. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Silla (57 BC – 935 AD was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. But the rise of Balhae north of Silla destabilized the Japan-Silla relations. Alternate meaning Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926 ( Bohai in Chinese, Пархэ in Russian) was an Balhae sent its first mission in 728 to Nara, which welcomed them as the successor to Goguryeo (高句麗), with which Japan was allied until Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Alternate meaning Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926 ( Bohai in Chinese, Пархэ in Russian) was an Events By Place Europe Liutprand King of the Lombards occupies all of the exarchate. Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, southern Manchuria, and The Three Kingdoms of Korea ( refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula