Nālandā is the name of an ancient university in Bihar, India. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 CE to 1197 CE partly under the Pala Empire. India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. Paṭnā ( Hindi: पटना is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions from the 8th to  It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history. " Nalanda is located at . Nālanda was identified by Alexander Cunningham with the village of Baragaon. Sir Alexander Cunningham ( 23 January 1814 &ndash 28 November 1893) was a British Archaeologist and Army
The name is a Sanskrit word that means giver of knowledge, (possibly from nalam, lotus, a symbol of knowledge and da, to give). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical  The Chinese pilgrim-monk Xuanzang gives several explanations of the name Nālandā. See also Xuanzang (fictional character Xuanzang ( pronounced Shwan-dzang) was a famous Chinese Buddhist Monk, scholar traveler One is that it was named after the Nāga who lived in a tank in the middle of the mango grove. Another - and accepted by him - is that Shakyamuni Buddha once had his capital here and gave "alms without intermission," hence the name. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder
The Buddha is mentioned as having several times stayed at Nalanda. When he visited Nalanda he would usually reside in Pāvārika's mango grove, and while there he had discussions with Upāli-Gahapati and Dīghatapassī, with Kevatta, and also several conversations with Asibandhakaputta.
The Buddha visited Nālandā during his last tour through Magadha, and it was there that Sariputta uttered his "lion's roar," affirming his faith in the Buddha, shortly before his death. Magadha (मगध formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas ( Sanskrit, "great countries" or regions in ancient India. Śāriputra ( Sanskrit: शारिपुत्र or Sāriputta ( Pāli) was one of two principal disciples of The Buddha. The road from Rājagaha to Nālandā passed through Ambalatthikā, and from Nālandā it went on to Pātaligāma. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Paṭnā ( Hindi: पटना is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited Between Rājagaha and Nālandā was situated the Bahuputta cetiya.
According to the Kevatta Sutta, in the Buddha's time Nālandā was already an influential and prosperous town, thickly populated, though it was not until later that it became the centre of learning for which it afterwards became famous. The Kevatta Sutta (or Kevaddha) is a Buddhist scripture one of the texts in the Digha Nikaya (long discourses collectionof the Pali Canon. There is a record in the Samyutta Nikaya, of the town having been the victim of a severe famine during the Buddha's time. The Samyutta Nikaya (Saṃyutta Nikāya SN, "Connected Discourses" or "Kindred Sayings" is a Buddhist scripture the third of the five Nikayas Sāriputta, the right hand disciple of the Buddha, was born and died in Nālandā. Śāriputra ( Sanskrit: शारिपुत्र or Sāriputta ( Pāli) was one of two principal disciples of The Buddha. 
Nālandā was the residence of Sonnadinnā. Mahavira is several times mentioned as staying at Nālandā, which was evidently a centre of activity of the Jains. Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Mahavira is believed to have attained Moksha at Pavapuri, which is located in Nalanda (also according to one sect of Jainism he was born in the nearby village called Kundalpur). Mahavira (महावीर lit Great Hero) (599 – 527 BCE is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamana ( Sanskrit: वर्धमान In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" Pawapuri in the state of Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir in Nalanda district and 90 kilometers from
King Asoka (250 BC) is said to have built a temple there. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi According to Tibetan sources, Nagarjuna taught there. Acharya Nāgārjuna ( Telugu: నాగార్జున (c 150 - 250 CE) was an Indian philosopher the founder of the Madhyamaka
Historical studies indicate that the University of Nalanda was established 450 CE under the patronage of the Gupta emperors, notably Kumaragupta. Kumaragupta I (Mahendraditya was ruler of the Gupta Empire from 415 - 455 CE. 
|The Four Main Sites|
|Lumbini · Bodh Gaya|
Sarnath · Kushinagar
|Four Additional Sites|
|Sravasti · Rajgir|
Sankissa · Vaishali
|Patna · Gaya|
Kosambi · Mathura
Kapilavastu · Devadaha
Kesariya · Pava
Nalanda · Varanasi
|Sanchi · Ratnagiri|
Ellora · Ajanta
Nalanda was one of the world's first residential universities, i. The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Lumbini ( Sanskrit: sa लुम्बिनी "the lovely" is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Kapilavastu district of Nepal WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya (Hindi बोधगया is a city in Gaya district in the This article is about a place in India For H P Lovecraft 's fictitious city see The Doom That Came to Sarnath. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kushinagar or Kusinagar (26 Srāvastī or Sāvatthī ( Hindi: श्रावस्ती a city of ancient India, was one of the six largest cities in India during Gautama Buddha WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Sankassa (also Sankasia, Sankissa and Sankasya) was a city in India at the time of Gautama Buddha, thirty leagues from Savatthi. Vaishali or Vesali ( Pali) was a city the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. Paṭnā ( Hindi: पटना is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited Gaya[[http //gayabihnicin/]] is a city in Bihar, India, and it is also the headquarters of Gaya District. Kosambi ( Pali) or Kausambi ( Sanskrit) was one of the greatest cities in India in the Buddha 's time (500 BC Mathura ( IAST mathurā)( Hindi: मथुरा is a holy City in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Kapilavastu is the name of an region of ancient Shakya kingdom that is considered a holy pilgrimage place for Buddhists, located close to Lumbini. Devadaha was a township of the Sākiyans (nowadays Nepal) It is near Kapilvastu. Kesariya is a small city in Bihar, India. It is famous for being the site of (possibly the biggest Stupa of India, built by King Ashoka Pava was a city in ancient India, at the time of Gautama Buddha. Varanasi ( Sanskrit: वाराणसी Vārāṇasī, pronunciation) also commonly known as Benares ( or Banaras (बनारस Sanchi is a small Village in Raisen District of India, it is located 46 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and Ratnagiri was once the site of a mahavihara or major Buddhist monastery in the Brahmani and Birupa river valley in Jajpur district of Orissa, India. Ellora ( Marathi: Verul is an archaeological site 30 km (186 miles from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra Bharhut or Barhut, is a location in Satna district in Madhya Pradesh, Central India, known for its famous Buddhist Stupa. e. , it had dormitories for students. It is also one of the most famous universities. In its heyday it accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey.  The Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the university in the 7th century. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National See also Xuanzang (fictional character Xuanzang ( pronounced Shwan-dzang) was a famous Chinese Buddhist Monk, scholar traveler The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
In an unattributed article of the Dharma Fellowship (2005), the curriculum of Nalanda University at the time of Mañjuśrīmitra contained:
. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency in the Department of Culture that is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of Mañjuśrīmitra ( was an Indian Buddhist scholar the main student of Garab Dorje and a teacher of Dzogchen. . . virtually the entire range of world knowledge then available. Courses were drawn from every field of learning, Buddhist and Hindu, sacred and secular, foreign and native. Students studied science, astronomy, medicine, and logic as diligently as they applied themselves to metaphysics, philosophy, Samkhya, Yoga-shastra, the Veda, and the scriptures of Buddhism. They studied foreign philosophy likewise. 
Berzin (2002) outlines the 'four systems of Buddhist tenets' or 'four doxographies' (Tibetan: grub-mtha’) taught at Nalanda, the Vaibhashika (Tibetan: bye-brag smra-ba) and Sautrantika (Tibetan: mdo-sde-pa) of the Sarvastivada (Tibetan: thams-cad yod-par smra-ba); and the Chittamatra (Sanskrit: sems-tsam-pa) and Madhyamaka (Tibetan: dbu-ma-pa) of the Mahayana:
In the Indian Mahayana Buddhist monasteries, such as Nalanda, monks studied four systems of Buddhist tenets. Alexander Berzin (born 1944 is a Buddhist Scholar translator and teacher focusing on the Tibetan tradition Doxography ( Greek: δόξα - " an opinion a point of view " + γράφειν - " to write to describe " is a term used for the works Vaibhashika is an early Buddhist school formed by adherents of the Vibhasha Shastra. The Sautrāntika were an early school of Buddhist philosophy. Sarvastivada is an early school of Buddhism that held to 'the existence of all Dharmas in the past present and future the 'three times' Yogācāra (Sanskrit "yoga practice" "one whose practice is yoga" Chinese Yüjiazong "Yoga School" 瑜珈宗 is an influential school of Eastern Philosophy Madhyamaka ( Sanskrit: मध्यमक Madhyamaka,, Pinyin: Zhōngguānzōng; also known as Śunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Two – Vaibhashika and Sautrantika – were subdivisions of the Sarvastivada school within Hinayana. The other two – Chittamatra and Madhyamaka – were subdivisions within Mahayana. 
A vast amount of what is considered to be Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana) actually stems from the late (9th-12th century) Nalanda teachers and traditions. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Vajrayana Buddhism is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and The scholar Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic, as well as and one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism, taught at Nalanda. Dharmakirti ( ca 7th century was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. This article is about Philosophical logic not Philosophy of logic Philosophical logic is the study of the more specifically philosophical aspects of The development of Indian logic can be said to date back to the anviksiki of Medhatithi Gautama (c Buddhist atomism had two major movements During the first phase Buddhist Atomism had a very qualitative Aristotelian -style Atomic theory in
Other forms of Buddhism, like the Mahayana followed in Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan, found their genesis within the walls of the ancient university. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
Also Theravada Buddhism was taught at Nalanda University. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation But the teachings of Theravada were not developed further in Nalanda, as Nalanda was not a strong center of Theravada.
In 1193, the Nalanda University was sacked by Bakhtiyar Khilji; this event is arguably seen by modern Brahiminist scholars as a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji ( Bengali ইখতিয়ার উদ্দিন মুহম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজী Persian The Decline of Buddhism in India, in the land of its birth occurred for a variety of reasons and happened even as it continued to flourish beyond the frontiers of India Legend has that the only thing Khilji asked was if there was a copy of the Koran at Nalanda before he sacked it. The Persian historian Minhaz, in his chronicle the Tabaquat-I-Nasiri, reported that thousands of monks were burned alive and thousands beheaded, and the burning of the library continued for several months and "smoke from the burning manuscripts hung for days like a dark pall over the low hills. ". When the Tibetan translator Chag Lotsawa (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197 - 1264) visited the site in 1235, he found it damaged and looted, with a 90 year-old teacher, Rahula Shribhadra, instructing a class of about seventy students, apparently with the support of a local Brahmin. .
Ahir considers the destruction of the temples, monasteries, centers of learning at Nalanda and northern India to be responsible for the demise of ancient Indian scientific thought in mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, and anatomy.  Ling and Scott, however, point out that centres of learning were already declining, before the presence of Muslims.  Fortified Sena monasteries along the main route of the invasion were destroyed, and being off the main route both Nalanda and Bodh Gaya survived. The Sena dynasty ( Bengali সেন Shen) ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. Many institutions off the main route such as the Jagaddala Monastery in northern Bengal were untouched and flourishing.
A number of ruined structures survive. Nearby is the Surya Mandir, a Hindu temple. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The known and excavated ruins extend over an area of about 150,000 square metres, although if Xuanzang's account of Nalanda's extent is correlated with present excavations, almost 90% of it remains unexcavated. This article is about ruins in Architecture; for other meanings see Ruins (disambiguation. See also Xuanzang (fictional character Xuanzang ( pronounced Shwan-dzang) was a famous Chinese Buddhist Monk, scholar traveler
Nālandā is no longer inhabited. Today the nearest habitation is a village called Bargaon.
In 1951, a modern centre for Pali (Theravadin) Buddhist studies was founded nearby by Bhikshu Jagdish Kashyap, the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Presently, this institute is pursuing an ambitious program of satellite imaging of the entire region.
The Nalanda Museum contains a number of manuscripts, and shows many examples of the items that have been excavated.
[India's first Multimedia Museum] http://www.prachinbharat.com was opened on 26th Jan 2008 which recreates the History of Nalanda using 3D Animation Film. Shekhar Suman is the narrator of this animation film. Besides this there are four more sections in the Multimedia Museum like Geographical Perspective, Historical Perspective, Hall of Nalanda Revival of Nalanda.
The mounds at Nalanda, as they stood, before the University was excavated. Several sites on the Indian subcontinent were centres of learning in ancient times Varanasi ( Sanskrit: वाराणसी Vārāṇasī, pronunciation) also commonly known as Benares ( or Banaras (बनारस Journey to Srivijaya and Nalanda Zhang Wen Ming became a monk at age 14 and was an admirer of Fa Xian and Xuanzang, both famous monks of his childhood Nava Vihara ( Sanskrit: sa-Deva नव विहार "new temple" or "new monastery" (see Vihara) has been arabized as Nau Behar Puspagiri University was a prominent Buddhist seat of learning that flourished until the 11th century in India For the Genus of metalmark butterflies, see Taxila (butterfly. University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India along with University during the Pala dynasty.
Front view of Sariputta Stupa
Back view of Sariputta Stupa