|National Aeronautics and Space Administration|
Motto: For the Benefit of All. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA logo has three official designs although one of them (the "worm" has been retired from official use 
|Formed||29 July 1958|
|Jurisdiction||United States government|
|Annual Budget||$17. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D 3 billion (FY 2008)|
|Agency Executives||Michael D. Griffin, Administrator|
Shana Dale, Deputy Administrator
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, pronounced /ˈnæsə/) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program. For other people with the same name see Michael Griffin (disambiguation. Shana L Dale (born 1964 in Georgia) is the Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA) The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to Outer space and Space exploration. NASA was established on July 29, 1958, by the National Aeronautics and Space Act. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Aeronautics and Space Act ( is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA 
In addition to the space program, it is also responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research. This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the Since February 2006 NASA's self-described mission statement is to "pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Aeronautics (from Greek aero which means air or sky and nautis which means sailor i "
Following the Soviet space program's launch of the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik 1) on 4 October 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The Soviet space program consisted of initiatives within the Soviet Union by competing design groups This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. Sputnik 1 ( "Спутник-1", "Satellite-1" ПС-1 ( PS-1, i Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The U.S. Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to U. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses S. security and technological leadership (known as the "Sputnik crisis"), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisors counseled more deliberate measures. The Sputnik crisis was a turning point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Several months of debate produced an agreement that a new federal agency was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. DARPA was also created at this time and many of DARPA's early space programs were soon transferred to NASA. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new Technology
Explorer 1, officially Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first Earth artificial satellite of the United States, having been launched at 10:48pm EST on 31 January 1958. Explorer 1 (officially titled at NASA as satellite 1958 Alpha) was the first Earth Satellite of the United States, launched on February 1 Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On 29 July 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The National Aeronautics and Space Act ( is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA When it began operations on 1 October 1958, NASA consisted mainly of the four laboratories and some 80 employees of the government's 46-year-old research agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space race was the technology from the German rocket program, led by Wernher von Braun, who became a naturalized citizen of the United States after World War II. See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23 1912 &ndash June 16 1977 a German rocket physicist and astronautics engineer became one of the leading figures in Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including He is today regarded as the father of the United States space program. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (of which von Braun's team was a part) and the Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps and conducts a
NASA's earliest programs involved research into human spaceflight and were conducted under the pressure of the competition between the U. A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers S. and the USSR (the Space Race) that existed during the Cold War. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Space Race was a competition of space exploration between the Soviet Union and the United States, which lasted roughly from 1957 to 1975 Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Project Mercury, initiated in 1958, started NASA down the path of human space exploration with missions designed to discover simply if man could survive in space. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. Representatives from the U. S. Army (M. L. Raines, LTC, USA), Navy (P. L. Havenstein, CDR, USN) and Air Force (K. G. Lindell, COL, USAF) were selected/requested to provide assistance to the NASA Space Task Group through coordination with the existing U. S. defense research and defense contracting infrastructure, and technical assistance resulting from experimental aircraft (and the associated military test pilot pool) development in the 1950s. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space when he piloted Freedom 7 on a 15-minute suborbital flight. Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr (November 18 1923 &ndash July 21 1998 ( Rear Admiral, USN Ret Mercury-Redstone 3 was a US Mercury program human crewed space mission launched on May 5, 1961 using a Redstone rocket John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth on 20 February 1962 during the 5 and a quarter-hour flight of Friendship 7. John Herschel Glenn Jr (born July 18 1921 in Cambridge Ohio) is a former United States Senator who first rose to fame as the first American to Orbit Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Mercury-Atlas 6 mission was the first attempt by the US and Mercury program to place an astronaut in orbit
Once the Mercury project proved that human spaceflight was possible, Project Gemini was launched to conduct experiments and work out issues relating to a moon mission. Team The Gemini program was managed by the Manned Spacecraft Center Houston Texas under direction of the Office of Manned Space Flight NASA Headquarters Washington The first Gemini flight with astronauts on board, Gemini 3, was flown by Gus Grissom and John Young on 23 March 1965. Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASA 's Gemini program. Virgil Ivan Grissom, more widely known as Gus Grissom, ( 3 April 1926 – 27 January 1967) was one of the original NASA John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA Astronaut who walked on the Moon on April 21, 1972 Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Nine other missions followed, showing that long-duration human space flight was possible, proving that rendezvous and docking with another vehicle in space was possible, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on human beings.
The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. Apollo 1 ended tragically when all the astronauts inside died due to fire in command module during an experimental simulation. Because of this incident, there were a few unmanned tests before men boarded the spacecraft. Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 tested various components while orbiting the Moon, and returned photography. On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11, landed the first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong. Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5 1930 is a former American Astronaut, Test pilot, University Professor, and United States Apollo 13 did not land on the Moon due to a malfunction, but did return photographs. The six missions that landed on the Moon returned a wealth of scientific data and almost 400 kilograms of lunar samples. Experiments included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismic, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind experiments. Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies principles of Engineering mechanics, e Seismology (from Greek grc σεισμός seismos, "earthquake" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Earthquakes In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of Thermal energy from a hot to a colder body The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges 
Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. Skylab was the first Space station the United States launched into orbit and the second space station ever visited by a human crew A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The 75 tonne station was in Earth orbit from 1973 to 1979, and was visited by crews three times, in 1973 and 1974. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. Skylab was originally intended to study gravitational anomalies in other solar systems, but the assignment was curtailed due to lack of funding and interest. It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity, and a solar observatory. A Space Shuttle was planned to dock with and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but Skylab reentered the atmosphere and was destroyed in 1979, before the first shuttle could be launched.
The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (or ASTP) was the first joint flight of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik The mission took place in July 1975. For the United States of America, it was the last Apollo flight, as well as the last manned space launch until the flight of the first Space Shuttle in April 1981. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States
The Space Shuttle became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Planned to be a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttles were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia, did so on April 12, 1981. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 
The shuttle was not all good news for NASA — flights were much more expensive than initially projected, and even after the 1986 Challenger disaster highlighted the risks of space flight, the public again lost interest as missions appeared to become mundane. STS-51-L was the twenty-fifth flight of the American Space Shuttle program, which marked the first time a civilian had flown aboard the Space Shuttle Work began on Space Station Freedom as a focus for the manned space program but within NASA there was argument that these projects came at the expense of more inspiring unmanned missions such as the Voyager probes. Original proposal In the early 1980s with the Space shuttle completed NASA proposed the creation of a large permanently manned space station which then-NASA-Administrator See also Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The Voyager program consists of a pair of unmanned scientific probes Voyager 1 and The Challenger disaster, aside from the late 1980s, marked a low point for NASA.
Nonetheless, the shuttle has been used to launch milestone projects like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Hubble Space Telescope ( HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble" is a space telescope that was carried into The HST was created with a relatively small budget of $2 billion but has continued operation since 1990 and has delighted both scientists and the public. Some of the images it has returned have become near-legendary, such as the groundbreaking Hubble Deep Field images. The Hubble Deep Field (HDF is an image of a small region in the Constellation Ursa Major, based on the results of a series of observations by the Hubble The HST is a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), and its success has paved the way for greater collaboration between the agencies. The European Space Agency ( ESA) established in 1975 is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member
In 1995 Russian-American interaction would again be achieved as the Shuttle-Mir missions began, and once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft (this time a full-fledged space station). The Shuttle&ndashMir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the This cooperation continues to the present day, with Russia and America the two biggest partners in the largest space station ever built – the International Space Station (ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS following the 2003 Columbia disaster, which grounded the shuttle fleet for well over two years. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas
Costing over one hundred billion dollars, it has been difficult at times for NASA to justify the ISS. The population at large has historically been hard to impress with details of scientific experiments in space, preferring news of grand projects to exotic locations. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Even now, the ISS cannot accommodate as many scientists as planned.
During much of the 1990s, NASA was faced with shrinking annual budgets due to Congressional belt-tightening in Washington, D. C. In response, NASA's ninth administrator, Daniel Goldin, pioneered the "faster, better, cheaper" approach that enabled NASA to cut costs while still delivering a wide variety of aerospace programs (Discovery Program). Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to NASA 's Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost highly focused scientific space missions That method was criticized and re-evaluated following the twin losses of Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander in 1999. The Mars Climate Orbiter (formerly the Mars Surveyor '98 Orbiter was one of two spacecraft in the Mars Surveyor '98 program, the other being the Mars Polar Lander The Mars Polar Lander was part of the NASA Mars Surveyor '98 program, which consisted of two spacecraft launched separately the Mars Climate Yet, NASA's shuttle program had made 116 successful launches as of December 2006.
The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, which killed the crew of six Americans and one Israeli, caused a 29-month hiatus in space shuttle flights and triggered a serious re-examination of NASA's priorities. The U. S. government, various scientists, and the public all reconsidered the future of the space program.
NASA's ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars and Saturn and studies of the Earth and the Sun. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. Other NASA spacecraft are presently en route to Mercury and Pluto. With missions to Jupiter in planning stages, NASA's itinerary covers over half the solar system.
Managed by the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, the Phoenix mission was launched on August 4, 2007. Phoenix is a Robotic spacecraft on a Space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. It will search for possible underground water courses in the northern Martian pole. This lander revives much of its experiments and instrumentation from the failed 1999 Mars Polar Lander, hence its name. The Mars Polar Lander was part of the NASA Mars Surveyor '98 program, which consisted of two spacecraft launched separately the Mars Climate An improved and larger rover, Mars Science Laboratory, is under construction and slated to launch in 2009. A rover is a Space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a Planet or other Astronomical body. The Mars Science Laboratory ( MSL) is a NASA rover scheduled to be launched on September 15, 2009 and perform the first ever On the horizon of NASA's plans are two possibilities under consideration for the Mars Scout 2013 mission. Mars Scout 2013 is a Space probe mission planned by NASA as the second mission of the Mars Scout Program.
The New Horizons mission to Pluto was launched in 2006 and will fly by Pluto in 2015. New Horizons is a Robotic spacecraft mission by NASA currently underway The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter's inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the fly-by. In Orbital mechanics and Aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist or swing-by is the use of the relative movement and
On January 14, 2004, ten days after the landing of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, US President George W. Bush announced a new plan for NASA's future, dubbed the Vision for Space Exploration. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " MER-A ( Mars Exploration Rover - A) known as Spirit, is the first of the two rovers of NASA 's Mars Exploration Rover The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by U According to this plan, mankind will return to the Moon by 2018, and set up outposts as a testbed and potential resource for future missions. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The Space Shuttle will be retired in 2010 and Orion will replace it by 2014, capable of both docking with the ISS and leaving the Earth's orbit. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Orion is a Spacecraft design currently under development by the United States space agency NASA. The future of the ISS is somewhat uncertain — construction will be completed, but beyond that is less clear. Although the plan initially met with skepticism from Congress, in late 2004 Congress agreed to provide start-up funds for the first year's worth of the new space vision.
Hoping to spur innovation from the private sector, NASA established a series of Centennial Challenges, technology prizes for non-government teams, in 2004. The Centennial Challenges are NASA Space competition Prize Contests for non-government-funded technological achievements by American The Challenges include tasks that will be useful for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration, such as building more efficient astronaut gloves.
From 2002, NASA’s mission statement, used in budget and planning documents, read: “To understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe and search for life; to inspire the next generation of explorers . . . as only NASA can. ” In early February 2006, the statement was altered, with the phrase “to understand and protect our home planet” deleted.  Some outside observers believe the change is related to criticism of government policy on global warming by NASA scientists like James Hansen, but NASA officials have denied any such connection, pointing to new priorities for space exploration. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the This is about the American scientist/administrator For others see James Hansen (disambiguation. The chair and ranking member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs wrote NASA Administrator Griffin on July 31, 2006 expressing concerns about the change. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs has jurisdiction over matters related to the Department of Homeland Security and other homeland Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  NASA also canceled or delayed a number of earth science missions in 2006. 
On December 4, 2006, NASA announced it was planning to build a permanent moon base. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Lunar outpost will be an inhabited facility on the surface of the Moon which NASA currently plans to construct over the five years between 2019  NASA Associate Administrator Scott Horowitz said the goal was to start building the moonbase by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base, that would allow for crew rotations like the International Space Station. Additionally, NASA plans to collaborate and partner with other nations for this project. 
On September 28, 2007, NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin stated that NASA aims to put a man on Mars by 2037, and in 2057, "We should be celebrating 20 years of man on Mars. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. For other people with the same name see Michael Griffin (disambiguation. 2037 ( MMXXXVII) will be a Common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. This is an article about the year 2057 For the television show see 2057 (TV series. "
NASA has had many successful space missions and programs, including over 150 manned missions. This is a list of NASA missions, both manned and unmanned, since its establishment in 1958 Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr, January 20, 1930 in Glen Ridge, New Jersey) is an American Aviator A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers Many of the notable manned missions were from the Apollo program, a sequence of missions to the Moon which included the achievement of the first man to walk on the Moon, during Apollo 11. The Space Shuttle program has also been a success, despite the loss of two of the Space Shuttles, Challenger and Columbia which resulted in the deaths of their entire crews. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System ( STS) is the United States government's current manned Launch NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's The Space Shuttles were able to dock with the space station Mir while it was operational, and are now able to dock with the International Space Station — a joint project of many space agencies. A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space. Mir (Мир which can mean both Peace and World, and was the name given to peasant communes in pre-revolutionary Russia was a Soviet (and This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to Outer space and Space exploration. NASA's future plans for space exploration are with the Project Constellation. History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik
There have been many unmanned NASA space missions as well, including at least one that visited each of the other 7 planets in our Solar System, and four missions (Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2) that have left our solar system. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Pioneer 10 ( Pioneer-F) was the first Spacecraft to travel through the Asteroid belt, which it entered on July 15, 1972 Pioneer 11 was the second mission (after its sister probe Pioneer 10) to investigate Jupiter and the Outer solar system and the first to explore the planet The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, Voyager 2 is an unmanned Interplanetary Spacecraft launched on August 20, 1977. There has been much recent success with the missions to Mars, including the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the Phoenix Mars Lander. The exploration of Mars has been an important part of the Space exploration programs of the Soviet Union (later Russia) the United NASA 's Mars Exploration Rover ( MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of NASA 's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ( MRO) is a multipurpose Spacecraft designed to conduct Reconnaissance and exploration of Mars Phoenix is a Robotic spacecraft on a Space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. NASA remains the only space agency to have launched space missions to the outer solar system beyond the asteroid belt.
The Cassini probe, launched in 1997 and in orbit around Saturn since mid-2004, is investigating Saturn and its inner satellites. NASA 's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ( MRO) is a multipurpose Spacecraft designed to conduct Reconnaissance and exploration of Mars Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA / ESA / ASI Robotic spacecraft mission currently studying the planet Saturn and its Saturn has 60 confirmed moons. These include 22 regular satellites, which all have Prograde orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect With over twenty years in the making, Cassini-Huygens is an example of international cooperation between JPL-NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA).
Built entirely by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, NASA probes have been continually performing science at Mars since 1997, with at least two orbiters since 2001 and several Mars rovers. Mars rover is a Spacecraft which propels itself across the surface of Mars after landing. The orbiting Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will continue monitoring the geology and climate of the Red Planet, as well as searching for evidence of past or present water and life, as they have since 2001 and 2006, respectively. 2001 Mars Odyssey is a Robotic spacecraft Orbiting the planet Mars. NASA 's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ( MRO) is a multipurpose Spacecraft designed to conduct Reconnaissance and exploration of Mars If the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's nine-year lifetime is typical, these probes will continue to advance our knowledge for years to come. The Mars Global Surveyor ( MGS) was a US Spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity have been traversing the surface of Mars at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum since early 2004, and will continue to image and investigate those environments. NASA 's Mars Exploration Rover ( MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of MER-A ( Mars Exploration Rover - A) known as Spirit, is the first of the two rovers of NASA 's Mars Exploration Rover MER-B ( Mars Exploration Rover - B) known as Opportunity, is the second of the two rovers of NASA 's Mars Exploration Gusev Crater is a crater on the planet Mars and is located at 175 Meridiani Planum is a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars ' equator (centered at) in the westernmost portion of Terra Meridiani. They have both already operated over ten times longer than expected, and remain a promising part of NASA's future. Adding to this flotilla is the Phoenix Mars Lander, which executed a perfect powered touchdown in the northern latitudes of Mars on May 25, 2008 after a 10-month journey of more than 420 million miles. Phoenix is a Robotic spacecraft on a Space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program.
With the creation of NASA in 1958, the NACA was abolished, and its research centers-- Ames Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Langley Aeronautical Laboratory--were incorporated within the new space and aeronautics agency along with some elements of the U. S. Army and U. S. Navy. In 1967, Congress directed NASA to form an Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to advise the NASA Administrator on safety issues and hazards in NASA's aerospace programs. In addition, there were the Space Program Advisory Council and the Research and Technology Advisory Council.
In 1977, these were all combined to form the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) which is the successor to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program 
The Administrator of NASA is the highest-ranking official of that organization and serves as the senior space science advisor to the President of the United States. The role of the Administrator is to lead the NASA team and manage its resources to advance the U. S. Vision for Space Exploration. The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by U The current Administrator is Michael D. Griffin, who has served in that position since 2005. For other people with the same name see Michael Griffin (disambiguation. 
The Deputy Administrator of NASA serves as the agency's second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. The deputy administrator represents NASA to the Executive Office of the President, Congress, heads of federal and other appropriate government agencies, international organizations, and external organizations and communities. The deputy administrator also oversees the day to day work of NASA’s functional offices, such as the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Office of General Counsel and Strategic Communications. The current Deputy Administrator is Shana Dale, who has served in that position since 2005. Shana L Dale (born 1964 in Georgia) is the Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA) 
NASA's headquarters is located in Washington, D.C.
NASA's Shared Services center is located on the grounds of the John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The John C Stennis Space Center (or SSC) located in Hancock County Mississippi at the Mississippi / Louisiana border is NASA 's largest Bay Saint Louis is a city located in Hancock County Mississippi. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Construction of their facility began in August 2006 and the scheduled completion date is October 2007.
NASA has field and research installations listed below by application. Some facilities serve more than one application due to historical or administrative reasons.
Throughout its history, NASA has used several different types of aircraft on a permanent, semi-permanent, or short-term basis. These aircraft are usually surplus (or in a few cases new-built) military aircraft. Included among these are:
NASA presently bestows a number of medals and decorations to astronauts and other NASA personnel. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Each year the United States Congress passes a Federal Budget detailing where federal tax money will be spent in the coming fiscal year Awards and decorations of the United States government are civilian awards of the U Some awards are authorized for wear on active duty military uniforms. The highest award is the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, which has been award to 28 individuals (17 posthumously), and is said to recognize "any astronaut who in the performance of his duties has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious efforts and contributions to the welfare of the Nation and mankind. The Congressional Space Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress in 1969 to recognize "any Astronaut who in the performance of his duties has "
The second highest NASA award is the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, which may be presented to any member of the federal government, including both military astronauts and civilian employees. The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States. It is an annual award, given out at the National Aeronautics Space Foundation plant, located in Orlando, Florida.
In the middle of the 20th century NASA augmented its mission of Earth’s observation and redirected it toward environmental quality. The result was the launch of Earth Observing System (EOS) in 1980s, which was able to monitor one of the global environmental problems – ozone depletion. The Earth Observing System ( EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of Artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related observations a slow steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of Ozone in Earth's  The first comprehensive worldwide measurements were obtained in 1978 with the Nimbus-7 satellite and NASA scientists at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS at Columbia University in New York City, is a component laboratory of NASA's Goddard Space Flight 
In one of the nation's largest restoration projects NASA technology helps state and federal government reclaim 15,100 acres (61 km²) of salt evaporation ponds in South San Francisco Bay. Satellite sensors are used by a group of scientist to study the effect of salt evaporation on local ecology. 
NASA has started Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation Program as an agency-wide program directed to prevent pollution and reduce energy and water utilization. It helps to ensure that NASA meets its federal stewardship responsibilities for the environment. 
Understanding of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment is the main objective of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE, formerly called Mission To Planet Earth (MTPE, is a NASA research program "to develop a scientific understanding of For years it has been cooperating with major environment related agencies and creating united projects to achieve their goal. Past Enterprise’s programs include:
NASA is working in cooperation with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Oh's (or Honey Graham Oh's or Oh's!) is a cereal brand produced by the Quaker Oats Company. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL located in Golden Colorado, as part of the U The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL located in Golden Colorado, as part of the U The goal is to obtain to produce worldwide solar resource maps with great local detail.  NASA was also one of the main participants in the evaluation innovative technologies for the clean up of the sources for dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A dense nonaqueous phase liquid or DNAPL is a Liquid that is denser than Water and does not dissolve in water. A dense nonaqueous phase liquid or DNAPL is a Liquid that is denser than Water and does not dissolve in water. On April 6, 1999, the agency signed The Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) along with EPA, DOE, and USAF authorizing all the above organizations to conduct necessary tests at the John F. A memorandum of agreement (MOA or cooperative agreement is a document written between parties to cooperatively work together on an agreed upon project or meet an agreed upon objective The Moa were ten species (in six genera of flightless Birds endemic to New Zealand. Kennedy Space center. The main purpose was to evaluate two innovative in-situ remediation technologies, thermal removal and oxidation destruction of DNAPLs.  National Space Agency made a partnership with Military Services and Defense Contract Management Agency named the “Joint Group on Pollution Prevention”. The Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA is the United States Department of Defense (DoD agency responsible for performing Contract administration services (CAS The group is working on reduction or elimination of hazardous materials or processes. 
On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency recognized NASA as the first federal agency to directly use landfill gas to produce energy at one of its facilities - the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the The Goddard Space Flight Center ( GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight 
Currently, the ISS relies on the Shuttle fleet for all major construction shipments. The Shuttle fleet lost two spacecraft and fourteen astronauts in two disasters: Challenger in 1986, and Columbia in 2003. The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas  While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the Space Shuttle Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA has no plans to build another shuttle to replace the second loss, and instead will be transitioning to a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Space Shuttle Endeavour ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of STS-107 was a Space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched January 16, 2003. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (or CEV) was the conceptual component of the Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft 
The ISS was envisioned to eventually have a crew of seven, but following the Columbia Shuttle accident, the permanent space station crew of three was reduced to two, comprised of one Russian and one American for six months at a time. The result was that European and Japanese astronauts could not stay for longer missions. As of 2006, the station has been restored to a crew of three, and plans call for an increase to six in 2009, during Expedition 19. Expedition 19 is the 19th long duration flight to the International Space Station.
Other nations that have invested in the space station's construction, such as the members of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), have expressed concern over the completion of the ISS. The European Space Agency ( ESA) established in 1975 is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member The, or JAXA, is Japan's national Aerospace agency JAXA was formed on October 1 2003 as an Independent Administrative Institution through the  The schedule NASA planned does have flexibility in it, and Associate Administrator for Space Operations William H. Gerstenmaier explained that the shuttle had completed three missions within six months in 2007, showing that NASA can still meet the deadlines necessary for the critical flights remaining. William H Gerstenmaier has been the Associate Administrator for Space Operations for NASA since 2002 
Following the arrest of Lisa Nowak in February of 2007, NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin commissioned an independent panel, the NASA Astronaut Health Care System Review Committee, to examine how well NASA attended to the mental health of its astronauts. Lisa Marie Nowak (née Caputo) (born May 10, 1963) is a United States naval officer and a former NASA Astronaut. For other people with the same name see Michael Griffin (disambiguation. The initial report released by the panel raised questions in regards to possible alcohol use prior to flight.  However, the report offered no specifics, no facts to substantiate the claims, and stated that no attempt to confirm or investigate the allegations had been performed. 
Shuttle commander Scott J. Kelly was vocal in his criticism of the report during interviews prior to STS-118, stating that it was beyond his comprehension that astronauts would ever consider what was suggested. This article is about the astronaut Scott J Kelly For the musician Scott Kelly see Scott Kelly (musician Scott Joseph Kelly (born February STS-118 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS flown by Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.  Following the release of the independent panel report, NASA ordered an internal review, The Space Flight Safety Review. 
On August 29, 2007, Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer Bryan O'Connor reported that after the month-long review, NASA found that there was no evidence to verify the independent panel's report that astronauts have been allowed to fly drunk.  Additionally, investigation into all incident reports dating from 1984 to 2007, found no incident involving alcohol or drug use.  The report's findings specifically stated:
|“||"The culture of professionalism in today’s astronaut corps, along with the highly visible, structured and supervised schedule during the last several days prior to launch, provide reasonable controls to avoid flying an alcohol-impaired crewmember. In light of all the other controls in place on launch day, the L-0 flight surgeon check provides a reasonable likelihood of identifying signs of illness or impairment of the level that would threaten flight safety,"||”|
In response to the internal review, policies at NASA would be changed in a variety of ways: Flight surgeons would be present during the pre-mission suit-up activities, flight surgeons would receive additional training in psychiatric evaluation, and although there was an unofficial code of conduct in place, an official "Code of Conduct" would be written up for employees. 
Alan Stern, NASA's "hard-charging" and "reform-minded" Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, resigned on 25 March 2008, to be effective 11 April, after he ordered funding cuts to the Mars rovers and Mars Odyssey that were overturned by NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin. S Alan Stern is an American planetary scientist, born 22 November 1957 New Orleans Louisiana married (three children The Science Mission Directorate (SMD of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA engages the United States’ science community sponsors scientific research Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. NASA 's Mars Exploration Rover ( MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of 2001 Mars Odyssey is a Robotic spacecraft Orbiting the planet Mars. For other people with the same name see Michael Griffin (disambiguation. The cuts were intended to offset cost overruns for the Mars Science Laboratory. The Mars Science Laboratory ( MSL) is a NASA rover scheduled to be launched on September 15, 2009 and perform the first ever Stern, who served for nearly a year and has been credited with making "significant changes that have helped restore the importance of science in NASA’s mission. ", says he left to avoid cutting healthy programs and basic research in favor of politically sensitive projects. Griffin favors cutting "less popular parts" of the budget, including basic research, and Stern's refusal to do so led to his resignation.