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Theory and practice
Mutualism, as an anarchist school of thought, can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon that envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anarchism is a Political philosophy with many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory Some observers believe certain Buddhist teachings form a philosophical ground for Anarchism. Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine Anarchism with Christianity. Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is an umbrella term embracing two Anarchist schools of thought the first school is Socialist Crypto-anarchism is an Ideology that expounds the use of strong Public-key cryptography to enforce Privacy and individual freedom. Anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism) combines Anarchism with Feminism. Green anarchism is a school of thought within Anarchism which puts an emphasis on Environmental issues. Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective Infoanarchism is an Umbrella term for various groups of people who are opposed to forms of Intellectual property, such as Copyright and Patents Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory practice and tendency within the Anarchist movement which opposes formal anarchist organizations such as labor unions and Left anarchism or left-wing anarchism refers to forms of anarchism that are seen by some on the ' left of politics ' Anarcho-pacifism (also pacifist anarchism or anarchist pacifism) is a form of Anarchism which completely rejects the use of Violence in Philosophical anarchism is an Anarchist school of thought which contends that the State lacks moral legitimacy but does not advocate revolution to eliminate Platformism is a tendency within the wider Anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Dielo Truda's Organizational Platform Post-anarchism or postanarchism is the term used to represent anarchist philosophies developed since the 1980s using post-structuralist and Post-left anarchy is a recent current in Anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchism's relationship to traditional leftism. Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of Civilization. Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Anarchism without adjectives (from the Spanish " anarquismo sin adjetivos " in the words of historian George Richard Esenwein "referred to an An Anarch is a Conservative Revolutionary ideal of a sovereign individual, conceived by Ernst Jünger. Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness A black bloc is made up largely of anarchists or autonomists, anti-capitalist individuals or groups that gather for protests demonstrations or other event Traditionally the revolutionary left sees the commune as a populist replacement for the elitist parliament Consensus democracy is the application of Consensus decision making to the process of legislation in a Democracy. __FORCETOC__ Decentralization or Decentralisation (see Spelling differences) is the process of dispersing Decision-making governance closer to the people Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological Philosophy ( Ecosophy) that considers Humankind an integral part of its environment. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Dual power is a concept first articulated in an article by Lenin, "The Dual Power" ( dvoevlastie) which described a situation in the wake of the February Especifismo (English specifism is one of the two main forms of anarchist activism championed by FARJ (Federação Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro and other South American anarchist organizations Horizontalidad ( Eng: horizontality or horizontalism) is a theory or system that advocates the creation development and maintenance of social structures Not to be confused with the concept of "popular illegalisms" created by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish. Individual reclamation ( Fr: reprise individuelle) is a form of the Direct action, characterized by the individual theft of resources from the rich by the Anarchist law refers to a series of ongoing debates within the various branches of Anarchist theory regarding if and how norms of individual and/or collective behavior Participatory Politics or Parpolity is a theoretical political system proposed by Stephen R A Permanent autonomous zone (or a PAZ) is a Community that is autonomous from the generally recognized Government or authority structure in which The term prefigurative politics is widespread within various activist movements and in short it describes modes of organization and tactics undertaken that accurately reflect the future Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a Concept that promotes physical violence against Refusal of work is a concept that has been advocated at various times by many social activist groups mostly located on the Libertarian left. Pleistocene Rewilding Rewilding is the process of creating a lifestyle that is beyond Domestication. Social Ecology is a philosophy developed by French geographer and anarchist Élisée Reclus and revived by Murray Bookchin in the 1960s See also the closely related articles Emergence and Self-organization. Anarchism is a heterogeneous philosophy with many different tendencies and schools of thought; differences on questions of ideology values and tactics are common This article discusses similarities and differences between Anarcho-capitalism and other types of Anarchism. The anarchist philosophical and political movement has some connections to elements of the Animal liberation movement. Though some Anarchists advocate free-market, Laissez-faire Capitalism, other anarchists oppose capitalism to varying degrees Criticisms of anarchism originate from the interest groups it opposes as well as related theories such as Marxism. Although anarchists commonly reject Organized religion (see Anarchism and religion) there have been numerous traditions within Islam (often associated with Sufism Anarchism and Marxism are related political philosophies which emerged in the nineteenth century Anarchism and nationalism both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated While there is no organized Orthodox Jewish anarchist movement, various anarchistic ideas are common in the works of many Kabbalists and Hasidic teachers Anarchists have traditionally been skeptical of and opposed to Organized religion. Anarchism and violence have become closely connected in popular thought in part because of a concept of " Propaganda of the deed " Originating in the Greek language ( αρχή "arche" means "beginning origin outset prime principle start threshold" the term "anarchy" The Amakasu Incident occurred on September 16, 1923, in the chaos immediately following the Great Kantō earthquake. Anarchist Catalonia ( July 21, 1936 – February 10, 1939) was the self-proclaimed Stateless territory and Anarchist The Anarchist Exclusion Act refers to two different acts passed by the United States Congress intended to keep immigrants that subscribed to anarchist ideas Somalia, from 1991 to present is cited as a real-world example of a Stateless society and legal system The Australian Anarchist Centenary Celebrations occurred on the 1st to the 4th of May 1986 in Melbourne, Australia. Barcelona May Days is a term covering the events between May 3 and May 8 1937, when factions on the Republican side of the Spanish Civil The Global Carnival Against Capital took place on Friday June 18, 1999. La Escuela Moderna ( Spanish for "The Modern School" was a progressive school that existed briefly at the start of the 20th century in Catalonia ( The Hague Congress was the Fifth congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA held in (September 1872) in The Hague Holland which anarchists consider The, also known as the, was a Socialist - Anarchist plot to assassinate the Japanese Emperor Meiji in 1910 leading to a mass arrest of leftists and the execution The International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam took place from 24 August to 31 August, 1907. The Kate Sharpley Library (or KSL) is a Library dedicated to anarchist texts and History. This article is about the historical event known as the Kronstadt rebellion The Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan is recognized as one of the world’s most complete collections of materials documenting the history of Anarchism LIP is a French clock company whose turmoil became emblematic of the conflicts between workers and management in France For other events in May 1968 see 1968. May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several Public holidays In many countries May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris was a Government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May Provo was a Dutch Counterculture movement in the mid-1960s that focused on provoking violent responses from authorities using non-violent bait The Red inverted triangle was the badge that political prisoners in Nazi Concentration camps had to wear The Spanish Revolution of 1936 began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Third Russian Revolution (also know as the Left Wing Rebellions Against the Bolsheviks) was a series of Rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks Tragic Week (in Catalan la Setmana Tràgica, in Spanish la Semana Trágica) ( July 25 - August 2, 1909) is the Protest activity surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of Trade negotiations occurred Anarcho-punk is a faction of the Punk subculture that consists of bands groups and individuals promoting anarchist politics Anarchism has long had an association with the Arts, particularly in music and literature Black anarchism opposes the existence of the State and the subjugation and domination of people of color and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society Celtic anarchism is a new tendency within the larger Anarchist movement A precise definition of culture jamming is elusive It has been called a Resistance movement to Cultural hegemony, whereas some say the defining theme of culture jamming DIY (or Do It Yourself culture is a broad term that refers to a wide range of Grassroots political activism Freeganism is an anti-consumerist lifestyle whereby people employ alternative living strategies based on "limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption The Independent Media Center (aka Indymedia or IMC) is a global participatory network of journalists that reports on political and social issues An infoshop is a storefront or Social center that serves as a node for the distribution of Anarchist information typically in the form of books Zines, The Internationale ( L'Internationale in French) is a famous socialist, communist, and Social-democratic Jewish anarchism is a general term encompassing various expressions of Anarchism within the Jewish community Lifestyle anarchism is a term derived from Murray Bookchin 's polemical essay " Social Anarchism Or Lifestyle Anarchism An Unbridgeable Chasm. Popular education is at the crossroads between Politics and Pedagogy, and strongly relies on the democratic ideal of the Enlightenment, which considered Radical cheerleading is a form of Cheerleading that originated in Florida, but has now spread across the United States as well as Canada Radical environmentalism, is a grassroots branch of the larger Environmental movement that emerged out of an Ecocentrism -based frustration with the co-option of mainstream Squatting is the act of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or Building that the squatter does not own rent or otherwise have permission to use While anarchists have historically largely denied the importance of Symbols to political movement anarchists have embraced certain symbols for their cause " To The Barricades " ( A Las Barricadas) was one of the most popular songs of the Spanish anarchists during the Spanish Civil War. Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economic activity within the political philosophy of Anarchism. Agorism is an anarchist Political philosophy founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III that holds the ultimate goal as bringing about a society in which Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is an umbrella term embracing two Anarchist schools of thought the first school is Socialist Counter-economics is a term originally coined by Samuel Edward Konkin III, a radical Libertarian activist and theorist who defined it as " the study and/or Free-market anarchism (sometimes called market anarchism) refers to an Individualist anarchist Philosophy that harmonizes the abolition of the state with A free school, sometimes intentionally spelled free skool, is a decentralized network in which skills information and knowledge are shared without Hierarchy or the Give-away shops, freeshops, or free stores are second-hand stores where all goods are free "Georgist" redirects here For the Romanian political group see National Liberal Party-Brătianu. A gift economy is a Social theory in which goods and services are given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future Quid pro quo. Market abolitionism is a belief that the market, in the economic sense should be completely eliminated from society Mutual aid is a term in Political economy used to signify the economic concept of voluntary reciprocal exchange of resources and services for mutual benefit Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed Economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism The Really Really Free Market ( RRFM) movement is a non- hierarchical collective of individuals who form a temporary Market based on an alternative Self-ownership (or sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the moral or natural right (aka Freedom of a person Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Wage slavery is a term first coined by the Lowell Mill Girls in 1836 though articulated as a concept at least as early as Cicero and elaborated by subsequent thinkers Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care general production This is a list of anarchist movements by region, both geographical and/or political Anarchism in Africa refers both to purported anarchic political organization of some traditional African societies and to modern Anarchist movements in Africa The powerful Radical faction of Austria-Hungary 's Social Democratic Party was anarchist in all but name until 1884 and anarchist ideas penetrated deeply Anarchism was an influential contributor to the social politics of '''Brazil''''s Old Republic. Anarchism in Canada spans a range of anarchist philosophy including Anarcho-syndicalism, Individualist anarchism, green anarchy and Anarchist The origins of Chinese Anarchism are traceable to the early Chinese Nationalist movement Anarchism as a social movement in Cuba held great influence with the Working classes during the 19th and early 20th century Anarchism in France dates from the 18th century Many Anarchists such as the Egalitarians took part in the French Revolution. evolution of Anarchism in Greece has shown a series of historical paradoxes which have to do with both the insufficient historical coverage of such events as well as the distortion In India, Anarchism never took the form of formally named "anarchism" Irish Anarchism has little historical tradition before the 1970s and as a movement it only really developed from the late 1990s - although one organisation the Workers Anarchism has been an undercurrent in the politics of Palestine and Israel for over a century Italy, in particular at the turn of the 20th century had a strong Anarcho-syndicalist movement Anarchism was an influential movement in Japan in the 19th and 20th centuries Anarchism in Korea began in 1894 when Japan invaded Korea with the stated intention of protecting it from China. Pre-conquest some of the indigenous peoples of what is today Mexico had decisionmaking structures based on participation discussion and consensus hallmarks of modern anarchism The Anarchist movement in Poland developed at the end of the 19th century under the influence of anarchist ideas from Western Europe and Russia Russian anarchism is Anarchism in Russia or among Russians. Bakunin and the anarchists' exile See also Exile In 1848 Anarchism has historically gained more support and influence in Spain than anywhere else especially before Francisco Franco 's victory in the Spanish Civil War One of the first Swedish anarchists was the Swedish artist Ivan Aguéli who in 1884 was arrested and sentenced in the " Trial of the thirty " in Paris Anarchism came to the political scene in Turkey only after the publication of Kara, a monthly magazine Anarchism in Ukraine dates to the 20th century though it has roots in the peasant uprisings of Stenka Razin and Yemelyan Pugachev as well as the Zaporozhian Anarchism in the United States spans a wide range of Anarchist Philosophy, from Individualist anarchism to Anarchist communism and other less Anarchism as a Political movement in Vietnam started in the early twentieth century This is a list of Anarcho-punk bands The following is a list of notable or influential books on or relating to Anarchism, in alphabetical order by author This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present Throughout history anarchists have been involved in a wide variety of communities This is a list of Fictional anarchists; the source material in which they are found their creator(s the individual(s who interpreted them as anarchists during This is a list of Jewish Anarchists. A Yehuda Ashlag Paul Avrich B The following is a list of anarchist musicians, which details instruments such musicians utilize musical genres they perform and if applicable bands which they are members of This list uses the word Organization in its loosest sense Some of the following groups would be better categorized as networks. The following is a chronological list of noteworthy anarchist periodicals This is a list of anarchists poets, examples of their published work and the source material in which their poetry is found Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Anti-consumerism refers to the socio-political movement against Consumerism. Anti-corporate activists (see Activism) believe that the rise of large business Corporations is posing a threat to the legitimate authority of the public good " Anti-globalization " is a term that encompasses a number of related ideas Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist Anti- Statism refers to opposition to state intervention into personal social or economic affairs The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. Autarchism (from Greek, "belief in self rule" is a Political philosophy that upholds the principle of Individual liberty, rejects compulsory Autonomism refers to a set of Left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that describes itself as taking a less Authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent The Situationist International ( SI) was a small group of international political and artistic Agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the Anarchism is a Political philosophy with many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual credit bank which would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate only high enough to cover the costs of administration.  Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive in exchange, goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility" (receiving anything less is considered exploitation, theft of labor, or "usury"). The labor theories of value (LTV are theories in Economics according to which the values of Commodities are related to the labor needed to Mutualists believe that a natural economic consequence of a truly free labor market is income to individuals being received proportionally to the amount of labor they exert.  Mutualists oppose the idea of individuals receiving an income through loans, investments, and rent, as they believe these individuals are not laboring. They hold that if state intervention ceased, these types of incomes would disappear. 
Insofar as they ensure the workers right to the full product of their labor, mutualists support markets and private property in the product of labor. Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual However, they argue for conditional titles to land, whose private ownership is legitimate only so long as it remains in use or occupation (which Proudhon called "possession. ") Proudhon's Mutualism reluctantly supports labor-owned cooperative firms and associations "only in those cases where it is not possible for the public to rely on private industry," preferring a society of individual entrepreneurs. A worker coperative is a Cooperative owned and democratically controlled by its employees  As for capital goods (man-made, non-land, "means of production"), mutualist opinions differs on whether these should be commonly managed public assets or private property. Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998 Some commentators distinguish between the nineteenth century American individualist anarchists and mutualists, suggesting that mutualists are more concerned with association. Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective  Because of this, some see mutualism as being situated somewhere between individualism and collectivism. Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than  Proudhon himself described the "liberty" which he pursued as "the synthesis of communism and property. "
Mutualists, following Proudhon, originally considered themselves to be libertarian socialists. However, "some mutualists have abandoned the labor theory of value, and prefer to avoid the term "socialist. " But they still retain some cultural attitudes, for the most part, that set them off from the libertarian right. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the " Mutualists have distinguished themselves from state socialism, and don't advocate social control over the means of production. State Socialism is a term introduced to describe the type of government in countries ruled by communist parties such as the former USSR, which are generally known as Communist Benjamin Tucker said of Proudhon, that "though opposed to socializing the ownership of capital, [Proudhon] aimed nevertheless to socialize its effects by making its use beneficial to all instead of a means of impoverishing the many to enrich the few. . . by subjecting capital to the natural law of competition, thus bringing the price of its own use down to cost. "
Even as a political concept mutualism is not limited to Anarchism or Proudhon and within that tradition, others such as Kropotkin have also written on it. Mutualism is a Biological interaction between individuals of two different Species, where both individuals derive a fitness benefit for example increased The base concept is biological and in this sense mutualism is the opposite of parasitism. This article is about the biological phenomenon for other uses see Symbiosis (disambiguation The term symbiosis (from the Greek Thus, anarchists and others contrast the capitalist order as a form of parasitism with forms of mutualism calling for revolutionary action to restore/establish a different (or in some cases no) social order.
Mutualism, as a term, has seen a variety of related uses. Charles Fourier first used the French term "mutualisme" in 1822, although the reference was not to an economic system. François Marie Charles Fourier ( April 7, 1772 - October 10, 1837) was a French Utopian The first use of the noun "mutualist" was in the New-Harmony Gazette by an American Owenite in 1826. Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism  In the early 1830s, a labor organization in Lyons, France, called themselves the "Mutuellists. " In What Is Mutualism?. Proudhon was involved with the Lyons mutualists and later adopted the this name to describe his own teachings.  Clarence Lee Swartz gives his own account of the origin of the term, claiming that "[t]he word "mutualism" seems to have been first used by John Gray, an English writer, in 1832. "  When Gray's 1825 Lecture on Human Happiness was first published in the United States in 1826, the publishers appended the Preamble and constitution of the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests, located at Valley Forge. 1826 also saw the publication of the Constitution of the Friendly Association for Mutual Interests at Kendal, Ohio. By 1846, Pierre Joseph Proudhon was speaking of "mutualité" in his writings, and he used the term "mutuellisme," at least as early as 1848, in his "Programme Révolutionnaire. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was " William B. Greene, in 1850, used the term "mutualism" to describe a mutual credit system similar to that of Proudhon. William Batchelder Greene ( April 4, 1819 &ndash May 30, 1878) was a 19th century Individualist anarchist, Unitarian In 1850, the American newspaper The Spirit of the Age, edited by William Henry Channing, published proposals for a "mutualist township" by Joshua King Ingalls and Albert Brisbane, together with works by Proudhon, Greene, Pierre Leroux, and others. Pierre Leroux ( April 7, 1797 - April 1871 French Philosopher and political economist, was born at Bercy near Paris
Mutualism has been associated with two types of currency reform. Labor notes were first discussed in Owenite circles and received their first practical test in 1827 in the Time Store of former New Harmony member and individualist anarchist Josiah Warren. Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism The Cincinnati Time Store was a successful retail store that was created by American Individualist anarchist Josiah Warren to test his theories that were Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective Josiah Warren (1798-1874 was an Individualist anarchist, inventor musician and author in the United States. Mutual banking aimed at the monetization of all forms of wealth and the extension of free credit. It is most closely associated with William B. Greene, but Greene drew from the work of Proudhon, Edward Kellogg, and William Beck, as well as from the land bank tradition. William Batchelder Greene ( April 4, 1819 &ndash May 30, 1878) was a 19th century Individualist anarchist, Unitarian Mutualism can in many ways be considered "the original anarchy," since Proudhon was the first to identify himself as an anarchist. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Though mutualism is generally associated with anarchism, it is not necessarily anarchist.
Nineteenth century mutualists considered themselves libertarian socialists. Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent  While still oriented towards cooperation, mutualists favor free market solutions, believing that most inequalities are the result of preferential conditions created by government intervention. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers  Mutualism is something of a middle way between classical economics and socialism, with some characteristics of both. Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. Modern-day Mutualist Anarchist Kevin Carson, considers anarchist mutualism to be "free market socialism. "
Mutualists argue that most of the economic problems associated with capitalism each amount to a violation of the cost principle, or as Josiah Warren interchangeably said, "Cost the limit of price. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way as distinct from classical Socialism. Arab Socialism (الاشتراكية العربية al-ishtirākīya al-‘arabīya) is a political ideology based on an amalgamation of Pan-Arabism and Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based De Leonism, occasionally known as Marxism-Deleonism, is a form of Marxism developed by Daniel De Leon. Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation Eco-socialism, Green socialism or Socialist ecology is an Ideology merging aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related Guilds. Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles The term revolutionary socialism refers to Socialist tendencies that advocate the need for fundamental social change through Revolution, as a strategy to achieve a Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left A socialist market economy is an economic form that is practiced in the People's Republic of China, where it is called Socialism with Chinese characteristics Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought Religious socialism is a Term used to describe forms of Socialism that are based on Religious values. Buddhist socialism is a Political ideology which advocates Socialism based on the principles of Buddhism. Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and Socialist and who see these two philosophies as Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to meet the demand for a more spiritual form of Socialism. Criticisms of Socialism range from disagreements over the efficiency of socialist economic and political models to condemnation of states described by themselves The history of socialism, sometimes termed 'modern socialism' finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any Since the 18th century Socialist ideas have developed and separated into many different types of socialism. The following is a list of self-identified Socialists divided by geographical location The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY is a left-wing youth organization recognized by the United Nations as an international youth Non-governmental organization The International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY encompasses socialist, Social democratic and Labour Party youth organizations from more than 100 states Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care general production Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Equality of outcome or equality of condition is a form of Egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate differences in material condition between individuals or Impossibilism is an interpretation of Marxism. It emphasizes the limited value of reforms in overturning capitalism and insists on revolutionary political action as the only For the Marxist concept of internationalism see Proletarian internationalism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political Revolution in which the Working class attempts to overthrow the Bourgeoisie. Socialism in One Country was a thesis developed by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and adopted as state policy by Joseph Stalin. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness Cost the limit of price was a maxim coined by Josiah Warren, indicating a (prescriptive version of the Labor theory of value. " It was inspired by the labor theory of value, popularized, though not invented, by Adam Smith in 1776 — Proudhon mentions Smith as an inspiration. The labor theories of value (LTV are theories in Economics according to which the values of Commodities are related to the labor needed to Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. The labor theory of value holds that the actual price of a thing (or the "true cost") is the amount of labor that was undertaken to produce it. Proudhon and Warren, working without association or apparent knowledge of each other, accepting this axiom, drew from this the conclusion that it is therefore unethical to charge higher labor cost for a thing than the amount of labor that was undertaken to produce it (see: long run normal profits). In Warren's terms, cost should be the "limit of price," with "cost" referring to the amount of labor required to produce a good or service. Anyone who sells goods should charge no more than the cost to himself of acquiring these goods. Proudhon also held that the "real value of products was determined by labour time, and that all kinds of labour should be regarded as equally effective in the value-creating process, and he advocated therefore equality of wages and salaries. "
As far as determining payment for goods, they should pay for those goods with an equivalent amount of labor lest they violate the cost principle. In terms of employment, an employer should not be paid unless he labors and, if he labors less than an employee, then he should be paid less than that employee. Therefore, if the cost principle is followed, profit to an employer through the labor of others is not possible — everyone receives the "full produce" of his own labor and receives no produce of the labor of another unless he pays with an equivalent amount of labor. Warren says that this is in contrast to "Value the limit of price" where the maximum price of a good or service is the value the seller arbitrarily places on what he is selling (or the most that someone else is willing to pay) rather than how much labor it costs him to produce and provide it.
Many later mutualists argued that free competition would naturally push prices towards cost. Instead of a normative principle for individual transactions, the cost principle was a long-run tendency that would occur naturally as a result of the elimination of government regulation of the market economy.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon was one of the most famous philosophers to have articulated thoughts on the nature of property. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was He is known for claiming that "property is theft," but is less known for the claims that "property is impossible," and "property is liberty. Property is theft! ( French: La propriété c'est le vol!) is a slogan coined by French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his 1840 book " According to Colin Ward, Proudhon did not see a contradiction between these slogans. This was because Proudhon distinguished between what he considered to be two distinct forms of property often bound up in the single label. To the mutualist, this is the distinction between property created by coercion and property created by labor. Property is theft "when it is related to a landowner or capitalist whose ownership is derived from conquest or exploitation and [is] only maintained through the state, property laws, police, and an army". Property is freedom for "the peasant or artisan family [who have] a natural right to a home, land [they may] cultivate, [. . . ] to tools of a trade", and the fruits of that cultivation - but not to ownership or control of the lands and lives of others. The former is considered illegitimate property, the latter legitimate property.
Proudhon argued that property in the product of labor is essential to liberty, while property that strayed from "possession" ("occupancy and use") was the basis for tyranny and would lead a society to destroy itself. The conception of entitlement property as a destructive force and illegitimate institution can be seen in this quote by Proudhon,
Then if we are associated for the sake of liberty, equality, and security, we are not associated for the sake of property; then if property is a natural right, this natural right is not social, but anti-social. Property and society are utterly irreconcilable institutions. It is as impossible to associate two proprietors as to join two magnets by their opposite poles. Either society must perish, or it must destroy property. If property is a natural, absolute, imprescriptible, and inalienable right, why, in all ages, has there been so much speculation as to its origin? — for this is one of its distinguishing characteristics. The origin of a natural right! Good God! who ever inquired into the origin of the rights of liberty, security, or equality? (What is Property?)
Mutualist, Clarence Lee Swartz, says in What is Mutualism:
It is, therefore, one of the purposes of Mutualists, not only to awaken in the people the appreciation of and desire for freedom, but also to arouse in them a determination to abolish the legal restrictions now placed upon non-invasive human activities and to institute, through purely voluntary associations, such measures as will liberate all of us from the exactions of privilege and the power of concentrated capital. Clarence Lee Swartz (1868-1936 was an American individualist anarchist.
Swartz also states that mutualism differs from anarcho-communism and other collectivist philosophies by its support of private property: "One of the tests of any reform movement with regard to personal liberty is this: Will the movement prohibit or abolish private property? If it does, it is an enemy of liberty. For one of the most important criteria of freedom is the right to private property in the products of ones labor. State Socialists, Communists, Syndicalists and Communist-Anarchists deny private property. "
However, Proudhon warned that a society with private 'property' without equality would lead to statist-like relations between people.
"The purchaser draws boundaries, fences himself in, and says, 'This is mine; each one by himself, each one for himself. ' Here, then, is a piece of land upon which, henceforth, no one has right to step, save the proprietor and his friends; which can benefit nobody, save the proprietor and his servants. Let these multiply, and soon the people . . . will have nowhere to rest, no place of shelter, no ground to till. They will die of hunger at the proprietor's door, on the edge of that property which was their birth-right; and the proprietor, watching them die, will exclaim, 'So perish idlers and vagrants. '" 
Unlike capitalist private property-supporters Proudhon stressed equality, he wanted everyone to be a property-owning worker able to access capital for themselves. He stressed that in every cooperative "every worker employed in the association [must have] an undivided share in the property of the company" .
The major tenets of mutualism are free association, mutualist credit, contract (or federation/confederation), and gradualism (or dual-power). Mutualism is often described by its proponents as advocating an "anti-capitalist free market".
Contemporary mutualist author Kevin Carson holds that capitalism has been founded on "an act of robbery as massive as feudalism," and argues that capitalism could not exist in the absence of a state. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where He says "[i]t is state intervention that distinguishes capitalism from the free market". He does not define capitalism in the idealized sense, but says that when he talks about "capitalism" he is referring to what he calls "actually existing capitalism. " He believes the term "laissez-faire capitalism" is an oxymoron because it has never existed. However, he says he has no quarrel with anarcho-capitalists who use the term "laissez-faire capitalism" and distinguish it from "actually existing capitalism. " He says he has deliberately chosen to resurrect on old definition of the term.  Carson argues the centralization of wealth into a class hierarchy is due to state intervention to protect the ruling class, by using a money monopoly, granting patents and subsidies to corporations, imposing discriminatory taxation, and intervening militarily to gain access to international markets. As in Taxonomy, the classifications of species a class hierarchy in Computer science is a classification of object types denoting objects as the instantiations of The term ruling class refers to the Social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political policy A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector Carson’s thesis is that an authentic free market economy would not be capitalism as the separation of labor from ownership and the subordination of labor to capital would be impossible, bringing a class-less society where people could easily choose between working as a freelancer, working for a fair wage, taking part of a cooperative, or being an entrepreneur. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a He notes, as did Tucker before him, that a mutualist free market system would involve significantly different property rights than capitalism is based on, particularly in terms of land and intellectual property.
Mutualists argue that association is only necessary where there is an organic combination of forces. For instance, an operation that requires specialization and many different workers performing their individual tasks to complete a unified product, i. e. , a factory. In this situation, workers are inherently dependent on each other -- and without association they are related as subordinate and superior, master and wage-slave.
An operation that can be performed by an individual without the help of specialized workers does not require association. Proudhon argued that peasants do not require societal form, and only feigned association for the purposes of solidarity in abolishing rents, buying clubs, etc. He recognized that their work is inherently sovereign and free. In commenting on the degree of association that is preferable Proudhon said:
"In cases in which production requires great division of labour, it is necessary to form an ASSOCIATION among the workers. . . because without that they would remain isolated as subordinates and superiors, and there would ensue two industrial castes of masters and wage workers, which is repugnant in a free and democratic society. But where the product can be obtained by the action of an individual or a family. . . there is no opportunity for association. "
For Proudhon, mutualism involved creating "industrial democracy," a system where workplaces would be "handed over to democratically organised workers' associations . . . We want these associations to be models for agriculture, industry and trade, the pioneering core of that vast federation of companies and societies woven into the common cloth of the democratic social Republic. "  He urged "workers to form themselves into democratic societies, with equal conditions for all members, on pain of a relapse into feudalism. " This would result in "Capitalistic and proprietary exploitation, stopped everywhere, the wage system abolished, equal and just exchange guaranteed. "  Workers would no longer sell their labour to a capitalist but rather work for themselves in co-operatives.
As Robert Graham notes, "Proudhon's market socialism is indissolubly linked to his notions of industry democracy and workers' self-management. "  K. Steven Vincent notes in his in-depth analysis of this aspect of Proudhon's ideas that "Proudhon consistently advanced a program of industrial democracy which would return control and direction of the economy to the workers. " For Proudhon, "strong workers' associations . . . would enable the workers to determine jointly by election how the enterprise was to be directed and operated on a day-to-day basis. " 
Mutualists argue that free banking should be taken back by the people to establish systems of free credit. Mutual credit is a type of Alternative currency in which the currency used in a transaction can be created at the time of the transaction Free banking is a theory of Banking in which commercial banks and market forces control the provision of banking services They contend that banks have a monopoly on credit, just as capitalists have a monopoly on land. Banks are essentially creating money by lending out deposits that do not actually belong to them, then charging interest on the difference. Mutualists argue that by establishing a democratically run mutual bank or credit union, it would be possible to issue free credit so that money could be created for the benefit of the participants rather than for the benefit of the bankers. A mutual savings bank is a Financial institution chartered through a state or federal government to provide a safe place for individuals to save and to Invest A credit union is a Cooperative Financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members and operated for the purpose of promoting thrift providing credit Individualist anarchists noted for their detailed views on mutualist banking include Proudhon, William B. Greene, and Lysander Spooner. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was William Batchelder Greene ( April 4, 1819 &ndash May 30, 1878) was a 19th century Individualist anarchist, Unitarian
Some modern forms of mutual credit are LETS and the Ripple monetary system project. Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS also known as LETSystems are local non-profit exchange networks in which goods and services can be traded without the need for printed Ripple is an Open-source software project for developing and implementing a protocol for an open Decentralized payment network
In a session of the French legislature, Proudhon proposed a government-imposed income tax to fund his mutual banking scheme, with some tax brackets reaching as high as 33 1/3 percent and 50 percent, which was turned down by the legislature.  This income tax Proudhon proposed to fund his bank was to be levied on rents, interest, debts, and salaries.  Specifically, Proudhon's proposed law would have required all capitalists and stockholders to disburse one sixth of their income to their tenants and debtors and another sixth of their income to the national treasury in order to provide funding for the bank. This scheme was vehemently object to by others in the legislature, including Frédéric Bastiat; the reason given for the income tax's rejection was that it would result in economic ruin and that it violated "the right of property. Claude Frédéric Bastiat ( June 30, 1801 December 24, 1850) was a French classical liberal theorist political economist " In his debates with Bastiat and [[M. The, Proudhon did once propose funding a national bank with a voluntary tax of 1%.  Proudhon also argued for the abolition of all taxes. 
Mutualism holds that producers should exchange their goods at cost-value using systems of "contract. " While Proudhon's early definitions of cost-value were based on fixed assumptions about the value of labor-hours, he later redefined cost-value to include other factors such as the intensity of labor, the nature of the work involved, etc. He also expanded his notions of "contract" into expanded notions of "federation. " As Proudhon argued,
|“||"I have shown the contractor, at the birth of industry, negotiating on equal terms with his comrades, who have since become his workmen. It is plain, in fact, that this original equality was bound to disappear through the advantageous position of the master and the dependent position of the wage-workers. In vain does the law assure the right of each to enterprise . . . When an establishment has had leisure to develop itself, enlarge its foundations, ballast itself with capital, and assure itself a body of patrons, what can a workman do against a power so superior?" ||”|
Beneath the governmental machinery, in the shadow of political institutions, out of the sight of statemen and priests, society is producing its own organism, slowly and silently; and constructing a new order, the expression of its vitality and autonomy. . . 
Proudhon noted that the shock of the French Revolution failed the people, and was instead interested in a federation of worker cooperations that could use mutualist credit to gradually expand and take control of industry. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an This is similar to economic models based on worker cooperatives today, such as the Mondragón Cooperative Corporation in Spain and NoBAWC in San Francisco. The Mondragón Cooperative Corporation (Mondragón Corporación Cooperativa - MCC is a group of manufacturing and retail companies based in the Basque Country and extended The Network of Bay Area Worker Cooperatives (NoBAWC - pronounced "No Boss") is a network of Worker cooperatives dedicated to building Workplace democracy
Kevin Carson is a contemporary mutualist and author of Studies in Mutualist Political Economy. Contemporary mutualists are among those involved in the Alliance of the Libertarian Left and in the Voluntary Cooperation Movement. Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) is a term that has been adopted by several different libertarian political movements and theorists
Social economy, some fair trade movements and some free software projects such as Debian and Linux Users Groups follow a similar spirit, focussing on mutual aid, decentralization and free association (see Small "a" anarchism). Social economy refers to a third sector in economies between the private sector and business or the public sector and government Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified Debian ( pronounced) is a computer Operating system composed entirely of Free and open source software. A Linux User Group or Linux Users' Group ( LUG) is a private generally non-profit or not-for-profit organization that provides support and/or education for Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i
One area of disagreement between mutualists and anarchist communists stems from Proudhon's advocacy of money to compensate individuals for their labor. Money is anything that is generally accepted as Payment for Goods and services and repayment of Debts. Peter Kropotkin, like other anarchist communists, advocated the abolition of wage labour and questioned, "how can this new form of wages, the labor note, be sanctioned by those who admit that houses, fields, mills are no longer private property, that they belong to the commune or the nation?" According to George Woodcock, Kropotkin believed that a wage system in any form, whether "administered by Banks of the People or by workers' associations through labor cheques is a form of compulsion. Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a Contract ( Employment George Woodcock ( May 8, 1912 - January 28, 1995) was a prolific Canadian Writer of Poetry, Essays "
Collectivist anarchist Michael Bakunin was an adamant critic of Proudhonian mutualism as well, stating, "How ridiculous are the ideas of the individualists of. Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is an umbrella term embracing two Anarchist schools of thought the first school is Socialist Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin ( - July 1 1876) was a well-known Russian Revolutionary and theorist of Collectivist anarchism. . . the Proudhonian mutualists who conceive society as the result of the free contract of individuals absolutely independent of one another and entering into mutual relations only because of the convention drawn up among men. As if these men had dropped from the skies, bringing with them speech, will, original thought, and as if they were alien to anything of the earth, that is, anything having social origin. "
Criticism from pro-market sectors has been common as well. Laissez-faire capitalist George Reisman charges that mutualism supports exploitation when it does not recognize a right of an individual to protect land that he has mixed his labor with if he happens to not be using it. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where George Gerald Reisman (born January 13 1937) is Professor Emeritus of Economics at Pepperdine University and author of Capitalism Reisman sees the seizure of such land as the theft of the product of labor and has said that "Mutualism claims to opposed the exploitation of labor, i. e. the theft of any part of its product. But when it comes to labor that has been mixed with land, it turns a blind eye out foursquare on the side of the exploiter. "