The term mustard oil is used for two different oils that are made from mustard seeds:
This oil has a strong smell, a little like strong cabbage, a hot nutty taste, and is much used for cooking in Gujarat ,Orissa, Bengal, Bihar and other areas of India and Bangladesh. The cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var capitata) is a leafy garden plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae used as a Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially In north India, it is mainly used in frying fritters. A fritter is any kind of food coated in batter and Deep fried. The oil makes up about 30% of the mustard seeds. It can be produced from black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and white mustard (Brassica hirta). Brassica nigra ( black mustard) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds which are commonly used as a Spice. Brassica juncea, also known as mustard greens, Indian mustard and leaf mustard, is a species of Mustard plant. White mustard ( Sinapis alba) is an Annual plant of the family Cruciferae.
Mustard oil is composed mostly of the fatty acids oleic acid, linoleic acid and erucic acid. In Chemistry, especially Biochemistry, a fatty acid is a Carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched Aliphatic tail ( chain) which Oleic acid is a Monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources Linoleic acid (LA is an unsaturated Omega-6 fatty acid. It is a colorless liquid Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid, denoted 221 ω-9 At 5%, mustard seed oil has the lowest saturated fat content of the edible oils. Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs
In India, mustard oil is generally heated almost to smoking before it is used for cooking; this may be an attempt to reduce the content of noxious substances such as erucic acid, and does reduce the strong smell and taste. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Mustard oil is not considered suitable for human consumption in the United States, Canada and the European Union due to the high content of erucic acid, which is considered noxious, although mustard oil with low erucic acid content is available. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid, denoted 221 ω-9 To get around the restriction in Western countries, the oil is often sold "for external use only" in stores catering to Indian immigrants, as in North India, mustard oil is also used for rub-downs and massages (see ayurveda), thought to improve blood circulation, muscular development and skin texture; the oil is also antibacterial. Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula Ayurveda ( Devanāgarī: आयुर्वॆद the 'science of life' is a system of Traditional medicine native to India, and practiced in other
In India, the restrictions on mustard oil are viewed as an attempt by foreign multi-national corporations to replace mustard oil with canola oil, a variety of rapeseed with a low erucic acid content, but often from a genetically modified canola. Canola is a type of Edible oil derived from plants initially bred in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur Stefansson in the 1970s Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid, denoted 221 ω-9 This article is about organisms which have been genetically modified The East and North Indians have been using it for ages and deny that there is enough evidence for the toxicity of erucic acid, instead maintaining that mustard oil is beneficial to human health because of its low saturated fat content, ideal ratio of omega-3 and omega 6 fatty acids (15g of omega 3 fats per 100g serving), content of antioxidants and vitamin E, as well as being cold-pressed (extracted at 45-50 degrees Celsius). Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that n −6 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−6 fatty acids or omega-6 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules See also Tocopherol, Tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related Tocopherols and Tocotrienols which are fat-soluble
In northern Italy, it is used in the fruit condiment called mostarda. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Mostarda (also called mostarda di frutta) is an Italian Condiment made of candied fruit and a Mustard flavoured syrup
The pungency of the condiment mustard results when ground mustard seeds are mixed with water, vinegar, or other liquid (or even when chewed). Mustard is a thick yellowish-brown paste with a sharp taste made from the ground seeds of a Mustard plant (white or yellow mustard Sinapis hirta Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the Fermentation of Ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient Acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid Under these conditions, a chemical reaction between the enzyme myrosinase and a glucosinolate known as sinigrin from the seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra) or brown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) produces allyl isothiocyanate. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Myrosinase (or thioglucoside glucohydrolase is a family of Enzymes involved in plant defense against herbivores. The glucosinolates are a class of Organic compounds that contain Sulfur and Nitrogen and are derived from Glucose and an amino acid Sinigrin is a Glucosinolate which belongs to the family of Glucosides found in some plants of the Brassica family such as Brussels sprouts Brassica nigra ( black mustard) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds which are commonly used as a Spice. Brassica juncea, also known as mustard greens, Indian mustard and leaf mustard, is a species of Mustard plant. Allyl isothiocyanate is the Organosulfur compound with the formula CH2CHCH2NCS By distillation one can produce a very sharp-tasting essential oil, sometimes called volatile oil of mustard, containing more than 92% allyl isothiocyanate. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture An essential oil is a concentrated Hydrophobic Liquid containing volatile Aroma compounds from Plants They are also known as volatile The pungency of allyl isothiocyanate is due to the activation of the TRPA1 ion channel in sensory neurons. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1, also known as TRPA1, is a human Gene. White mustard Brassica hirta does not yield allyl isothiocyanate, but a different and milder isothiocyanate. White mustard ( Sinapis alba) is an Annual plant of the family Cruciferae. Isothiocyanate is the Chemical group - N = C = S, formed by substituting Sulfur for Oxygen in the Isocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate serves the plant as a defense against herbivores. Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Since it is harmful to the plant itself, it is stored in the harmless form of a glucosinolate, separate from the myrosinase enzyme. Once the herbivore chews the plant, the noxious allyl isothiocyanate is produced. Allyl isothiocyanate is also responsible for the pungent taste of horseradish and wasabi. Horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana, syn Cochlearia armoracia) is a Perennial plant of the Brassicaceae family which also includes mustard Wasabi (わさびja ワサビ, ja 山葵 (originally written ja 和佐比 Wasabia japonica, Cochlearia wasabi, or Eutrema japonica) is a member It can be produced synthetically, sometimes known as synthetic mustard oil.
Because of the contained allyl isothiocyanate, this type of mustard oil is toxic and irritates the skin and mucous membranes. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin covered in Epithelium, which are involved in In very small amounts, it is often used by the food industry for flavoring. It is also used to repel cats and dogs. It will also denature alcohol, making it unfit for human consumption, thus avoiding the taxes collected on alcoholic beverages. Denatured alcohol is Ethanol which has been rendered toxic or otherwise undrinkable and in some cases dyed
The CAS number of this type of mustard oil is 8007-40-7, and the CAS number of pure allyl isothiocyanate is 57-06-7. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to
Mustard oil, though not very popular as a cooking oil in North India, still is intricately embedded in the culture, used in these contexts: