Musk is the name originally given to a substance with a penetrating odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer, which is situated between its stomach and genitals. The Siberian musk deer ( Moschus moschiferus) is a Musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance for release such as Hormones or Breast milk, often into the Bloodstream Musk deer are Artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. The substance has been used as a popular perfume fixative since ancient times and is one of the most expensive animal products in the world. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation. Animal products are either produced by an Animal or taken from the body of an animal The name, originated from Sanskrit muṣká meaning "testicle" (as in a 'single' testicle), has come to encompass a wide variety of substances with somewhat similar odors although many of them are quite different in their chemical structures. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Chemical structure refers to Molecular geometry, Electronic structure and Crystal structure. They include glandular secretions from animals other than the musk deer, numerous plants emitting similar fragrances, and artificial substances with similar odors. 
Until the late 19th century, the natural musk were used extensively in perfumery until economic and ethical reasons motivated the adoption of synthetic musk, which are used almost exclusively. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living  The organic compound primarily responsible for the characteristic odor of musk is muscone. An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Muscone is an Organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of Musk.
Modern use of natural musk pods is limited to Traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (also known as TCM,) includes a range of traditional medical practices originating in China.
Musk was unknown in classical antiquity and reference to it does not appear until the 6th century, when the Greek explorer Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned it as a product obtained from India. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally "who sailed to India" of Alexandria was a Greek Merchant and later Monk probably of Nestorian India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  Soon afterwards Arab and Byzantine perfume makers began to use it, and it acquired a reputation as an aphrodisiac.  Under the Abbasid Empire of Arabs it was highly regarded, and the caliphs of Baghdad used it lavishly. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous In the early 9th century, Al-Kindi included it in a large number of his perfume recipes and it became one of the important luxury items brought by Arabian ships from the East. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c  The etymology of the name musk, originating from Sanskrit muṣká via Middle Persian mušk, Late Greek μόσχος (moschos), Late Latin muscus, Middle French musc and Middle English muske, hints at its trade route. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of Southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224-654 CE became a Prestige dialect Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. Vulgar Latin (in Latin sermo vulgaris, "folk speech" is a Blanket term covering the popular Dialects and Sociolects of the Latin Middle French (le moyen français is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly 1340 to 1611. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
The musk deer belongs to the family Moschidae and lives in Pakistan, India, Tibet, China, Siberia and Mongolia. Musk deer are Artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR also called Xizang Autonomous Region (བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་ Wylie: Bod-rang-skyong-ljongs China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East To obtain the musk, the deer is killed and its gland, also called "musk pod", is removed. It is dried either in the sun, on a hot stone, or by immersion in hot oil. Upon drying, the reddish-brown paste turns into a black granular material called "musk grain", which is used for alcoholic solutions. A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete Solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would In Chemistry, a solution is a Homogeneous Mixture composed of two or more substances The aroma of the tincture becomes more intense during storage and gives a pleasant odor only after it is considerably diluted. In Medicine, a tincture is an Alcoholic Extract (eg of leaves or other plant material or Solution of a non- volatile substance No other natural substance has such a complex aroma associated with so many contradictory descriptions; however, it is usually described abstractly as animalic, earthy and woody or something akin to the odor of baby's skin. 
Good musk is of a dark purplish color, dry, smooth and unctuous to the touch, and bitter in taste. It dissolves in boiling water to the extent of about one-half; alcohol takes up one-third of the substance, and ether and chloroform dissolve still less. Ether is a class of Organic compounds which contain an ether group — an Oxygen Atom connected to two (substituted Alkyl Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a Chemical compound with formula C[[Hydrogen H]] Cl The grain of musk will distinctly scent millions of cubic feet of air without any appreciable loss of weight, and its scent is not only more penetrating but more persistent than that of any other known substance. The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States Canada and the United Kingdom In addition to its odoriferous principle, it contains ammonia, cholesterol, fatty matter, a bitter resinous substance, and other animal principles. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian Resin, not to be confused with Rosin, is a Hydrocarbon Secretion of many Plants particularly coniferous trees.
The best quality is Tonkin musk from Tibet and China, followed by Assam and Nepal musk, while Carbadine musk from Russian and Chinese Himalayan regions are considered inferior. Tonkin (Đông Kinh in Vietnamese) also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia.  Obtaining one kilogram (2. 2 lb) of musk grains requires between thirty and fifty deer, making musk tinctures highly expensive. At the beginning of the 19th century, Tonkin musk grains cost about twice their weight in gold. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 
Musk has been a key constituent in many perfumes since its discovery, being held to give a perfume long-lasting power as a fixative. Despite its high price, musk tinctures were used in perfumery until 1979, when musk deers were protected as an endangered species by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation CITES (the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments drafted Today the trade quantity of the natural musk is controlled by CITES but illegal poaching and trading continues. Poaching is the illegal Hunting, Fishing or Harvesting of wild plants or animals  An illegal shipment of 700 kilograms (1,500 lb) of Chinese musk from the musk deer was seized in Japan in 1987, an amount corresponding to approximately 100,000 deer killed. 
Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), a rodent native to North America, has been known since the 17th century to secrete a glandular substance with a musky odor. The muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus) the only Species in Genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic Rodent native to North America The muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus) the only Species in Genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic Rodent native to North America  A chemical means of extracting it was discovered in the 1940s, but it did not prove commercially worthwhile. 
Glandular substances with musk-like odor are also obtained from the Musk Duck (Biziura lobata) of southern Australia, the musk shrew, the musk beetle (Aromia moschata), the musk turtle, the alligator of Central America, and from several other animals. The Musk Duck ( Biziura lobata) is a highly aquatic stiff-tailed Duck native to southern Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The White-toothed shrews or Crocidurinae are one of three subfamilies of the Shrew family Soricidae. The musk beetle ( Aromia moschata) is a Eurasian species of Longhorn beetle belonging to the subfamily Cerambycinae, tribe for differences between alligators and crocodiles please see Crocodilia An Alligator is a Crocodilian in the Genus
In crocodiles, there are two pairs of musk glands, one pair situated at the corner of the jaw and the other pair in the cloaca. A crocodile is any Species belonging to the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the Subfamily Crocodylinae) In zoological anatomy a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal and urinary tracts of certain animal species  Musk glands are also found in snakes.
Some plants such as Angelica archangelica or Abelmoschus moschatus produce musky smelling macrocyclic lactone compounds. Garden Angelica ( Angelica archangelica; Syn Archangelica officinalis Hoffm Abelmoschus moschatus ( Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow These compounds are widely used in perfumery as substitutes for natural musk or to alter the smell of a mixture of other musks.
The plant sources include musk flower (Mimulus moschatus), the muskwood (Olearia argophylla) of the Guianas and West Indies, and the seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus (musk seeds). Mimulus is a diverse Plant Genus, the monkey-flowers and musk-flowers. Mimulus is a diverse Plant Genus, the monkey-flowers and musk-flowers. Olearia argophylla is a species of Flowering plant in the Asteraceae family Olearia argophylla is a species of Flowering plant in the Asteraceae family The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Abelmoschus moschatus ( Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow Abelmoschus moschatus ( Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow
Since obtaining the deer musk requires killing the endangered animal, nearly all musk fragrance used in perfumery today is synthesis, or called "white musk". An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation White musk, in the perfume industry refers to a group of synthetic Molecules that replaces natural animal Musk. They can be divided into three major classes — aromatic nitro musks, polycyclic musk compounds, and macrocyclic musk compounds.  The first two groups have broad uses in industry ranging from cosmetics to detergents. A detergent (as a noun is a material intended to assist Cleaning. However, the detection of the first two chemical groups in human and environmental samples as well as their carcinogenic properties initiated a public debate on the use of these compounds and a ban or reduction of their use in many regions of the world. As an alternative, macrocyclic musk compounds are expected to replace them since these compounds appear to be safer. 
An artificial musk was obtained by Baur in 1888 by condensing toluene with isobutyl bromide in the presence of aluminium chloride, and nitrating the product. Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane, is a clear water -insoluble liquid with the typical smell of Paint thinners redolent of Aluminium chloride (AlCl3 is a compound of Aluminium and Chlorine. It was discovered accidentally as a result of Baur's attempts at producing a more effective form of trinitrotoluene. Trinitrotoluene ( TNT) is a Chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO23CH3 It appears that the odour depends upon the symmetry of the three nitro groups. Following the discovery of Musk Baur, the first nitro-musk, many similar preparations have been made. Notable nitro-musks include
An artificial musk that contains more than one ring in its molecular structure. These musks became popular after World War II and slowly supplanted the nitro-musks in popularity due to the latter's toxicity and molecular instability. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The creation of this class of musks was largely prompted through the need for eliminating the nitro functional group from nitro-musks due to their photochemical reactivity and their instability in alkaline medium. Nitro compounds are Organic compounds that contain one or more nitro Functional groups (-2 This shown to be possible through the discovery of Ambral, a non-nitro aromatic musk, which promoted research in the development of nitro-free musks. This lead to the eventual discovery of Phantolide, so name due to its commercialization by Givaudan without initial knowledge of it chemical structure (elucidated 4 years later). Givaudan is the world's largest producer of Flavors and Fragrances with sales of CHF 4132 million in 2007 While poorer in smell strength, the performance and stability of this compound class in harsh detergents led to its common use, which spurred further development of other polycyclic musks including Galaxolide. 
However it was discovered in the 1990s that polycyclic musks are also potentially harmful in that they can disrupt cellular metabolism. Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Many of these musks were used in large quantities to scent laundry detergents. Commonly used polycyclic musks include
A class of artificial musk consisting of a single ring composed of more than 6 carbons (often 10-15). Muscone is an Organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of Musk. Of all artificial musks, these most resemble the primary odoriferous compound from Tonkin musk in its "large ringed" structure. While the macrocyclic musks extracted from plants consists of large ringed lactones, all animal derived macrocyclic musks are ketones. lactone is a cyclic Ester in Organic chemistry. It is the condensation product of an Alcohol group and a Carboxylic acid A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the Functional group characterized by a Carbonyl group (O=C linked to two other Carbon atoms or 
Although muscone, the primary macrocyclic compound of musk was long known, it was only in 1926 where Leopold Ruzicka was able first synthesized this compound in very small quantities. Lavoslav Stjepan Ružička ( September 13, 1887 &ndash September 26, 1976) was a Croatian scientist winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize Despite this discovery and the discovery of other pathways for synthesis of macrocyclic musks, compound of this class were not commercially produced and commonly utilized until the late 1990s due to difficulties in their synthesis and consequently higher price. 
About half the human population are anosmics (unable to smell) to macrocyclic musks, possibly due to its high molecular weight. Anosmia is the lack of Olfaction, or an absence of the ability to smell The molecular mass (abbreviated m of a substance, more commonly referred to as molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the Mass of one Common macrocyclic musks include:
Alicyclic musks, otherwise known as cycloakyl ester or linear musks, are relatively novel class of musk compounds. The first compound of this class was introduced 1975 with Cyclomusk, though similar structure were noted earlier in citronellyl oxalate and Rosamusk. Alicyclic musks are dramatically different in structure than previous musks (aromatic, polycyclic, macrocyclic) in that they are modified akyl esters. Although they were discovered more than 10 years before, it was only in 1990 with the discovery and introduction of Helvetolide at Firmenich that a compound of this class was produced at a commercial scale. Firmenich SA is a private business specialising in flavors and fragrances and is a major worldwide Chemical Manufacturer. Romandolide, a more ambrette and less fruity alicyclic musk compared to Helvetolide was introduced ten years later. Common musks of this class include:
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone