Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music.
In elementary schools, children often learn to play instruments such as keyboards or recorders, sing in small choirs, and learn about the elements of musical sound and history of music. See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary The recorder is a woodwind Musical instrument of the family known as Fipple Flutes ' or internal duct flutes &mdash whistle-like Music is found in every known Culture, past and present varying wildly between times and places Although music education in many nations has traditionally emphasized Western classical music, in recent decades music educators tend to incorporate application and history of non-western music to give a well-rounded musical experience and teach multiculturalism and international understanding. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified In primary and secondary schools, students may often have the opportunity to perform in some type of musical ensemble, such as a choir, orchestra, or school band: concert band, marching band, or jazz band. See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes A musical ensemble is a group of two or more Musicians who perform instrumental or vocal Music. For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well A school band is a group of Student musicians who rehearse and perform Instrumental Music together A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble A marching band is in the broadest terms a group of performers that consist of instrumental Musicians and sometimes dance teams / color guard who generally perform A jazz band (or jazz ensemble) is a Musical ensemble that plays Jazz Music usually without a conductor In some secondary schools, additional music classes may also be available.
At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs may receive academic credit for taking music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Music appreciation is teaching people what to listen for and to appreciate different types of music In addition, most North American and European universities have some type of music ensemble in which students from various fields of study may participate such as a choir, concert band, marching band, or orchestra. Many universities also offer degree programs in the field of music education, allowing their students to become certified educators of primary and secondary school ensembles as well as beginner music classes. Advanced degrees can lead to university employment. These degrees come with the completion of varied technique classes, private instruction, numerous ensembles, and in depth observations of educators in the area. Music education departments in North American and European universities also often support interdisciplinary research in such areas as music psychology, music education historiography, educational ethnomusicology, sociomusicology, and philosophy of education. Music psychology, or the psychology of music may be regarded either as a branch of Psychology or as a branch of Musicology. This article is about the concept For the society and academic journal see Society for Ethnomusicology. Sociomusicology refers to both an academic subfield of Sociology that is concerned with Music (often in combination with other arts as well as a subfield The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose process nature and ideals of Education.
The study of Western art music is increasingly common in music education outside of North America and Europe, including Asian nations such as South Korea, Japan, and China. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali (e. The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continent's many regions, nations and Ethnic groups Although there is no distinctly pan-African g. Gamelan music). A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and
Music education also takes place in individualized, life-long learning, and community contexts. Both amateur and professional musicians typically take music lessons, short private sessions with an individual teacher. While many individuals are content to play a Musical instrument " by ear " or by practicing individual pieces until a reasonable proficiency is achieved others wish Amateur musicians typically take lessons to learn musical rudiments and beginner- to intermediate-level musical techniques.
Music education in North America can be traced to the colonies of the seventeenth century. In the Southern United States, there existed no organized music education system. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive However, rote learning played a major role in the transmission of music traditions. Rote learning is a Learning technique which avoids understanding of a subject and instead focuses on memorization. In the Northern colonies, music was already an important consideration in the lives of the Pilgrims. The Bay Psalm Book, especially later editions, provided methods for solmization along with performance instruction. The Bay Psalm Book was the first Book printed in British North America. Solmization is a system of attributing a distinct Syllable to each note in a Musical scale. Thus Northern colonists could succeed in teaching themselves rudimentary music skills, as related to psalm singing. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included There was also much music in small town committee bands.
After the preaching of Reverend Thomas Symmes, the first singing school was created in 1717 in Boston, Massachusetts for the purposes of improving singing and music reading in the church. These singing schools gradually spread throughout the colonies. Reverend John Tufts published An Introduction to the Singing of Psalm Tunes Using Non-Traditional Notation which is regarded as the first music textbook in the colonies. Between 1700 to 1820, more than 375 tune books would be published by such authors as Samuel Holyoke, Francis Hopkinson, William Billings, and Oliver Holden. 
In 1832, Lowell Mason and George Webb formed the Boston Academy of Music with the purposes of teaching singing and theory as well as methods of teaching music. Lowell Mason ( January 8, 1792 - August 11, 1872) was a leading figure in American church music the composer of over 1600 Hymns The Boston Academy of Music is an institute of higher education in the field of music located in Boston Massachusetts. Mason published his Manuel of Instruction in 1834 which were based upon the music education works of Pestalozzian System of Education founded by Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi' ( January 12, 1746 &ndash February 17, 1827) was a Swiss Pedagogue and educational reformer This handbook gradually became used by many singing school teachers. In 1837-1838, the Boston School Committee allowed Lowell Mason to teach music in the Hawes School as a demonstration. This is regarded as the first time music education was introduced to public schools in the United States. In 1838 the Boston School Committee approved the inclusion of music in the curriculum and Lowell Mason became the first recognized supervisor of elementary music. In later years Luther Whiting Mason became the Supervisor of Music in Boston and spread music education into all levels of public education (grammar, primary, and high school). Luther Whiting Mason ( 3 April 1818 - 14 July 1896) was an American Music educator who was hired by the Meiji period During the middle of the 19th century, Boston became the model to which many other cities across the United States included and shaped their public school music education programs.  Music methodology for teachers as a course was first introduced in the Normal School. normal school was a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers The concept of classroom teachers in a school that taught music under the direction of a music supervisor was the standard model for public school music education during this century.
In the United States, teaching colleges with four year degree programs developed from the Normal Schools and included music. Oberlin Conservatory first offered the Bachelor of Music Education degree. The Oberlin Conservatory of Music, located in Oberlin Ohio, was founded in 1865 and is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States Osbourne G. McConathy, and American music educator introduced details for studying music for credit in Chelsea High School. Notable events in the history of music education in the early 20th century also include:
The following table illustrates some notable developments from this period:
|Date||Major Event||Historical Importance for Music Education|
|1950||The Child's Bill of Rights in Music||A student-centered philosophy was formally espoused by MENC.|
|1953||The American School Band Directors Association formed||The band movement becomes organized.|
|1957||Launch of Sputnik||Increased curricular focus on science, math, technology with less emphasis on music education.|
|1959||Contemporary Music Project||The purpose of the project was to make contemporary music relevant in children by placing quality composers and performers in the learning environment. Leads to the Comprehensive Musicianship movement.|
|1961||American Choral Directors Association formed||The choral movement becomes organized. The American Choral Directors Association (ACDA, headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is a non-profit organization with the stated purpose of promoting excellence|
|1965||National Endowment for the Arts||Federal financial support and recognition of the value music has in society. The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA is a United States federally funded and donation assisted program that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence|
|1967||Yale Seminar||Federally supported development of arts education focusing on quality music classroom literature. Julliard Project leads to the compilation and publication of musical works from major historical eras for elementary and secondary schools.|
|1967||Tanglewood Symposium||Establishment of a unified and ecletic philosophy of music education. Specific emphasis on youth music, special education music, urban music, and electronic music.|
|1969||GO Project||35 Objectives listed by MENC for quality music education programs in public schools. Published and recommended for music educators to follow.|
|1978||The Ann Arbor Symposium||Emphasized the impact of learning theory in music education in the areas of: auditory perception, motor learning, child development, cognitive skills, memory processing, affect, and motivation.|
|1984||Becoming Human Through Music symposium||"The Wesleyan Symposium on the Perspectives of Social Anthropology in the Teaching and Learning of Music" (Middletown, Connecticut, August 6-10, 1984). Emphasized the importance of cultural context in music education and the cultural implications of rapidly changing demographics in the United States.|
|1994||National Standards for Music Education||For much of the 1980s, there was a call for educational reform and accountability in all curricular subjects. This led to the National Standards for Music Education introduced by MENC. The MENC standards were adopted by some states, while other states have produced their own standards or largely eschewed the standards movement.|
|1999||The Housewright Symposium / Vision 2020||Examined changing philosophies and practices and predicted how American music education will (or should) look in the year 2020.|
|2007||Tanglewood II: Charting the Future||Reflected on the 40 years of change in music education since the first Tanglewood Symposium of 1967, developing a declaration regarding priorities for the next forty years.|
Music course offerings and even entire degree programs in online music education developed in the first decade of the 21st century at various institutions. Online music education is a recent development in the field of Music education consisting of the application of new technologies associated with Distance learning
Standards are curricular statements used to guide educators in determining objectives for their teaching. Use of standards became a common practice in many nations during the 20th century. For much of its existence, the curriculum for music education in the United States was determined locally or by individual teachers. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In recent decades there has been a significant move toward adoption of regional and/or national standards. MENC: The National Association for Music Education, created nine voluntary content standards, called the National Standards for Music Education. MENC The National Association for Music Education, formerly called Music Educators National Conference ( MENC) is an organization based out of Reston Virginia These standards call for:
Many states and school districts have adopted their own standards for music education. Often, these local standards are related in some way to the National Standards.
Washington State has piloted a classroom based performance assessment which requires 5th and higher grade students to compose music on a staff and sight sing from sheet music without the aid of instruments. It is designed to assess standards expected to be attained by all students.  Sight singing is a learning requirement in the state at the 8th grade level. Other states are evaluating possible performance assessments as well.
While instructional strategies are bound by the music teacher and the music curriculum in his or her area, many teachers rely heavily on one of many instructional methodologies that emerged in recent generations and developed rapidly during the latter half of the 20th Century:
Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967) was a prominent Hungarian music educator and composer who stressed the benefits of physical instruction and response to music. Zoltán Kodály ( Hungarian: Kodály Zoltán, ˈkodaːj ˈzoltaːn December 16 1882 &ndash March 6 1967 was a Hungarian Composer, Ethnomusicologist Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Although not really an educational method, his teachings reside within a fun, educational framework built on a solid grasp of basic music theory and music notation in various verbal and written forms. Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works See also Modern musical symbols Music notation or musical notation is any system which represents aurally perceived Music through the use Kodály's primary goal was to instill a lifelong love of music in his students and felt that it was the duty of the child's school to provide this vital element of education. Some of Kodály's trademark teaching methods include the use of solfege hand signs, musical shorthand notation (stick notation), and rhythm solmnization (verbalization). In Music, solfège ('soʊlfɛʒ also called solfeggio, sol-fa, or solfa) is a Pedagogical Solmization technique for the
Carl Orff was a prominent German composer. Music Education The Orff Schulwerk Orff-Schulwerk in German or simply the Orff Approach, is a developmental approach to Music Education for children Carl Orff ( &ndash) was a 20th-century German Composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937 The Orff Schulwerk is considered an "approach" to music education. It begins with a student's innate abilities to engage in rudimentary forms of music, using basic rhythms and melodies. Orff considers the whole body a percussive instrument and students are led to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. The approach encourages improvisation and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill, fostering student self-discovery. Carl Orff developed a special group of instruments, including modifications of the glockenspiel, xylophone, metallophone, drum, and other percussion instruments to accommodate the requirements of the Schulwerk courses. Carl Orff ( &ndash) was a 20th-century German Composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937 The glockenspiel ( German, "set of bells quot or "play-bells" also known as orchestra bells and in its portable The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον - xylon, "wood" + φωνή - phone, "voice" meaning "wooden A metallophone is any Musical instrument consisting of tuned Metal bars which are struck to make sound usually with a mallet. The drum is a member of the percussion group technically classified as a Membranophone. 
The Suzuki method was developed by Shinichi Suzuki in Japan shortly after World War II, and it uses music education to enrich the lives and moral character of its students. The is an Educational philosophy which strives to create "high ability" and beautiful character in its students through a nurturing environment Shin'ichi Suzuki (鈴木 鎮一 Suzuki Shin'ichi October 17, 1898 - January 26, 1998) was the creator of the international World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Moral character or character is an evaluation of a particular individual's moral qualities The movement rests on the double premise that "all children can be well educated" in music, and that learning to play music at a high level also involves learning certain character traits or virtues which make a person's soul more beautiful. The primary method for achieving this is centered around creating the same environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. This 'ideal' environment includes love, high-quality examples, praise, and a time-table set by the student's developmental readiness for learning a particular technique. While the Suzuki Method is quite popular internationally, within Japan its influence is less significant than the Yamaha Method, founded by Genichi Kawakami in association with the Yamaha Music Foundation. Genichi Kawakami (川上源一 Kawakami Gen'ichi, January 30, 1912 &ndash May 25, 2002) was the president of the Yamaha Corporation Yamaha Music Foundation is an organization established by the authority of Japanese Ministry of Education for the purpose of promoting music education and music popularization 
The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 1900s by Swiss musician and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. Eurhythmics (also Rhythmic Gymnastics, Rhythmics) is an approach to music education that was devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Émile Jaques-Dalcroze ( July 6, 1865 – July 1, 1950) was a Swiss Musician and Music educator who developed The method is divided into three fundamental concepts - the use of solfege, improvisation, and eurhythmics. In Music, solfège ('soʊlfɛʒ also called solfeggio, sol-fa, or solfa) is a Pedagogical Solmization technique for the Eurhythmics (also Rhythmic Gymnastics, Rhythmics) is an approach to music education that was devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze. Sometimes referred to as "rhythmic gymnastics", eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression using movement, and is the concept for which Dalcroze is best known. It focuses on allowing the student to gain physical awareness and experience of music through training that takes place through all of the senses, particularly kinesthetic. According to the Dalcroze method, music is the fundamental language of the human brain and therefore deeply connected to what human beings are.
In addition to the four major international methods described above, other approaches have been influential. Lesser-known methods are described below:
This method is based on an extensive body of research and field testing by Edwin E. Gordon and others. Edwin E Gordon, Research Professor at the University of South Carolina 's Gordon Archive is an influential researcher teacher author editor and lecturer in the field of Music Learning Theory provides the music teacher a comprehensive method for teaching musicianship through audiation, Gordon's term for hearing music in the mind with understanding. Audiation is the process of mentally hearing and comprehending music even when no physical sound is present Teaching methods help music teachers establish sequential curricular objectives in accord with their own teaching styles and beliefs. 
Deriving influence from both Kodály methodology and Gordon's Music Learning Theory, Conversational Solfege was developed by Dr. John M. Feierabend, chair of music education at the Hartt School at the University of Hartford. The Hartt School is a school of performing arts located in West Hartford Connecticut, primarily providing postsecondary programs in music dance and theatre The University of Hartford, often called UHA or UHart, was founded in 1877 and is a private independent and nonsectarian The philosophy of this method is to view music as an aural art with a literature based curriculum. The sequence of this methodology involves a 12 step process to teach music literacy. Steps include rhythm and tonal patterns and decoding the patterns using syllables and notation.
This early-childhood approach sometimes referred to as the Sensory-Motor Approach to Music was developed by the violinist Madeleine Carabo-Cone. This approach involves using props, costumes, and toys for children to learn basic musical concepts of staff, note duration, and the piano keyboard. The concrete environment of the specially planned classroom allows the child to learn the fundamentals of music by exploring through touch. 
The Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project was developed in 1965 and is an alternative method in shaping positive attitudes toward music education. MMCP refers to the Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project(Program a Music education curricular plan that sought to improve music education through a child-centered approach This creative approach centers around the student being the musician and involved in the discovery process. The teacher gives the student freedom to create, perform, improvise, conduct, research, and investigate different facets of music in a spiral curriculum.
Applied Groovology and Path Bands are new methods for community music education in urban settings devised by American ethnomusicologist Dr. Charles Keil. This article is about the concept For the society and academic journal see Society for Ethnomusicology. A renowned expert who has published several influential scholarly books on music from many parts of the world (Chicago blues, polka, Greek Macedonian, Nigerian Tiv, Afro-Latin music styles, etc), Dr Keil asserts that the natural power of music is underappreciated and underutilized in modern industrial societies that feature passive consumption through mass media rather than active participation in music. Keil advocates that parents should encourage their children to more freely experience the natural joys of improvised music and dance through “grooving and dandling”. Keil has also developed the "Path Band" approach to the use of improvised multicultural brass bands for active lifelong participation in music. Keil's methods are of growing interest among North American music educators and therapists, and are also attracting attention in Japan. 
Some schools and organizations promote integration of arts classes, such as music, with other subjects, such as math, science, or English. It is thought that by integrating the different curricula will help each subject to build off of one another, enhancing the overall quality of education.
One example is the Kennedy Center's "Changing Education Through the Arts" program. The John F Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (on the building itself called the John F CETA defines arts integration as finding a natural connection(s) between one or more art forms (dance, drama/theater, music, visual arts, storytelling, puppetry, and/or creative writing) and one or more other curricular areas (science, social studies, English language arts, mathematics, and others) in order to teach and assess objectives in both the art form and the other subject area. This allows a simultaneous focus on creating, performing, and/or responding to the arts while still addressing content in other subject areas. 
In some communities - and even entire national education systems - music is provided very little support as an academic subject area, and music teachers feel that they must actively seek greater public endorsement for music education as a legitimate subject of study. This perceived need to change public opinion has resulted in the development of a variety of approaches commonly called "music advocacy". Music advocacy comes in many forms, some of which are based upon legitimate scholarly arguments and scientific findings, while other examples rely on unconvincing data and remain rather controversial.
Among the more recent high-profile music advocacy projects that have become the subject of widespread controversy are the "Mozart Effect" (which is now widely believed to be based on misinterpretation and exaggeration, or even pseudoscience), and the National Anthem Project, which sought to harness American patriotic fervor during early stages of the "War on Terrorism" (2004-2007) with the hope that music education could be "saved" through the resulting increase in publicity for school music programs. The Mozart effect can refer to A set of research results that indicate that listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds Pseudoscience is defined as a body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be Scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the The National Anthem Project was launched in 2005 as a major initiative of the Bush administration and MENC The National Association for Music Education.
Many contemporary music scholars assert that music advocacy will only be truly effective when based on empirically sound arguments that transcend political motivations and personal agendas. This position regarding music advocacy has especially been advanced by music education philosophers (such as Bennett Reimer, Estelle Jorgensen, David J. Elliott, Wayne Bowman, etc. David J Elliott is a Professor of Music at New York University. ), yet a gap remains between the discourse of music education philosophy and the actual practices of music teachers and music organization executives.
SMTE: The Society for Music Teacher Education http://smte.us