Music is an art form in which the medium is sound. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound In Music, a melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing chanting" also tune, voice, or In Western music, harmony is the use of different pitches simultaneously and chords actual or implied in Music. Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός - rhythmos, "any measured flow or movement symmetry" is the variation of the length and accentuation of 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO Meter or metre is a concept related to an underlying division of time characteristic of western music In Music, articulation refers to the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on single note or between multiple notes or In Music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a Sound or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece either stylistic In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different In Music, texture is the overall quality of sound of a piece, most often indicated by the number of voices in the music and by the relationship between The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike), "(art) of the Muses". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In Greek mythology, the Muses ( Ancient Greek, hai moũsai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root * men- "think" are 
Greek philosophers and Ancient Indians defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies, and vertically as harmonies. A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Music theory, within this realm, is studied with the presupposition that music is orderly and often pleasant to hear. Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works However, in the 20th century, composers challenged the notion that music had to be pleasant by creating music that explored harsher, darker timbres. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different The existence of some modern-day music genres such as death metal and grindcore, which enjoy an extensive underground following, indicate that even the harshest sounds can be considered music if the listener is so inclined. Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics For the fictional character with this name see Grindcore (Transformers. Underground music refers to a variety of post-1960s rock pop or dance subgenres that developed a Cult following despite their lack of Mainstream appeal visibility
20th century composer John Cage disagreed with the notion that music must consist of pleasant, discernible melodies. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr Instead, he argued that any sounds we can hear can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound,". is a one volume manga created by Tsutomu Nihei as a prequel to his ten-volume work Blame!.  According to musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez, "the border between music and noise is always culturally defined--which implies that, even within a single society, this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely a consensus. Jean-Jacques Nattiez (born December 30 1945, Amiens, France) is a Musical semiologist or semiotician and professor of . . . By all accounts there is no single and intercultural universal concept defining what music might be, except that it is "sound through time". "
The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. A performance, in Performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers behave in a particular way for another group of people The definition of music is a contested evaluation of what constitutes Music and varies through history geography and within societies Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Aleatory means "pertaining to luck" and derives from the Latin word alea, the rolling of Dice. Music can be divided into genres and sub-genres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Within "the arts", music can be classified as a performing art, a fine art, or an auditory art form. The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Fine art is any Art form developed primarily for Aesthetics rather than Utility.
The development of music among humans must have taken place against the backdrop of natural sounds such as birdsong and the sounds other animals use to communicate. Music is found in every known Culture, past and present varying wildly between times and places Natural sounds include animal sounds possibly also sounds of other natural phenomena Prehistoric music is the name which is given to all music produced in preliterate cultures. In the History of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all Music produced in preliterate cultures ( Prehistory 
A range of paleolithic sites have yielded bones in which lateral holes have been pierced: these are usually identified as flutes, blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi. Ancient music is Music that developed in literate Cultures replacing Prehistoric music. The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The is a Japanese end-blown Flute. Its name means "18 feet" referring to its size The earliest written records of musical expression are to be found in the Samaveda of India and in 4,000 year old cuneiform from Ur. The Samaveda ( Sanskrit: सामवेद sāmaveda, from sāman "melody" + veda "knowledge") is third (in the usual India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Ur ( Sumerian:urim; Akkadian: ?) is modern Tell el-Mukayyar, Iraq, and was a city in ancient Sumer. Instruments, such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin  India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world—references to Indian classical music (marga) can be found in the ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. The traditional art or court music of China has a history stretching for more than three thousand years. The Music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artefacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as Music was an important part of cultural and social life in Ancient Greece: mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual ceremonies; musicians and singers had a prominent role in ancient Greek theater
In the 9th century, al-Farabi wrote a notable book on music titled Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir ("Great Book of Music"). The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The theatre of ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical Culture that flourished in ancient Greece between c TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abū Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi ( Nastaliq:) or Abū Nasr al-Fārābi He played and invented a variety of musical instruments and devised the Arab tone system of pitch organisation, which is still used in Arabic music. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. The modern Arab tone system, or system of Musical tuning, is based upon the theoretical division of the Octave into twenty-four equal divisions or 24-tone Equal Arabic music or Arab music ( Arabic: موسيقى عربية;) includes several genres and styles of Music ranging from Arabic classical 
While musical life in Europe was undoubtedly rich in the early Medieval era, as attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about music, and other records, the only European repertory which has survived from before about 800 is the monophonic liturgical plainsong of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which was called Gregorian chant. The term medieval music encompasses European music written during the Middle Ages. Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 - 1600 In Music, monophony is the simplest of textures, consisting of Melody without accompanying Harmony. A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions For the band see " Plainsong (band " For the song on The Cure's 1989 album see " Disintegration " History Gregorian chant was organized codified and notated mainly in the Frankish lands of western and central Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries with later additions Several schools of liturgical polyphony flourished beginning in the 12th century. In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony Alongside these traditions of sacred music, a vibrant tradition of secular song developed, exemplified by the music of the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesänger. Religious music (also sacred music) is Music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence Secular music is non- Sacred music that developed in the Middle Ages. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 Trouvère ( MWCD: /trü'ver trü'vər/ sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French ( Langue d'oïl) form of the word Troubadour Minnesang was the tradition of lyric and Song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century
Much of the surviving music of 14th century Europe is secular. By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers used a smooth polyphony for sacred musical compositions such as the mass, the motet, and the laude, and secular forms such as the chanson and the madrigal. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Musical composition is an original piece of Music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new For other uses see Mass (disambiguation The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions "Lauda" redirects here For the former F1 racing driver see Niki Lauda. A chanson ( French for " Song " from Latin cantio) is in general any lyric -driven French songs usually Polyphonic A madrigal is a type of Secular vocal music composition written during the Renaissance and early Baroque eras The introduction of commercial printing had an immense influence on the dissemination of musical styles. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press
The first operas, written around 1600 and the rise of contrapuntal music define the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque era that lasted until roughly 1750, the year of the death of Johann Sebastian Bach. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds, as well as choirs, pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. Filippo Lippi (c 1457 &ndash April 1504 was a well-known painter working during the High Renaissance in Florence, Italy. The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier, but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2200-seat A musical ensemble is a group of two or more Musicians who perform instrumental or vocal Music. A brass instrument is a Musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular Resonator. Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each A harpsichord is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. The clavichord is a European stringed Keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical During the Baroque period, several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue, the invention, the sonata, and the concerto. In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred In Music, an invention is a short composition (usually for a Keyboard instrument) with two-part Counterpoint. Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra 
The music of the Classical period is characterized by homophonic texture, often featuring a prominent melody with accompaniment. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 In Music, homophony (hoʊˈmɒfəni from Greek "homófonos" where ομοιο = the same and φωνή = a sound tone is a texture in which two or more In Music, accompaniment is the art of playing along with a soloist or ensemble, often known as the Lead, in a Supporting manner These new melodies tended to be almost voice-like and singable. The now popular instrumental music was dominated by further evolution of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: the sonata, and the concerto, with the addition of the new form, the symphony. An instrumental is a Musical composition or recording without Lyrics or any other sort of Vocal music; all of the Music is produced by A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, well known even today, are among the central figures of the Classical period.
Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert were transitional composers, leading into the Romantic period, with their expansion of existing genres, forms, and functions of music. Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910 Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. In the Romantic period, the emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over the orientation towards technique and tradition. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well A concert is a live Performance, usually of Music, before an Audience. Urban culture is the Culture of cities. Cities all over the world past and present have behaviors and cultural elements that separate them from otherwise comparable Later Romantic composers created complex and often much longer musical works, merging and expanding traditional forms that had previously been used separately. For example, counterpoint, combined with harmonic structures to create more extended chords with increased use of dissonance and to create dramatic tension and resolution. This article describes musical chords in traditional Western styles
In the 20th century there was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. A revolution occurred in 20th century Music listening as the Radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record capture Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. The focus of art music was characterized by exploration. Art music (or serious music or erudite music) as defined by Jacques Siron is an umbrella term generally used to refer to musical traditions implying advanced structural Claude Debussy has become well-known and respected for his orientation towards colors and depictions in his compositional style. Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th century art music. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with Jazz evolved and became a significant genre of music over the course of the 20th century, and during the second half of that century, rock music and hip hop music did the same. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with
Performance is the physical expression of music. A performance, in Performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers behave in a particular way for another group of people The Nakhi ( endonym ¹na²khi) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province Often, a musical work is performed once its structure and instrumentation are satisfactory to its creators; however, as it gets performed, it can evolve and change.
A performance can either be rehearsed or improvised. Musical Improvisation is the creative activity of immediate Musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental Improvisation is a musical idea created on the spot (such as a guitar solo or a drum solo), with no prior premeditation, while rehearsal is vigorous repetition of an idea until it has achieved cohesion. Guitar solos are a melodic passage section or entire piece of music written for an Electric guitar or an Acoustic guitar. A drum solo is an instrumental solo played on a Drum kit. A drum solo may be set or improvised and of any length up to being the main performance Musicians will generally add improvisation to a well-rehearsed idea to create a unique performance. A musician is a person who plays or writes Music. Musicians can be classified by their roles in creating or performing music An instrumentalist plays a
Many cultures include strong traditions of solo and performance, such as in Indian classical music, and in the Western Art music tradition. In Music, a solo (from the Italian solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one's enjoyment to highly planned and organised performance rituals such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, music festivals or music competitions. A music festival is a Festival oriented towards Music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as Musical genre, Nationality or locality A music competition is a public event designed to identify and award outstanding Musical ensembles and/or soloists.
Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. Chamber music is a form of Classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber A performer may be referred to as a musician.
Many types of music, such as traditional blues and folk music were originally preserved in the memory of performers, and the songs were handed down orally, or aurally (by ear). The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Oral history can be defined as the recording preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker When the composer of music is no longer known, this music is often classified as "traditional". Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those which demand improvisation or modification to the music. A culture's history may also be passed by ear through song.
The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and historical periods. In Music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" See also Modern musical symbols Music notation or musical notation is any system which represents aurally perceived Music through the use In general, art music notation from the 17th through the 19th century required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles.
For example, in the 17th and 18th century, music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unornamented melody. However, it was expected that performers would know how to add stylistically-appropriate ornaments such as trills and turns. The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare Mordent and Tremolo) In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may give a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively, without describing in detail how the performer should do this. It was expected that the performer would know how to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses (among other devices) to obtain this "expressive" performance style. In Music, an accent is an emphasis placed on a particular note, either as a result of its context or specifically indicated by an accent mark. A rest is an interval of Silence in a piece of Music, marked by a sign indicating the length of the pause In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece.
In popular music and jazz, music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces. Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more For example, the "lead sheet" for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. A lead sheet is a form of Music notation or transcription that specifies the essential elements of a composition in Popular music: the Melody The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to "flesh out" this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music, and chordal accompaniment. A jazz band (or jazz ensemble) is a Musical ensemble that plays Jazz Music usually without a conductor
Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. See also Entertainment (disambiguation and The Entertainer (disambiguation Entertainment is an activity designed to give people Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own pleasure, and they do not derive their income from music. Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organisations, including armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film production companies, and music schools. For the band see Broadcast (band Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or Video signals which transmit Filmmaking is the process of making a Film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting shooting editing and finally distribution to an audience A university school of music or college of music, or academy of music or conservatoire ( French, but used in British English) &mdash Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings.
There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians. While many individuals are content to play a Musical instrument " by ear " or by practicing individual pieces until a reasonable proficiency is achieved others wish In community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles and orchestras. In some cases, amateur musicians attain a professional level of competence, and they are able to perform in professional performance settings.
A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and music that is performed for the purpose of being recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed (or broadcast).
"Composition" is often classed as the creation and recording of music via a medium by which others can interpret it (i. Musical composition is an original piece of Music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new e. paper or sound). Many cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving musical material, or composition, as held in western classical music. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Even when music is notated precisely, there are still many decisions that a performer has to make. The process of a performer deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation.
Different performers' interpretations of the same music can vary widely. Composers and song writers who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others or folk music. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice, where as interpretation is generally used to mean either individual choices of a performer, or an aspect of music which is not clear, and therefore has a "standard" interpretation. The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works
In some musical genres, such as jazz and blues, even more freedom is given to the performer to engage in improvisation on a basic melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic framework. The greatest latitude is given to the performer in a style of performing called free improvisation, which is material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed, not preconceived. Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician(s involved in many cases the musicians make According to the analysis of Georgiana Costescu, improvised music usually follows stylistic or genre conventions and even "fully composed" includes some freely chosen material. In Music, precompositional decisions are those decisions which a Composer decides upon before or while beginning to create a composition. Composition does not always mean the use of notation, or the known sole authorship of one individual.
Music can also be determined by describing a "process" which may create musical sounds; examples of this range from wind chimes, through computer programs which select sounds. Music which contains elements selected by chance is called Aleatoric music, and is associated with such composers as John Cage, Morton Feldman, and Witold Lutosławski. Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning " Dice " is Music Morton Feldman (January 12 1926 – September 3 1987 was an American Composer, born in New York City. Witold Lutosławski ( January 25 1913 &ndash February 7 1994 was one of the major European Composers
Musical composition is a term that describes the composition of a piece of music. Methods of composition vary widely from one composer to another, however in analysing music all forms — spontaneous, trained, or untrained — are built from elements comprising a musical piece. Music can be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised: composed on the spot. The music can be performed entirely from memory, from a written system of musical notation, or some combination of both. Study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African drummers such as the Ewe drummers. For the Ornette Coleman album after which this genre was named see Free Jazz A Collective Improvisation. Ewe drumming refers to the Drumming ensembles of the Ewe people of Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
What is important in understanding the composition of a piece is singling out its elements. An understanding of music's formal elements can be helpful in deciphering exactly how a piece is constructed. A universal element of music is how sounds occur in time, which is referred to as the rhythm of a piece of music.
When a piece appears to have a changing time-feel, it is considered to be in rubato time, an Italian expression that indicates that the tempo of the piece changes to suit the expressive intent of the performer. Tempo rubato (Italian stolen time) is a musical term for slightly speeding up or slowing down the Tempo of a piece at the discretion of the soloist Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Even random placement of random sounds, which occurs in musical montage, occurs within some kind of time, and thus employs time as a musical element. In Music montage (literally "putting together" or sound collage ("gluing together" is a technique where Sound objects or compositions
Notation is the written expression of music notes and rhythms on paper using symbols. See also Modern musical symbols Music notation or musical notation is any system which represents aurally perceived Music through the use When music is written down, the pitches and rhythm of the music is notated, along with instructions on how to perform the music. The study of how to read notation involves music theory, harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historical performance methods.
Written notation varies with style and period of music. In Western Art music, the most common types of written notation are scores, which include all the music parts of an ensemble piece, and parts, which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz, and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the music. Lyrics (in singular form Lyric) are a set of words that accompany music either by speaking or singing Scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz "big bands. "
In popular music, guitarists and electric bass players often read music notated in tablature, which indicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, a stringed, fretted instrument. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from
Notated music is produced as sheet music. Sheet music is a hand-written or printed form of Musical notation; like its analogs -- books pamphlets etc To perform music from notation requires an understanding of both the musical style and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or genre.
Improvisation is the creation of spontaneous music. Musical Improvisation is the creative activity of immediate Musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental Spontaneous music is a form of free Improvised music, played without structure Improvisation is often considered an act of instantaneous composition by composers, where compositional techniques are employed with or without preparation.
Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works It often involves identifying patterns that govern composers' techniques. In a more detailed sense, music theory (in the western system) also distills and analyzes the elements of music – rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, and texture. People who study these properties are known as music theorists.
The field of music cognition involves the study of many aspects of music including how it is processed by listeners. Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human Perception of Sounds Alternatively it can be described as the study of the Psychological correlates Music cognition is an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the mental processes that support musical behaviors including perception comprehension memory attention and performance Rather than accepting the standard practices of analyzing, composing, and performing music as a given, much research in music cognition seeks instead to uncover the mental processes that underlie these practices. Also, research in the field seeks to uncover commonalities between the musical traditions of disparate cultures and possible cognitive "constraints" that limit these musical systems. Questions regarding musical innateness, and emotional responses to music are also major areas of research in the field.
Deaf people can experience music by feeling the vibrations in their body, a process which can be enhanced if the individual holds a resonant, hollow object. A well-known deaf musician is the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, who composed many famous works even after he had completely lost his hearing. Recent examples of deaf musicians include Evelyn Glennie, a highly acclaimed percussionist who has been deaf since age twelve, and Chris Buck, a virtuoso violinist who has lost his hearing. Dame Evelyn Elizabeth Ann Glennie, DBE (born July 19 1965 in Aberdeen) is a Scottish virtuoso Percussionist. Chris Buck is a Violin virtuoso and teacher He lost his hearing due to latent Radiation damage radiation was part of the Cancer therapy he The following lists of violinists are available List of classical violinists, names of great violinist from baroque era till 20th century This is relevant because it indicates that music is a deeper cognitive process than unexamined phrases such as, "pleasing to the ear" would suggest. Much research in music cognition seeks to uncover these complex mental processes involved in listening to music, which may seem intuitively simple, yet are vastly intricate and complex.
Music is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings ranging from being alone to attending a large concert. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a "high culture" and "low culture. High culture is a term now used in a number of different ways in Academic discourse whose most common meaning is the set of cultural products mainly in the Low culture is a Derogatory term for some forms of Popular culture. " "High culture" types of music typically include Western art music such as Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and modern-era symphonies, concertos, and solo works, and are typically heard in formal concerts in concert halls and churches, with the audience sitting quietly in seats.
Other types of music such as jazz, blues, soul, and country are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering. Soul music is a Music genre that combines Rhythm and blues and Gospel music, originating in the United States. Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. Until the later 20th century, the division between "high" and "low" musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced "art music" from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls.
However, in the 1980s and 1990s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between "high" and "low" musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality of the different types of music. Rather, they argued that this distinction was based largely on the socioeconomic standing or social class of the performers or audience of the different types of music. Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and Social life. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. For example, whereas the audience for Classical symphony concerts typically have above-average incomes, the audience for a rap concert in an inner-city area may have below-average incomes. Even though the performers, audience, or venue where non-"art" music is performed may have a lower socioeconomic status, the music that is performed, such as blues, rap, punk, funk, or ska may be very complex and sophisticated. Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul Ska ( pronounced /ska/ or in Jamaican Patois /skja/ is a Music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and which was the precursor
When composers introduce styles of music which break with convention, there can be a strong resistance from academic music experts and popular culture. Late-period Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop-era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced. Ballet is a formalized form of Dance with its origins in the French court further developed in France and Russia as a Concert dance In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those Bebop or bop is a form of Jazz characterized by fast Tempos and Improvisation based on Harmonic structure rather than Melody Electronica includes a wide range of contemporary Electronic music designed for a wide range
Such themes are examined in the sociology of music. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" The sociological study of music, sometimes called sociomusicology, is often pursued in departments of sociology, media studies, or music, and is closely related to the field of ethnomusicology. Sociomusicology refers to both an academic subfield of Sociology that is concerned with Music (often in combination with other arts as well as a subfield This article is about the concept For the society and academic journal see Society for Ethnomusicology.
The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence, or as one of the musicians. Computer music is a term that was originally used within academia to describe a field of study relating to the applications of Computing technology in music composition "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the Internet. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording which mixes together sounds which were never played "live". Recording, even of styles which are essentially live, often uses the ability to edit and splice to produce recordings which are considered better than the actual performance.
As talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work. A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image as opposed to a Silent film.  During the 1920s live musical performances by orchestras, pianists, and theater organists were common at first-run theaters. A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra A theatre organ is a Pipe organ originally designed specifically for imitation of an orchestra but in latter years new designs have tended to be around some of the sounds and  With the coming of the talking motion pictures, those featured performances were largely eliminated. The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices. The American Federation of Musicians ( AFM / AFofM) is a labor union of Professional Musicians in the United States and One 1929 ad that appeared in the Pittsburgh Press features an image of a can labeled "Canned Music / Big Noise Brand / Guaranteed to Produce No Intellectual or Emotional Reaction Whatever"
Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 in the United States, and the 1979 revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and Internet in a form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand. The Pittsburgh Press, now defunct was a major daily Newspaper in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing Copyright The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Music-On-Demand is a music distribution model conceived with the growth of two-way computing telecommunications and the Internet in the early 1990s
In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, since virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal. In industrialized countries, listening to music through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a music video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century. A music video is a Short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music most commonly a Song with lyrics
Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience A gramophone "Scratching" is also a Present participle of " Scratch " and may also refer to a form of street art Scratching Computers and many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) music. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface, ˈmɪdi is an industry-standard protocol that enables Electronic musical instruments Computers Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin which centres around a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. (kɑːrɑːˌoʊkɛ in Japanese karaoke) is a form of Entertainment in which Amateur Singers sing along with recorded Music (and/or a Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.
The advent of the Internet has transformed the experience of music, partly through the increased ease of access to music and the increased choice. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Chris Anderson, in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, suggests that while the economic model of supply and demand describes scarcity, the Internet retail model is based on abundance. Chris Anderson (born 1961 is editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine, which has won a National Magazine Award under his tenure Supply and demand is an Economic model describing effects on price and quantity in a Market. Digital storage costs are low, so a company can afford to make its whole inventory available online, giving customers as much choice as possible. A data storage device is a device for recording (storing information (data It has thus become economically viable to offer products that very few people are interested in. Consumers' growing awareness of their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity, and the creation of thousands of niche markets. A niche market is a focused targetable portion (subset of a market 
Another effect of the Internet arises with online communities like YouTube and MySpace. A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via communication media such as Newsletters YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload view and share Video clips YouTube was created in February 2005 by three former PayPal employees MySpace is a popular social networking Website offering an interactive user-submitted network of friends personal profiles blogs groups photos music and MySpace has made social networking with other musicians easier, and greatly facilitates the distribution of one's music. A social network is a Social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency such as YouTube also has a large community of both amateur and professional musicians who post videos and comments. Professional musicians also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material.
YouTube users, for example, no longer only download and listen to MP3s, but also actively create their own. MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a Digital audio encoding format using a form of Lossy data compression According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, in their book Wikinomics, there has been a shift from a traditional consumer role to what they call a "prosumer" role, a consumer who both creates and consumes. Don Tapscott (born 1947 is a Canadian Business executive, Author, Consultant and speaker based in Toronto, Ontario, specializing Anthony D Williams is a consultant researcher and author He co-authored Wikinomics along with Don Tapscott and is a vice president of research with international Wikinomics How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D Prosumer is a Portmanteau formed by contracting either the word pro fessional or pro ducer with the word con' sumer'. Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans. A mashup or bootleg (also mash up and mash-up) is a song or composition created from the combination of the music from one song with the A cappella A remix is an alternative version of a song different from the original version 
The music industry refers to the business industry connected with the creation and sale of music. The music industry is the business of Music. Although it encompasses the activity of many music-related businesses and organizations it is currently dominated by the "big It consists of record companies, labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products internationally and that often control the rights to those products. In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music This article deals with contemporary Popular music publishing Some music labels are "independent," while others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. An independent record label (or indie record label) is a Record label operating without the funding of or outside the organizations of the Major record labels A media conglomerate describes companies that own large numbers of companies in various Mass media such as Television, Radio, Publishing,
The incorporation of music training from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe. Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges Involvement in music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, improving the ability to recall information, and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas. Counting is the mathematical action of repeatedly adding (or subtracting one usually to find out how many objects there are or to set aside a desired number of objects (starting Distinguish from Corporation. Cooperation, co-operation, or coöperation is the process of working or acting together A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information  In elementary schools, children often learn to play instruments such as the recorder, sing in small choirs, and learn about the history of Western art music. See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary The recorder is a woodwind Musical instrument of the family known as Fipple Flutes ' or internal duct flutes &mdash whistle-like In secondary schools students may have the opportunity to perform some type of musical ensembles, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras, and in some school systems, music classes may be available. A marching band is in the broadest terms a group of performers that consist of instrumental Musicians and sometimes dance teams / color guard who generally perform A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble Some students also take private music lessons with a teacher. While many individuals are content to play a Musical instrument " by ear " or by practicing individual pieces until a reasonable proficiency is achieved others wish Amateur musicians typically take lessons to learn musical rudiments and beginner- to intermediate-level musical techniques.
At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative A credit is a unit that gives weighting to the value level or time requirements of an academic course. Music is found in every known Culture, past and present varying wildly between times and places Music appreciation is teaching people what to listen for and to appreciate different types of music In addition, most North American and European universities have some type of musical ensembles that non-music students are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, or orchestras. The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as the Indonesian Institute of the Arts in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China. The Indonesian Institute of the Arts Yogyakarta ( Institut Seni Indonesia Yogyakarta / ISI Yogyakarta) is a state-owned College in Yogyakarta The Special Region of Yogyakarta ( Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY) is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali (e. The music of Africa is as vast and varied as the continent's many regions, nations and Ethnic groups Although there is no distinctly pan-African g. Gamelan music). A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and
Musicology is the study of the subject of music. Musicology ( Greek: μουσική = "music" and λόγος = "word" or "reason" is the scholarly study of Music The earliest definitions defined three sub-disciplines: systematic musicology, historical musicology, and comparative musicology or ethnomusicology. Systematic musicology is an Umbrella term, used mainly in Central Europe, for several subdisciplines and paradigms of Musicology. This article is about the academic field of music history. For a chronological overview of music see History of music. This article is about the concept For the society and academic journal see Society for Ethnomusicology. In contemporary scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory, music history, and ethnomusicology. Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics. Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human Perception of Sounds Alternatively it can be described as the study of the Psychological correlates The study of music of non-western cultures, and the cultural study of music, is called ethnomusicology.
Graduates of undergraduate music programs can go on to further study in music graduate programs. Graduate degrees include the Master of Music, the Master of Arts, the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (e. The Master of Music (MM or MMus is the first graduate degree in Music. A Master of Arts ( Latin: Magister Artium) is a Postgraduate academic Master's degree awarded by universities in a large "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. g. , in musicology or music theory), and more recently, the Doctor of Musical Arts, or DMA. The Doctor of Musical Arts degree (DMA DMusA or AMusD) is a doctoral Academic degree in music The Master of Music degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument, education, voice or composition. The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically awarded to students studying musicology, music history, or music theory. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature Undergraduate university degrees in music, including the Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Music Education, and the Bachelor of Arts (with a major in music) typically take three to five years to complete. In some Educational systems undergraduate education is Post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelor's degree. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing Bachelor of Music ( BM, BMus or MusB) is an Academic degree awarded by a College, University, or conservatory These degrees provide students with a grounding in music theory and music history, and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program.
The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to five years of study after the Master's degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation. The DMAis a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition. The DMA takes three to five years after a Master's degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances. In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. The quadrivium comprised the four subjects or arts taught in Medieval universities after the trivium. The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions. In Acoustics and Telecommunication, the harmonic of a Wave is a component Frequency of the signal that is an Integer
Zoomusicology is the study of the music of non-human animals, or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. Zoomusicology is a field of Musicology and Zoology or more specifically zoosemiotics. As George Herzog (1941) asked, "do animals have music?" François-Bernard Mâche's Musique, mythe, nature, ou les Dauphins d'Arion (1983), a study of "ornitho-musicology" using a technique of Nicolas Ruwet's Language, musique, poésie (1972) paradigmatic segmentation analysis, shows that bird songs are organised according to a repetition-transformation principle. François-Bernard Mâche (born April 4, 1935 Clermont-Ferrand is a French Composer of Contemporary music. Nicolas Ruwet ( December 31, 1932 - November 15, 2001) was a linguist, literary critic and Musical analyst. Paradigmatic analysis is the analysis of Paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure ( Syntax) of the text which is termed Syntagmatic analysis Bird vocalization includes both Bird calls and bird songs In non-technical use bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990), argues that "in the last analysis, it is a human being who decides what is and is not musical, even when the sound is not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not organised and conceptualised (that is, made to form music) merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives it, then music is uniquely human. "
Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. More broadly it refers to any study of music, usually related in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of What is most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period, or tonal music. The common practice period, in the history of European Art music (broadly called Classical music) spanning the Baroque, Classical, and Tonality is a system of Music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center" or tonic. Theory, even that which studies music of the common practice period, may take many other forms. Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music, first applied to atonal music. Musical set theory provides concepts for categorizing musical objects and describing their relationships Atonality in its broadest sense describes Music that lacks a tonal center, or key. Speculative music theory, contrasted with analytic music theory, is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation for composition. In Music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice
In the West, much of the history of music that is taught deals with the Western civilization's art music. This article is about the concept For the society and academic journal see Society for Ethnomusicology. The history of music in other cultures ("world music" or the field of "ethnomusicology") is also taught in Western universities. The term world music includes Traditional music (sometimes called Folk music or roots music of any culture that are created and played by indigenous musicians This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of Western Europe, as well as the folk or indigenous music of various other cultures.
Popular styles of music varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period. Different cultures emphasised different instruments, or techniques, or uses for music. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. Music has been used not only for entertainment, for ceremonies, and for practical and artistic communication, but also for propaganda in totalitarian countries. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people
There is a host of music classifications, many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of music. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or "art" music), and popular music (or commercial music - including rock and roll, country music, and pop music). Contemporary Commercial Music or CCM is a term used by some Vocal pedagogists in the United States of America to refer to non-classical Music. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African Some genres don't fit neatly into one of these "big two" classifications, (such as folk music, world music, or jazz music).
As world cultures have come into greater contact, their indigenous musical styles have often merged into new styles. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones For example, the United States bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and African instrumental and vocal traditions, which were able to fuse in the United States' multi-ethnic society. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of Country music. The Folk Music of England has a long history. History Little survives of the early music of England by which is meant the music that was used by the people before Irish Music is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres on the entire island of Ireland, North and South of the border Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to Pop music Forms of German-language music include Neue Deutsche Welle ( NDW) Krautrock, Hamburger Schule, Volksmusik, German Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music. Some works, like George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music. George Gershwin (September 26 1898 &ndash July 11 1937 was an American Composer. Rhapsody in Blue is a musical composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band written in 1924 which combines elements of classical music with Many current music festivals celebrate a particular musical genre.
Indian music, for example, is one of the oldest and longest living types of music, and is still widely heard and performed in South Asia, as well as internationally (especially since the 1960s). The music of India' includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. Indian music has mainly 3 forms of classical music, Hindustani, Carnatic, and Dhrupad styles. Hindustani Classical Music ( Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत Urdu: ہندوستانی شاستریے سنگیت Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India This article is about Dhrupad the genre of Indian classical singing It has also a large repertoire of styles, which involve only percussion music such as the talavadya performances famous in South India. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union
Robert Burton wrote in his 17th century work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the therapist uses music and all of its facets&mdashphysical emotional mental social aesthetic and spiritual&mdashto help clients to improve Robert Burton ( 8 February 1577 – 25 January 1640) was a English Scholar and Vicar at Oxford University The Anatomy of Melancholy (Full title The Anatomy of Melancholy What it is With all the Kinds Causes Symptomes Prognostickes and Several Cures of it Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as  He said that
But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself.
Burton noted that
. . . Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout. "
In November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford and his colleagues also found that music therapy helped schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn  In the Ottoman Empire, mental illnesses were treated with music. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish