|Titans and Olympians|
In Greek mythology, the Muses (Ancient Greek οἱ μοῦσες, hoi moũses : perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- "think") are a sisterhood of goddesses or spirits, their number set at nine by Classical times, who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music, and dance. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about primordial deities in their mythology, which would later be largely adapted by the In Greek mythology, the Titans ( Greek: Tītā́n; plural Tītânes) were a race of powerful Deities that ruled during the legendary The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon ( Greek: Δωδεκάθεον The ancient Greeks had a large number of sea deities. The philosopher Plato once remarked that the Greek people were like frogs sitting around a pond -- their Chthonic (from Greek χθόνιος khthonios "of the earth" from khthōn "earth" pertaining to the Earth; earthy subterranean Asclepius (pronounced /æsˈkliːpiːəs/, Greek, transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the god of Medicine Nemesis (in Greek,) also called Rhamnousia/Rhamnusia ("the Goddess of Rhamnous " at her sanctuary at The Moirae or Moerae (in Greek – the " apportioners " often called the The Fates) in Greek mythology, were the white-robed In Greek mythology, Cratos ( English translation: "strength" was a son of Pallas and Styx, and he was the personification of strength This Zelos is the Greek personification For other uses see Zelos. In Greek mythology, Nike ( Greek Νίκη níːkɛː meaning Victory) was a Goddess who personified Triumph In Greek mythology, Metis (Μῆτις was of the Titan generation and like several primordial figures an Oceanid, in the sense that Metis was born of In Greek mythology, a Charis (Χάρις is one of several Charites (Χάριτες Greek: " Graces " goddesses of charm beauty In Greek mythology, the Oneiroi (Ὄνειροι were the brothers (According to Hesiod or sons (according to Ovid of Hypnos, the god of sleep In Greek mythology, Adrasteia ( Greek: Ἀδράστεια ( Ionic Greek: Ἀδρήστεια "inescapable" also spelled Adrastia In Greek mythology, the Horai, Latinized Horae (Ὧραι — literally translated as "the hours" were three Goddesses controlling orderly In Greek mythology, Bia ( Ancient Greek: βία English translation: "Force" was the personification of force daughter of Pallas For other uses see Themis (disambiguation. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis (Θέμις among the six sons and six daughters of Gaia Eris ( Greek Ἔρις, "Strife" is the Greek Goddess of strife her name being translated into Latin as Discordia In Greek mythology, Thanatos (in Ancient Greek, θάνατος &ndash " Death " was the Daemon personification In Greek mythology, Hypnos (Ὕπνος was the personification of sleep the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Improvisation (also called extemporization) is the practice of acting singing talking and reacting of making and creating in the moment and in response to the stimulus of They were water nymphs, associated with the and called mankeys springs of Helicon and with Pieris, from which they are sometimes called the Pierides. In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of mythological entities in human female form Mount Helicon (Ἑλικῶν is a mountain in the region of Thespiai in Boeotia, Greece, with an elevation of 1749 meters (5735 ft The Olympian system set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetēs. Not only are the Muses explicitly used in modern English to refer to an inspiration, as when one cites his/her own artistic muse, but they are also implicit in the words "amuse" or "musing upon". 
According to Hesiod's Theogony (seventh century BC), they are the daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, goddess of memory. Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE Theogony ( Greek: Θεογονία theogonia = the birth of God(s is a Poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology Mnemosyne (Greek, nɪˈmɒzɪni or /nɪˈmɒsəni/ (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from Uranus and Gaia. Alcman (also Alkman Greek) (7th century BC was an Ancient Greek choral lyric poet from Sparta. Mimnermus of Colophon was a Greek Elegiac poet who flourished about 630 - 600 BC. Uranus (ˈjʊərənəs jʊˈreɪnəs is the Latinized form of Ouranos () the Greek word for Sky. Gaia (ˈgeɪə or /ˈgaɪə/ (" land " or " Earth " from the Ancient Greek Γαîα also Gæa or Gea Pausanias records a tradition of two generations of Muses; the first being daughters of Uranus and Gaia, the second of Zeus and Mnemosyne. Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Uranus (ˈjʊərənəs jʊˈreɪnəs is the Latinized form of Ouranos () the Greek word for Sky. Gaia (ˈgeɪə or /ˈgaɪə/ (" land " or " Earth " from the Ancient Greek Γαîα also Gæa or Gea Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology Mnemosyne (Greek, nɪˈmɒzɪni or /nɪˈmɒsəni/ (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria Another, rarer genealogy is that they are daughters of Harmonia (the daughter of Aphrodite and Ares) which contradicts the myth in which they were dancing at the wedding of Harmonia and Cadmus. In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the immortal Goddess of harmony and concord In Greek mythology, Ares ( Ancient Greek:, Μodern Greek Άρης) is the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek mythology, Harmonia is the immortal Goddess of harmony and concord Cadmus, or Kadmos (Κάδμος in Greek mythology, was a Phoenician prince son of Agenor and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix
Compare the Roman inspiring nymphs of springs, the Camenae, the Völva of Norse Mythology and also the apsarasa in the culture of classical India. In Roman mythology, the Camenae were originally goddesses of springs wells and fountains or water nymphs of Venus. A Völva (also Vala, Spákona) is a priestess in Norse paganism, and a recurring motif in Norse mythology. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland APSARA (Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap is the Cambodian management authority responsible for protecting the archeological park of India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
According to Pausanias in the later second century AD, there were three original Muses: Aoidē ("song" or "voice"), Meletē ("practice" or "occasion"), and Mnēmē ("memory"). Eustache Le Sueur or Lesueur ( 19 November 1617 – 30 April 1655) one of the founders of the French Academy of painting Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus In Greek mythology, Melete (Μελέτη was one of the three original ( Boeotian Muses, though there were later nine In Greek mythology, Mneme (Μνήμη was one of the three original ( Boeotian Muses, though there were later nine Together, these three form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. This article discusses cult in the original and typically ancient sense of "religious practice" (cultus In Delphi three Muses were worshipped as well, but with other names: Nētē, Mesē, and Hypatē, which are the names of the three chords of the ancient musical instrument, the lyre. Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western In Greek mythology, Nete (Νήτη was one of the three Muses of the Lyre that were worshipped at Delphi, where the Temple of Apollo In Greek mythology, Mese (Μήση was one of the three Muses of the Lyre that were worshipped at Delphi, where the Temple of Apollo In Greek mythology, Hypate (Ὑπάτη was one of the three Muses of the Lyre who were worshipped at Delphi The lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity and later Alternatively they were called Cēphisso, Apollonis, and Borysthenis, whose names characterise them as daughters of Apollo. In Greek mythology, Cephisso (or Kephiso (Κηφισώ was one of the three Muses that were daughters of Apollo. In Greek mythology, Borysthenis (Βορυσθενίς was one of the three Muses that were daughters of Apollo. In later tradition, four Muses were recognized: Thelxinoē, Aoedē, Arche, and Meletē, said to be daughters of Zeus and Plusia (or of Uranus). In the ancient Greek philosophy, arche (ἀρχή is the beginning or the first principle of the world In Greek mythology, Melete (Μελέτη was one of the three original ( Boeotian Muses, though there were later nine Uranus (ˈjʊərənəs jʊˈreɪnəs is the Latinized form of Ouranos () the Greek word for Sky. One of the persons associated with the Muses was Pierus. Pierus ( Greek: Πίερος in Greek mythology, is a name attributed to two individuals By some he was called the father (by a Pimpleian nymph: called Antiope by Cicero) of a total of seven Muses, called Neilo, Tritone, Asopo, Heptapora, Achelois, Tipoplo, and Rhodia. The tritone ( Tri - or three and tone) is a Musical interval that spans three whole tones. Achelois was a name attributed to several figures in Greek mythology. 
The Muses judged the contest between Apollo and Marsyas. In Greek mythology, the Satyr Marsyas ( gr) appeared in two vignettes: in one he picked up the double flute ( Aulos They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them. Orpheus ( Greek: Ὀρφεύς ˈɔrfiəs ( OHR-fee-uhs) or /ˈɔrfjuːs/ ( OHR'-fews) in English is a figure from Greek mythology born in In Greek mythology, Calliope ("beautiful-voiced" also spelled Kaliope or Kalliope, in Greek, Καλλιόπη They blinded Thamyris for his hubris in challenging them to a contest. In Greek mythology, Thamyris ( Greek: Θάμυρις son of Philammon and the nymph Argiope, was a Thracian singer who was so proud Hubris, sometimes spelled hybris ( Ancient Greek ὕβρις is a term used in modern English to indicate overweening Pride, self-confidence
Though the Muses, when taken together, form a complete picture of the subjects proper to poetic art, the association of specific muses with specific art forms is a later innovation. Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi ( 7 March, 1481 &mdash 6 January, 1537) was an Italian Architect and painter, born in a small The Muses were not assigned standardized divisions of poetry with which they are now identified until late Hellenistic times. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The canonical nine Muses, with their fields of patronage, as established since the Renaissance, are:
Battoni Euterpe. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere In Greek mythology, Calliope ("beautiful-voiced" also spelled Kaliope or Kalliope, in Greek, Καλλιόπη An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation CLIO is the Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory, a prototype detector for gravitational waves See also Erato (dryad In Greek mythology, Erato (Ἐρατώ is one of the Greek Muses The name would mean "lovely" In Greek mythology, Euterpe (Eὐτέρπη (juːˈtɝpi eʊ̯ Lyric poetry refers to a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings which may or may not be set to music Melpomène (Greek Μελπομένη mɛlˌpɒmɪˈni ("to sing" or "the one that is melodious", initially the Muse of Singing she then became the Muse Polyhymnia ("the one of many hymns" /pɒlɪ'hɪmniə/ (Πολυύμνια Πολύμνια in Greek mythology, was the Muse of sacred-poetry A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities Sacred art is Imagery intended to uplift the Mind to the spiritual. For the Fern Genus, see Terpsichore (fern. In Greek mythology, Terpsichore (tərpˈsɪkəri (Τερψιχόρη For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers Thalia can refer to four distinct entities in Greek mythology, two of whom were daughters of Zeus, and a third of whom bore him sons Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability In Greek mythology, Urania (Οὐρανία jʊˈreɪnɪə in English which means "heavenly" was the Muse of Astronomy and Astrology Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study In Greek mythology, Calliope ("beautiful-voiced" also spelled Kaliope or Kalliope, in Greek, Καλλιόπη CLIO is the Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory, a prototype detector for gravitational waves See also Erato (dryad In Greek mythology, Erato (Ἐρατώ is one of the Greek Muses The name would mean "lovely" jpg
Euterpe, left, with Urania
In Renaissance and Neoclassical art, the dissemination of emblem books such as Cesare Ripa's Iconologia (1593 and many further editions) helped standardise the depiction of muses in sculptures or paintings, who could be distinguished by certain props, together with which they became emblems readily identifiable by the viewer, who would immediately recognize the art with which they had become bound. In Greek mythology, Euterpe (Eὐτέρπη (juːˈtɝpi eʊ̯ Melpomène (Greek Μελπομένη mɛlˌpɒmɪˈni ("to sing" or "the one that is melodious", initially the Muse of Singing she then became the Muse Polyhymnia ("the one of many hymns" /pɒlɪ'hɪmniə/ (Πολυύμνια Πολύμνια in Greek mythology, was the Muse of sacred-poetry For the Fern Genus, see Terpsichore (fern. In Greek mythology, Terpsichore (tərpˈsɪkəri (Τερψιχόρη Thalia can refer to four distinct entities in Greek mythology, two of whom were daughters of Zeus, and a third of whom bore him sons In Greek mythology, Urania (Οὐρανία jʊˈreɪnɪə in English which means "heavenly" was the Muse of Astronomy and Astrology The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Emblem books are a particular style of illustrated Book developed in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, normally containing about one hundred combinations Cesare Ripa (died 1622 was an Italian aesthetician and author of the Iconologia (or in full Iconologia overo Descrittione Dell’imagini Universali An emblem is a pictorial Image, abstract or representational that epitomizes a Concept — e
Calliope (epic poetry) carries a writing tablet; Clio (history) carries a scroll and books; Erato (love poetry) is often seen with a lyre and a crown of roses; Euterpe (music) carries a flute; Melpomene (tragedy) is often seen with a tragic mask; Polyhymnia (sacred poetry) is often seen with a pensive expression; Terpsichore (dance) is often seen dancing and carrying a lyre; Thalia (comedy) is often seen with a comic mask; and Urania (astronomy) carries a pair of compasses and celestial globe.
Greek mousa is a common noun as well as a type of goddess: it literally means "song" or "poem". In Pindar, to "carry a mousa" is "to sing a song". Pindar (ˈpɪndɚ (or Pindarus, Greek:) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos) was an Ancient The word is probably derived from the Indo-European root men-, which is also the source of Greek Mnemosyne, and English "mind", "mental" and "memory" (or alternatively from mont-, "mountain", due to their residence on Mount Helicon, which is less likely in meaning, but somewhat more likely linguistically). Mnemosyne (Greek, nɪˈmɒzɪni or /nɪˈmɒsəni/ (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria
The Muses were therefore both the embodiments and sponsors of performed metrical speech: mousike, whence "music", was "the art of the Muses". In the archaic period, before the wide-spread availability of books, this included nearly all of learning: the first Greek book on astronomy, by Thales, was set in dactylic hexameter, as were many works of pre-Socratic philosophy; both Plato and the Pythagoreans explicitly included philosophy as a sub-species of mousike Herodotus, whose primary medium of delivery was public recitation, named each one of the nine books of his Histories after a different Muse, invoked at the outset. Thales of Miletus According to Bertrand Russell, "Philosophy begins with Thales Dactylic Hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme The Pre-Socratic Greek philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously but expounding knowledge developed earlier Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece "Pythagoras of Samos" redirects here For the Samian statuary of the same name see Pythagoras (sculptor. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare "to call on invoke" may take the form of Supplication or Prayer
For poet and "law-giver" Solon the Muses were "the key to the good life"; since they brought both prosperity and friendship. Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet. Solon sought to perpetuate his political reforms by establishing recitations of his poetry—complete with invocations to his practical-minded Muses—by Athenian boys at festivals each year. It was believed that they would help inspire people to do their best.
The muses are typically invoked at or near the beginning of an epic poem or classical Greek hymn. The Musée d'Orsay is a Museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station the Gare They have served as aids to an author of prose, too, sometimes represented as the true speaker, for whom an author is only a mouthpiece.  Originally, the invocation of the Muse was an indication that the speaker was working inside the poetic tradition, according to the established formulas. Six classic examples :
Modern evocations of the muses have appeared in a variety of literary and media sources. The muses are travestied in the 1980 feature film Xanadu and its 2007 Broadway musical adaptation), which place Terpsichore and Clio, respectively, in the leading role under the pseudonym 'Kira'. Xanadu is a 1980 musical / Romance film directed by Robert Greenwald. Xanadu is a musical comedy with a book by Douglas Carter Beane, music and lyrics by Jeff Lynne and John Farrar, based on the
When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his first advice to the Crotoniates was to build a shrine of the Muses at the center of the city, to promote civic harmony and learning. "Pythagoras of Samos" redirects here For the Samian statuary of the same name see Pythagoras (sculptor.
Local cults of the Muses were often associated with springs or fountains. They were sometimes called Aganippids because of their association with a fountain called Aganippe. Aganippe ( Greek:) was a name or epithet of three figures in Greek mythology and a genus of spiders Other fountains, Hippocrene and Pirene, were also important haunts of the Muses. In Greek mythology, Hippocrene (Ἱπποκρήνη was the name of a fountain on Mt The Muses were also occasionally referred to as "Corycides", or "Corycian nymphs" after a cave on Mount Parnassos, called the Corycian Cave. In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of mythological entities in human female form Mythology Mount Parnassus is named after Parnassos the son of the Nymph Kleodora and the man Kleopompus. This article is about the Corycian Cave in Greece for the Corycian Cave in Anatolia see Corycus The Corycian Cave is located on the slopes
The Muses were especially venerated in Boeotia, near Helicon, and in Delphi and the Parnassus, where Apollo became known as Mousagetes "Muse-leader". Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the Mount Helicon (Ἑλικῶν is a mountain in the region of Thespiai in Boeotia, Greece, with an elevation of 1749 meters (5735 ft Delphi ( Greek,) ( pronounce and dialectal forms) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western Mythology Mount Parnassus is named after Parnassos the son of the Nymph Kleodora and the man Kleopompus.
Muse-worship was also often associated with the hero-cults of poets: the tombs of Archilochus on Thasos and Hesiod and Thamyris in Boeotia, all played host to festivals, in which poetic recitations were accompanied by sacrifices to the Muses. "Cult Hero" redirects here For the Cure sideproject called Cult Hero see I'm a Cult Hero Hero cults were one of the most For the Hummingbird Genus, see Archilochus. Archilochus ( Greek:) (c Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος is a Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea, close to the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Hesiod ( Greek: Hesiodos) was an early Greek Poet and Rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BCE In Greek mythology, Thamyris ( Greek: Θάμυρις son of Philammon and the nymph Argiope, was a Thracian singer who was so proud Boeotia, Beotia, or Bœotia ( Greek: Βοιωτία - English biːˈoʊʃiə formerly Cadmeis was a region of Ancient Greece, north of the
The Library of Alexandria and its circle of scholars were formed around a mousaion ("museum" or shrine of the Muses) close by the tomb of Alexander the Great. The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the ancient world A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ'
Many Enlightenment figures sought to re-establish a "Cult of the Muses" in the eighteenth century. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century A famous Masonic lodge in pre-Revolutionary Paris was called Les Neuf Soeurs ("nine sisters", that is, the nine Muses), and was attended by Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, Danton and other influential Enlightenment figures. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Les Neuf Sœurs (The Nine Sisters established in Paris in 1776 was a prominent French Masonic Lodge of the Grand Orient de France that was influential François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Georges Jacques Danton ( October 26, 1759 &ndash April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution One side-effect of this movement was the use of the word "museum" (originally, "cult place of the Muses") to refer to a place for the public display of knowledge.
The British poet Robert Graves popularised the concept of the Muse-poet in modern times based on pre-twelfth century traditions of the Celtic poets, on the tradition of the medieval troubadours who celebrated the concept of courtly love and the romantic poets. Robert Graves (24 July 1895 &ndash 7 December 1985 was an English Poet, Translator and Novelist. Courtly love was a Medieval European conception of ennobling love which found its genesis in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence Romanticism largely began as a reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment ideals of the day
"No Muse-poet grows conscious of the Muse except by experience of a woman in whom the Goddess is to some degree resident; just as no Apollonian poet can perform his proper function unless he lives under a monarchy or a quasi-monarchy. A Muse-poet falls in love, absolutely, and his true love is for him the embodiment of the Muse. . .
But the real, perpetually obsessed Muse-poet distinguishes between the Goddess as manifest in the supreme power, glory, wisdom and love of woman, and the individual woman whom the Goddess may make her instrument. . .
The Goddess abides; and perhaps he will again have knowledge of her through his experience of another woman. . . 
The poet Sappho of Lesbos was given the compliment of being called "the tenth Muse" by Plato. Sappho (ˈsæfoʊ in English Attic Greek el Σαπφώ sapːʰɔː Aeolic Greek el Ψάπφω) was an Ancient Greek lyric Lesbos (Λέσβος also transliterated Lesvos, Midilli is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The phrase has become a somewhat conventional compliment paid to female poets since.
In Callimachus' "Aetia", the poet refers to Queen Berenike, wife of Ptolemy II, as a "Tenth Muse", dedicating both the 'Coma Berenikes' and the 'Victoria Berenikes' in Books III-IV.
French critics have acclaimed a series of dixième Muses who were noted by William Rose Benet in The Reader's Encyclopedia (1948): Marie Lejars de Gournay (1566-1645), Antoinette Deshoulières (1633-1694), Madeleine de Scudéry (1607-1701) and Delphine Gay (1804-1855). William Rose Benét ( February 2, 1886 &mdash May 4, 1950) was an American poet writer and editor Antoinette Du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières ( 1 January 1638 - February 17 1694 was a French poet born in Paris. Madeleine de Scudéry (15 November 1607 - 2 June 1701 often known simply as Mademoiselle de Scudéry was a French Writer. Delphine de Girardin ( January 24, 1804 - June 29, 1855) pen name Vicomte Delaunay, was a French author
Anne Bradstreet, a Puritan poet of New England, was honored in with this title with the publishing of her poems in London in 1650, in a volume titled by the publisher The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America. Anne Bradstreet (c 1612 – September 16, 1672) was a writer and the first notable American poet and the first woman to be published in Colonial America A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. . . . This was also the first ever published volume of American poetry. The poetry of the United States arose first during its beginnings as the constitutionally unified Thirteen colonies (although before this a strong
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, a Mexican poet, is well known in the Spanish literary world as the tenth muse. Sor Juana ( November 12, 1651 1648 according to some biographers &ndash April 17, 1695) also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Gabriele D'Annunzio's 1920 Constitution for the Free State of Fiume was based around the nine muses, and invoked Energeia (energy) as "the tenth Muse". Gabriele d'Annunzio ( 12 March 1863 &ndash 1 March 1938) was an Italian Poet, Journalist, Novelist The Free State of Fiume, also known as the Free State of Rijeka (Croatian Slobodna Država Rijeka) was an independent free state which existed between Energeia (grc ἐνέργεια is an important Greek technical term in the works of Aristotle.
In 1924 Karol Irzykowski published a monograph on cinematography entitled "The Tenth Muse" ("Dziesiąta muza"). Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Karol Irzykowski (born 23 January 1873 in Błaszkowa near Pilzno, died 2 November 1944 in Żyrardów) was a Polish writer literary critic film Analyzing silent film, he pronounced his definition of cinema: "It is the visibility of man's interaction with reality".
The comic book superhero Emma Sonnet (and later Lyxandra) from the Bluewater Productions series Tenth Muse is based on the idea of a fictional muse representing justice. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative For other uses of 10th muse see Muse and D'Annunzio's Energeia The Tenth Muse (also The 10th Muse) is
Mark Twain referred to a lie as the tenth muse in his essay On the Decay of the Art of Lying. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist On the Decay of the Art of Lying is a short essay written by Mark Twain in 1885 for a meeting of the Historical and Antiquarian Club of Hartford Connecticut
Gradiva 'the woman who walks through walls' is the muse of Surrealism. Gradiva ( Latin, "The one who walks" is a Neo-Attic Roman Bas-relief in the manner of Greek works of the fourth century BCE of a robed (Nadeau, Maurice, A History of Surrealism, orig. 1965, various publishers)
Shakespeare's Sonnet 38 invokes the Tenth Muse:
"How can my Muse want subject to invent,
While thou dost breathe, that pour'st into my verse
Thine own sweet argument?"
the poet asks, and in the opening of the sestet calls upon his muse:
"Be thou the tenth Muse, ten times more in worth
Than those old nine which rhymers invocate. A sestet is the name given to the second division of a Sonnet, which must consist of an octave, of eight lines succeeded by a sestet of six lines "