Multi-mode optical fiber (multimode fiber or MM fiber or fibre) is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over shorter distances, such as within a building or on a campus. An optical fiber (or fibre) is a Glass or Plastic fiber that carries Light along its length Typical multimode links have data rates of 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s over link lengths of up to 600 meters—more than sufficient for the majority of premises applications.
The equipment used for communications over multi-mode optical fiber is less expensive than that for single-mode optical fiber. In Fiber-optic communication, a single-mode optical fiber ( SMF) is an Optical fiber designed to carry only a single ray of light (mode Typical transmission speeds/distances limits are 100 Mbit/s up to 2 km (100BASE-FX), 1 Gbit/s for distances up to 500–600 meters (1000BASE-SX), and 10 Gbit/s for distances up to 300 meters (10GBASE-SR).
Because of its high capacity and reliability, multi-mode optical fiber generally is used for backbone applications in buildings. An increasing number of users are taking the benefits of fiber closer to the user by running fiber to the desktop or to the zone. Standards-compliant architectures such as Centralized Cabling and Fiber to the Telecom Enclosure offer users the ability to leverage the distance capabilities of fiber by centralizing electronics in telecommunications rooms, rather than having active electronics on each floor. Fiber to the x ( FTTX) is a generic term for any network architecture that uses Optical fiber to replace all or part of the usual copper Local loop
Multimode fiber has higher "light-gathering" capacity than single-mode optical fiber. In practical terms, the larger core size simplifies connections and also allows the use of lower-cost electronics such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) which operate at the 850 nm wavelength (single-mode fibers operate at 1310 or 1550 nm and require more expensive laser sources). The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser ( VCSEL;) is a type of semiconductor Laser diode with Laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface A nanometre ( American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) ( Greek: νάνος nanos dwarf; μετρώ metrό count) is a  However, compared to single-mode fibers, the limit on speed times distance is lower. Because multi-mode fiber has a larger numerical aperture than single-mode fiber, it supports more than one propagation mode, hence it is limited by modal dispersion, while single mode is not. In Optics, the numerical aperture ( NA) of an optical system is a Dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept Modal dispersion is a distortion mechanism occurring in Multimode fibers and other Waveguides in which the signal is spread in time because the propagation Consequently, multi-mode fiber has higher pulse spreading rates than single mode fiber, limiting multi-mode fiber’s information transmission capacity. To distinguish MMF cables from single-mode fiber, MMF cables typically have orange jackets.
Multi-mode fibers are described by their core and cladding diameters. Thus, 62. 5/125 µm multimode fiber has a core size of 62. A micrometre ( American spelling: micrometer; symbol µm) is one millionth of a Metre, or equivalently one thousandth of a Millimetre 5 micrometres (µm) and a cladding diameter of 125 µm. In addition, multi-mode fibers are described using a system of classification determined by the ISO 11801 standard — OM1, OM2, and OM3 — which is based on the bandwidth of the multi-mode fiber. International standard ISO/IEC 11801 specifies general-purpose Telecommunication cabling systems ( Structured cabling) that are suitable for a wide range of applications
For many years 62. 5/125 µm (OM1) and conventional 50/125 µm multi-mode fiber (OM2) were widely deployed in premises applications. These fibers easily support applications ranging from Ethernet (10 Mbit/s) to Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbit/s) and, because of their relatively large core size, were ideal for use with LED transmitters. Ethernet is a family of frame -based Computer networking technologies for Local area networks (LANs Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the Newer deployments often use laser-optimized 50/125 µm multi-mode fiber (OM3). Fibers that meet this designation provide sufficient bandwidth to support 10 Gigabit Ethernet up to 300 meters. Optical fiber manufacturers have greatly refined their manufacturing process since that standard was issued and cables can be made that support 10 GbE up to 550 meters. Laser optimized multi-mode fiber (LOMMF) is designed for use with 850 nm VCSELs. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser ( VCSEL;) is a type of semiconductor Laser diode with Laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface
The migration to LOMMF/OM3 has occurred as users upgrade to higher speed networks. LEDs have a maximum modulation rate of 622 Mbit/s because they can not be turned on/off fast enough to support higher bandwidth applications. VCSELs are capable of modulation over 10 Gbit/s and are used in many high speed networks.
VCSEL power profiles, along with variations in fiber uniformity, can cause modal dispersion which is measured by differential modal delay (DMD). Modal dispersion is an effect that caused by the different speeds of the individual modes in a light pulse. The net effect causes the light pulse to separate or spread over distance, making it difficult for receivers to identify the individual 1's and 0's. The greater the length, the greater the modal dispersion. To combat modal dispersion, LOMMF is manufactured in a way that eliminates variations in the fiber which could affect the speed that a light pulse can travel. The refractive index profile is enhanced for VCSEL transmission and to prevent the pulse spreading. A refractive index profile is the distribution of refractive indices of materials within an Optical fiber. As a result the fibers maintain signal integrity over longer distances, thereby maximizing bandwidth.