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Mukkulathor or Mukulathaar (Tamil: முக்குலத்தோர்) is used to refer to the trinity of ancient Tamil royal lineages. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern It can be roughly translated as "people of the three clans", a reference to the three aristocratic clans (Kallar, Maravar and Agamudayar) which have supplied the Tamil country with most of its royal dynasties and warriors. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern
The Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar communities constitute the Kshtriya or warrior class of Tamil Nadu, South India. Excerpts from John Shortt ‘On the Wild Tribes of Southern India’ of the Ethnological Society of London 1869 vol Excerpts from John Shortt ‘On the Wild Tribes of Southern India’ of the Ethnological Society of London 1869 vol Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country They are a prominent social group of India. They descent from the ancient royal dynasties of the southern region. They have proven Indian histories of more than 3000 years.
Kallar(Tamil: கள்ளர்)is one of the three communities which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. European eyewitnesses of the 18th century have made mention of Kallars as "a fearless tribe show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". They were expert soldiers and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.
One of the principal weapons of the Kallars is the boomerang. This has evoked comparisons with the Australian aborigines and vouch for the theory that Kallars were one of the earliest people to inhabit the Indian subcontinent. The principal occupation of Kallars is farming. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
Kallars are found largely in Madurai, Sivagangai, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu. Madurai WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sivaganga, also known as Sivagangai, is a city and a Municipality in Sivaganga district WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Pudukkottai ( Tamil:புதுக்கோட்டை is a city and a Municipality in Thanjavur ( Tamil: தஞ்சாவூர் also known by its Anglicised name Tanjore, and it is the Eleventh largest city in Tamil Nadu (after WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tiruchirappalli ( Tamil: தி௫ச்சிராப்பள்ளி also spelled Tiruchirapalli Theni is a Business Center in Western Tamil Nadu of southern India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Ramanathapuram, also known as Ramnad, is a city and a Municipality in Ramanathapuram district Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. One of their popular deities is Kallazhagar who is a warrior form of Lord Thirumala or Venkadavan.
There are various sub-castes of Kallars, amongst whom the Ambalakarar is the most important. They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. In these districts, each village is headed by an Ambalakarar (president of an assembly) and the Ambalakarars took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the "nadu", belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalakarars. Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are highly conservative and have preserved their customs and traditions to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century B. C. They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.
Maravar (Tamil: மறவர்) are one of the oldest social groups to be mentioned by the Sangam Tamil literature. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. The Tamil Sangams are legendary assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that according to traditional Tamil accounts existed in the remote past This indicates an association with the Tamil land which is at least 2,000 years old. The writers of the Sangam Age place them in rural settlements withdrawn from cities. Maravar, in Tamil, means a warrior. Maravars are the courageous breed and were involved in the major wars that Tamilnadu witnessed.
Other historians postulate that Maravar is derived from Tamil language term Marutham (called as Thinnai). They originally lived in (See Ancient Tamil country). The ancient Tamil country, also known as Tamilakam, refers to an ancient independent region in the areas of modern South India, corresponding roughly The name of the city Madurai is also postulated to be derived from Maruthai and honorific title of local Pandya kings. Madurai
Agamudayar (Tamil: அகமுடையார்) also known as Agam Padaiyar or defending soldiers (or in pure Tamil, Agam udayar meaning: Agam - prestige, Udayar - having) indicating a specialization as soldiers or rulers. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Agam can also be compared with heart, (as in "Agathin Azhagu Mugathil Theriyum"), and can be interpreted as, "people with a good heart". Although their name is attested later in literature, they and the culture is indigenous to the area and are ancient in origins. Thevars of Ramanthapuram district are given the title Servai.
Some believe these castes formed as part of military formation of Kallap-Padai or hustlers, Marap-Padai or soldiers and Agap-Padai or defenders, There is lot of evidence has been put forward towards this theory.
கள்ளர் மறவர் கனத்ததோர் அகமுடையார் மெல்ல மெல்லவே வெள்ளாளரானார்'
There are diverse theories with regard to the origin of Mukkulathors.
Dr Spencer Wells and Dr. Spencer Wells (born April 6 1969 in Georgia United States) is a Geneticist and Anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Based on this theory, it is assumed that the Piramala Kallars are the oldest human inhabitants of the subcontinent. Yet, this is an isolated case found only among the individuals of the Kallar caste.
The downfall of the Mukkulathors occurred in 1345 with the fall of Vira Pandyan IV and the subsequent conquest of Madurai by the Delhi Sultanate. However, the southern territories of the Sultanate soon asserted their independence and the Mukkulathors recovered under the Vijayanagar Empire and later under the Nayak dynasty during whose period they served as Polygars or chieftains. The Nayaks were actually governors appointed by Vijayanagar kings and were Naidus of Telugu origin. Later, after the fall of Vijayanagar, they established some measure of independence in the provinces which they governed and appointed individuals from the warrior Mukkulathor clans as their military chieftains and governors. After a century of peace and prosperity, the Nayak kingdom disintegrated and regional Polygar chieftains most of whom were from the Mukkulathor communities, making use of this opportunity, established their dominance and rule in the areas which they governed. However, just as their sun was in its ascendancy there arose a serious obstacle in the form of the British East India Company who desired to force the Polygars into submission and annex their territories to the Madras Presidency.
There was a clash of interests between Mukkulathor Polygar chieftains seeking to recover their lands after 400 years of foreign rule and the British East India Company, an emerging power seeking to expand its influence and power into new territories and to arrest the growth of French influence in India ahead of the Seven Years War.
The first direct challenge was thrown by Puli Thevan in 1755. Puli Devar or Pooli Devar was a Poligar (palayakaran who ruled an area called Nelkatumseval or Avudayapuram situated now in the Sankarankoil This was precipitated by the support the British East India Company lent to Puli Thevar's enemy, the Nawab of Arcot. Puli Thevar is remembered as the first king to have fought and defeated the British in India. His exploits have since become legendary.
Resistance to British rule was also offered by Padal Vellaiya Devan who fought the British along with Kattabomman. Early life Veerapandiya Kattabomman was born to a Tamil warrior Jagaveera Kattabomman and Arumugathammal on January 3 1760 His son Desakaval Senbaga Devar is also remembered for his exploits.
Queen Velu Nachiyar, Queen of Sivaganga, is another noted personality who fought with the British during early British Era. List of current queens regnant A queen regnant (plural "queens regnant" is qualifying reference to a female Monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sivaganga, also known as Sivagangai, is a city and a Municipality in Sivaganga district The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or
The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers are notable for their role in the Polygar Wars. The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu & Chinna Maruthu ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu during the last part of the 18th century and they were the first Polygar War or Palayakarar Wars refers to the wars fought between the Polygars ( Palayakarrars ' of former Madurai Kingdom in Tamil They were eventually captured by the British and hanged in 1801.
The surnames used by the Thevar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Mannaiyar, Nattar (not Nadar), etc. It is a general practice in Tamil Nadu to address a Thevar woman as "Nachchiyaar". The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames. Some of the most common names are Vanathirayar, Sendapiriyar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar,Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Thanjaraayar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Pursaar, Vaanavaraayar, Mazhavaraayar, Pallavaraayar,Ponnapoondar,Pullavaraayar, Servai, Karaimeendar,Vanavarayar,Vairayar,Ponpethiar,Gopalar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Nattaar, Alankara Priyar, Munaiyatriyar,Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar,Kaadavaraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, Kaaduvetiyaar, Sozhagar, Chozanga Nattar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use.
There is a group of Agamudayars in Northern Tamil Nadhu (Thiruvannamalai, Vellor, Arani, Arcot). They migrated from Madurai in 17th century. They have other surnames like Udayar,Mudhaliyar, Arcot Mudhaliyar and Thuluva Vellalar. Not That much Marriages happen between people with the same surname.
They are traditionally Hindus . A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Today they constitute a significant part of the Tamil community in India, Sri Lanka, and in other parts of the world.
Inscription, from 1655, records an accord between the Sthanathar, the Chetti merchant community, and the Nattar to contribute fifty Kalanju of gold to the Elunattu Mutt at Chidambaram. Link 
Although a great many of the members are still agriculturalists, many have also progressed up the social ladder as doctors, engineers, entrepreneurs, politicians and civil servants. Large number of people from the community are serving the nation as military men. Large number of people serving the tamilnadu police department.
Avippali, Thannai, Verttal, Vallan pakkam, Pun Kilithu Mudiyum Maram and Marakkanchi: the forms of martial suicide and suicidal battle of the warrior as the ultimate expression of his loyalty to his commander. These six forms of martial suicide are defined as described by the works referred to above.
Pulla Vazhkai Vallan Pakkam – the martial attitude of the warrior who goes forth into suicidal battle is mentioned by Tholkappiyam. The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil The other works refer to it as Thannai Verttal. Duarte Barbosa describes the practice among the Nayar (of the Chera kingdom). Duarte Barbosa (died 1521 was a Portuguese writer and trader Living in the 15th and the 16th century his father was Diogo Barbosa. It was later noticed by British officials as well. It was also prevalent among the Maravar (of the Pandya kingdom) from whom the suicidal Aapathhuthavi bodyguard was selected. Thannai Verttal also refers to the suicide of a warrior on hearing that his king or commander has died (Purapporul Venpa Malai). Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram is the martial act of a warrior who commits suicide by tearing apart his battle wound.
Another form of martial suicide mentioned by all the works except Veera soliyam, is Avippali. Tamil inscriptions speak of it as Navakandam. Inscriptions found in many parts of Tamilnadu provide greater information on the practice. Navakandam is the act of a warrior who slices his own neck to fulfil the vow made to korravai – the Tamil goddess of war – for his commanders’ victory in battle. The Kalingathu Parani(10) – a work which celebrates the victory of the Chola king Kulotunga and his general Thondaman in the battle for Kalinga, describes the practice in detail. “The temple of korravai is decorated with lotus flowers which bloomed when the warriors sliced their own necks”(106); “they slice the base of their necks; the severed heads are given to the goddess”(111); “when the neck is sliced and the head is severed, the headless body jumps with joy for having fulfilled the vow”(113).
The epics of Chilapadikaram (5: 79-86) and Manimekalai (6: 50-51) mention the practice. To ensure the complete severing of the head, the warrior tied his hair to a bamboo bent taut before he cut his neck. Hero stones depicting this practice are found all over Tamil Nadu, and are called Saavan Kallu by locals. The warriors who thus committed suicide were not only deified in hero stones (saavan kallu) and worshipped but their relatives were given lands which were exempted from tax(11).
An area handbook (Tharamangalam) of the Tamilnadu archeology department notes that “the Nava Kandam sculpture which is found widely all over Kongu Nadu (Coimbatore, Salem) is to be seen at the Tharamangalam Kailasanathar kovil also. The people call it Saavan Kallu. “The practice of Nava Kandam existed in Kongu Nadu till the early part of this [i. e. , 20th] century. ”(12)
A Saavan Kallu at Thenkarai Moolanatha sami Kovil in Madurai, depicting the act of a warrior holding his hair with his left hand and slicing his neck with his right – 14th century – is said to be annually worshipped by the Conjeevaram Mudaliyars. (13) The Conjeevaram Mudaliyars are Kaikolar, a presentday weaving caste which was militarized under the Chola empire and was made into a special military body; there are indications that Kaikolar warriors practiced Nava Kandam(14).
Apart from these codified forms of martial suicide, a method called Vadakkiruththal is mentioned in Tamil heroic poetry. It is the act of a warrior king fasting to death, if some dire dishonour were to come upon him(15). The Tamil teacher, and the Dravidian propagandist, turned the song of the legendary Chera king Irumborai who committed suicide when he was taken captive by his enemies into a compelling theme in Tamil renaissance.
The Avippali form of martial suicide as the ultimate expression of loyalty to one’s commander, is deeply embedded in the Tamil psyche. Senchorru-kadan (the debt of red rice) is a phrase that is widely used today by Tamils as an expression of loyalty. One frequently hears of it in a popular Tamil song. The phrase sands for the ritual of partaking of rice by which Maravar and other Tamil military caste warriors bound themselves to their king or commander to die in suicidal battle for him, or to commit suicide on the day he was slain. Of Avippali, the Puraporul Venba Malai ([verse] 92) says, “thinking of nothing but the red (blood) rice the Maravar give their life as offering in battle. ”
The ritual of red or blood rice was described by two Muslim travellers who had visited the Tamil country in the 9th century. “A quantity of cooked rice was spread before the king, and some three or four hundred persons came of their own accord and received each a small quantity of rice from the king’s own hands, after he himself had eaten some. By eating of this rice, they all engage themselvesto burn themselves on the day the king dies or is slain; and they punctually fulfill their promise. ”(16) In modern times it has been observed that “when a Maravar takes food in the house of a stranger, he will take a pinch of earth and put it on the food before he commences his meal. ”(17) This act freed him from the debt of blood rice. Some also committed suicide by eating bricks.
Kallar mainly lived and are still populas on the northern pandian territory or Thanjavur, Thiruchirappalli, Dindugal, Madurai districts.
Agamudaiyar formed the police force and did security jobs. They bascially stood guard for Temple, Farm lands, Nadan hamlets. They are called servai in Thirunalveli, Thoothukudi districts. Maruthu Sagothararkal are marked for their guard of Kalayar koil against the war with British. They are scaterd all thro Pandiyan Territory mainly to all temple cities.
"In Madurai - West Masi Street,their community people formed a AGAMUDAIYAR ARAN(Maruthu pandiyar mandram)"
Maravar are brave warriors who met head-on. They lived and are still populas on the northern Pandian Territory next to Kallar belt in the districts of Ramnad, Madurai, Raja Palayam, Thirunelveli. They shared the ruling titles of Pandiyans for their bravery. Raja of Ramnad is the fact for this.
When the pandian suffered defeat at the hands of Nayaks and Muslims of Vijayanagar Empire, These 3 castes stood guard and gave their life in protecting the assets of Madurai Meenakshi temple and its chain of temples down south. They retained the pandian control and still are dominant in the southern pandiyan districts of Tamilnadu.
Many Tamil movies have portrayed the royalty, valour, pride, culture and practises of the Mukkulathor and most of the movies did well at the box-office. Some of them includes
Although this list attempts to enlist the prominent Mukkulathhors, this is to state that this list is not exhaustive and is hence bound to miss-out the 'more' prominent Thevars as well.