|Assumed office |
September 1, 1969
|President||Abdul Ati al-Obeidi|
Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab
Mifta al-Usta Umar
Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa
Miftah Muhammed K'eba
|Prime Minister||Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi|
Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab
Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi
Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir
Abuzed Omar Dorda
Abdul Majid al-Qa′ud
Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush
Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh
|Preceded by||Office created|
02 March 1977 – 02 March 1979
|Prime Minister||Abdul Ati al-Obeidi|
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Abdul Ati al-Obeidi|
08 September 1969 – 01 March 1979
|Prime Minister||Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi|
Abdul Ati al-Obeidi
Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi
|Preceded by||Idris I (King of Libya)|
|Succeeded by||Office Abolished|
16 January 1970 – 16 July 1972
|Preceded by||Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi|
|Succeeded by||Abdessalam Jalloud|
Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic: Mu‘ammar al-Qaḏḏāfī) (born 1942) has been the de facto leader of Libya since a 1969 coup. This page lists Heads of State of Libya since 1951. See also Lists of incumbents King of Libya (1951-1969 Idris I ( Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Abdul Ati al-Obeidi ( عبد العاطي العبيدي) (born 1939 is a former Head of State and Prime minister of Libya. Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab ( محمد الزروق رجب) (born 1940) was a former Head of State and General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya (Prime Mifta al-Usta Umar ( مفتاح الاسطى عمر) (born 1935) was a former Head of State of Libya 15 February, 1984 to 7 October Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa was a former Head of State of Libya from 7 October, 1990 to 18 November, 1992. Muhammad al-Zanati (born 4 December 1944, Sirt, Libya) was the de jure Head of state of Libya from 1992 until Miftah Muhammed K'eba (Arabicمفتاح محمد كعيبة) is the current Secretary-General of General People's Congress of Libya. Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi ( جاد الله عزوز الطلحي) Libya's UN ambassador and the security council chair January 2008 Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab ( محمد الزروق رجب) (born 1940) was a former Head of State and General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya (Prime Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi ( جاد الله عزوز الطلحي) Libya's UN ambassador and the security council chair January 2008 Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir ( Arabic: عمر مصطفى ألمنتصر) (born 1939 - January 23, 2001) was General Secretary of the People's Abuzed Omar Dorda ( أبو زيد عمر دوردة) (born April 1944 was General Secretary of the People's Committee (Prime Minister of Libya from Abdul Majid al-Qa′ud ( Arabic: عبد المجيد القعود) (born 1943 was General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya ( Prime minister Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush ( Arabic: محمد أحمد المنقوش) (born * was General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya ( Prime Imbarek Shamekh ( امبارك عبدالله الشامخ) (sometimes Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh or Embarek Shamekh) (born May 15 1952 was General Secretary Shukri Mohammed Ghanem ( Arabic: شكرى محمد غانم) (born 1942 is the former General Secretary of the People's Committee in Libya ( Prime al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmudi ( البغدادي علي المحمودي)(born 1945? was appointed General Secretary of the General People's Committee ( Prime minister This page lists Heads of State of Libya since 1951. See also Lists of incumbents King of Libya (1951-1969 Idris I ( Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Abdul Ati al-Obeidi ( عبد العاطي العبيدي) (born 1939 is a former Head of State and Prime minister of Libya. Abdul Ati al-Obeidi ( عبد العاطي العبيدي) (born 1939 is a former Head of State and Prime minister of Libya. This page lists Heads of State of Libya since 1951. See also Lists of incumbents King of Libya (1951-1969 Idris I ( Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi ( محمود سليمان المغربي) (born 1935 was Prime Minister of Libya from 8 September, 1969 to Abdessalam Jalloud ( Arabic: عبد السلام جلود) (born 15 December, 1941) was ( Prime Minister) of Libya from Abdul Ati al-Obeidi ( عبد العاطي العبيدي) (born 1939 is a former Head of State and Prime minister of Libya. Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi ( جاد الله عزوز الطلحي) Libya's UN ambassador and the security council chair January 2008 Idris I, GBE (إدريس الأول born Sayyid Muhammad Idris bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Senussi, ( March 12, 1889 - May 25, This page lists Heads of State of Libya since 1951. See also Lists of incumbents King of Libya (1951-1969 Idris I ( Since independence, the heads of government of Libya have been Prime ministers (1951-1977 then General Secretaries of the General Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi ( محمود سليمان المغربي) (born 1935 was Prime Minister of Libya from 8 September, 1969 to Abdessalam Jalloud ( Arabic: عبد السلام جلود) (born 15 December, 1941) was ( Prime Minister) of Libya from Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Surt (or Sirte) ( Arabic: سرت) is one of the municipalities of Libya, which lies in the north of the country and borders the Tripolitaniajpg|thumb|250px|Tripolitania]] Tripolitania or Tripolitana ( Arabic: طرابلس, Transliterated: Tarābulus) is a historic For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Although Gaddafi holds no public office or title, he is accorded the honorifics "Guide of the First of September Great Revolution of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" or "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official press. Jamahiriya (Arabic جماهيرية strict transliteration) is an Arabic term generally translated as "state of the masses  He is the fourth longest-serving head of state currently in office and longest-serving head of government. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State
Gaddafi was the youngest child born into a peasant family. His father is Mohammed Abdul Salam bin Hamed bin Mohammed Al-Gaddafi (Qadhafi), known as Abu Meniar (died 1985), his mother is Aisha Gaddafi. He grew up in the desert region of Sirte. Surt (or Sirte) ( Arabic: سرت) is one of the municipalities of Libya, which lies in the north of the country and borders the He was given a traditional religious primary education and attended the Sebha preparatory school in Fezzan from 1956 to 1961. Sabha ( Arabic: سبها is a city in southwestern Libya with a population of 130000 Libya 5210 Wan Caza Luca Galuzzi 2007jpg|thumb|Wan Caza dunes in Fezzan Gaddafi and a small group of friends that he met in this school went on to form the core leadership of a militant revolutionary group that would eventually seize control of the country. Gaddafi's inspiration was Gamal Abdel Nasser, president of neighboring Egypt, who rose to the presidency by appealing to Arab unity. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding In 1961, Gaddafi was expelled from Sebha for his political activism.
Gaddafi went on to study law at the University of Libya, where he graduated with high grades. The University of Libya is the former name of the merger of the two main universities in Libya. He then entered the Military Academy in Benghazi in 1963, where he and a few of his fellow militants organized a secretive group dedicated to overthrowing the pro-Western Libyan monarchy. Benghazi or Bengasi ( Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī,) is the second largest city in Libya and the The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings After graduating in 1965, he was sent to Britain for further training at the British Army Staff College, now the Joint Services Command and Staff College, returning in 1966 as a commissioned officer in the Signal Corps. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Joint Services Command and Staff College (JSCSC is a British military academic establishment providing training and education to experienced officers of the Royal
On September 1, 1969, a small group of military officers led by Gaddafi staged a bloodless coup d'état against King Idris I, while he was in Kammena Vourla, a Greek resort, for medical treatment. Miusrata (rarely Misrata or Misratah) ( Arabic: ( مصراته ( مسراته, مسراتا, ذات الرمال Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Idris I, GBE (إدريس الأول born Sayyid Muhammad Idris bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Senussi, ( March 12, 1889 - May 25, His nephew the Crown Prince Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi became King. Before the end of September 1, King Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi had been formally deposed by the revolutionary army officers and put under house arrest; they abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the new Libyan Arab Republic.
Unlike some other military revolutionaries, Gaddafi did not promote himself to the rank of general upon seizing power, but rather accepted a ceremonial promotion from captain to colonel and has remained at this rank. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country While at odds with western military ranking for a colonel to rule a country and serve as Commander-in-Chief of its military, in Gaddafi's own words Libya's utopian society is "ruled by the people", so he needs no more grandiose title or supreme military rank. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces Gaddafi's decision to remain a colonel is not a new concept among military coup leaders; Gamal Abdel Nasser remained a colonel after seizing power in Egypt, and Jerry Rawlings, President of Ghana, held no military rank higher than flight lieutenant. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Jerry John Rawlings (born Jeremiah Rawlings John June 22, 1947 in Accra) was twice the Head of state of Ghana and was the 1st The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Flight Lieutenant ( Flt Lt in the RAF; FLTLT in the RAAF and RNZAF, F/L in the former RCAF) is a junior In the same fashion, the Republic of El Salvador was ruled by Lieutenant Colonel Oscar Osorio (1950-1956), Lieutenant Colonel José María Lemus (1956-1960), and Lieutenant Colonel Julio Adalberto Rivera (1962-1967). El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America.
Gaddafi based his new regime on a blend of Arab nationalism, aspects of the welfare state and what Gaddafi termed "direct, popular democracy. Arab nationalism ( Arabic: القومية العربية is a Nationalist ideology which rose to prominence amongst Arabs from the early 20th century onwards This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system " He called this system "Islamic socialism" and while he permitted private control over small companies, the government controlled the larger ones. Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to meet the demand for a more spiritual form of Socialism. Welfare, "liberation," and education were emphasized. He also imposed a system of Islamic morals, outlawing alcohol and gambling. To reinforce the ideals of this socialist-Islamic state, Gaddafi outlined his political philosophy in his Green Book, published in three volumes between 1975 and 1979. The Third International Theory refers to the style of Government used in Libya, created by Col For other uses see Green Book (disambiguation. The Green Book ( Arabic الكتاب الأخضر is a book written by the In practice, however, Libya's political system is thought to be somewhat less idealistic and from time to time Gaddafi has responded to domestic and external opposition with violence. His revolutionary committees called for the assassination of Libyan dissidents living abroad in April 1980, with Libyan hit squads sent abroad to murder them. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. A dissident, broadly defined is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine policy or institution On April 26, Gaddafi set a deadline of June 11 for dissidents to return home or be "in the hands of the revolutionary committees". Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes.  Nine Libyans were murdered during that time, five of them in Italy.
With respect to Libya's neighbors, Gaddafi followed Abdel Nasser's ideas of pan-Arabism and became a fervent advocate of the unity of all Arab states into one Arab nation. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the He also supported pan-Islamism, the notion of a loose union of all Islamic countries and peoples. Pan-Islamism ( اتّحاد الاسلام) is a Political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state or a Caliphate After Nasser's death on September 28, 1970, Gaddafi attempted to take up the mantle of ideological leader of Arab nationalism. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He proclaimed the "Federation of Arab Republics" (Libya, Egypt and Syria) in 1972, hoping to create a pan-Arab state, but the three countries disagreed on the specific terms of the merger. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية In 1974, he signed an agreement with Tunisia's Habib Bourguiba on a merger between the two countries, but this also failed to work in practice and ultimately differences between the two countries would deteriorate into strong animosity. Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Habib Bourguiba (حبيب بورقيبة Ḥabīb Būrqība ( August 3, 1903 &ndash April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the
Libya was also involved in a sometimes violent territorial dispute with neighbouring Chad over the Aouzou Strip, which Libya occupied in 1973. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. This dispute eventually led to the Libyan invasion of the country and to a conflict that was ended by a ceasefire reached in 1987. The dispute was in the end settled peacefully in June 1994 when Libya withdrew troops from Chad due to a judgement of the International Court of Justice issued on 13 February 1994. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour 
Gaddafi also became a strong supporter of the Palestine Liberation Organization, which support ultimately harmed Libya's relations with Egypt, when in 1979 Egypt pursued a peace agreement with Israel. The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. As Libya's relations with Egypt worsened, Gaddafi sought closer relations with the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Libya became the first country outside the Soviet bloc to receive the supersonic MiG-25 combat fighters, but Soviet-Libyan relations remained relatively distant. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Gaddafi also sought to increase Libyan influence, especially in states with an Islamic population, by calling for the creation of a Saharan Islamic state and supporting anti-government forces in sub-Saharan Africa. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries
Notable in Gaddafi's politics has been his support for liberation movements, and also his sponsorship of rebel movements in West Africa, notably Sierra Leone and Liberia, as well as Muslim groups. Imelda Remedios Visitacion Romualdez-Marcos (born Imelda Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romualdez on July 2, 1929 in Manila) is the widow In the 1970s and the 1980s, this support was sometimes so freely given that even the most unsympathetic groups could obtain Libyan support; often the groups represented ideologies far removed from Gaddafi's own. Gaddafi's approach often tended to confuse international opinion. Throughout the 1970s, his regime was implicated in subversion and terrorist activities in both Arab and non-Arab countries. By the mid-1980s, he was widely regarded in the West as the principal financier of international terrorism. Reportedly, Gaddafi was a major financier of the "Black September Movement" which perpetrated the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics, and was accused by the United States of being responsible for direct control of the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing that killed three people and wounded more than 200, of whom a substantial number were U. The Black September Organization (منظمة أيلول الأسود munazzamat aylul al-aswad) was a Palestinian militant group founded in 1970 The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Munich, in what was The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Berlin discotheque bombing of April 5, 1986 was a terrorist attack on the La Belle discotheque West Berlin, Germany, that was S. servicemen. He is also said to have paid "Carlos the Jackal" to kidnap and then release a number of Saudi Arabian and Iranian oil ministers. Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (born) is a Venezuelan born leftist Revolutionary. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Tensions between Libya and the West reached a peak during the Ronald Reagan administration, which tried to overthrow Gaddafi. The Reagan administration viewed Libya as a belligerent rogue state because of its uncompromising stance on Palestinian independence, its support for revolutionary Iran in the 1980-1988 war against Saddam Hussein's Iraq (see Iran-Iraq War), and its backing of "liberation movements" in the developing world. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Reagan himself dubbed Gaddafi the "mad dog of the Middle East. " In December 1981 the US State Department invalidated US passports for travel to Libya, and in March 1982 the U. S. declared a ban on the import of Libyan oil  and the export to Libya of U. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit S. oil industry technology; European nations did not follow suit.
In 1984 British police constable Yvonne Fletcher was shot outside the Libyan Embassy in London while policing an anti-Gaddafi demonstration. A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. Yvonne Joyce Fletcher (1959&ndash 17 April 1984) was a British Woman Police Constable (WPC who was shot and killed in London 's London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. A burst of machine-gun fire from within the building was suspected of killing her, but Libyan diplomats asserted their diplomatic immunity and were repatriated. The incident led to the breaking-off of diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Libya for over a decade. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
In accordance with Freedom of Navigation principles, the U. The United States ' Freedom of Navigation program challenges territorial claims on the world's oceans and airspace that are considered excessive by the United States using diplomatic S. attacked Libyan patrol boats from January to March 1986 during clashes over access to the Gulf of Sidra, which Libya claimed as territorial waters. Gulf of Sidra is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya; it is also known as Gulf of Sirte. Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most On April 15, 1986, Ronald Reagan ordered major bombing raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, against Tripoli and Benghazi killing 45 Libyan military and government personnel as well as 15 civilians. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular: Benghazi or Bengasi ( Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī,) is the second largest city in Libya and the This strike followed U. S. interception of telex messages from Libya's East Berlin embassy suggesting Libyan government involvement in a bomb explosion on April 5 in West Berlin's La Belle discotheque, a nightclub frequented by U. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop The Berlin discotheque bombing of April 5, 1986 was a terrorist attack on the La Belle discotheque West Berlin, Germany, that was S. servicemen. Among the fatalities of the April 15 retaliatory attack by the U. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English S. was Gaddafi's adopted daughter, Hannah. Libya responded by firing two Scud missiles at the U.S. Coast Guard navigation station on the Italian island of Lampedusa, in its own retaliation for that day's American bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi. Scud is a series of Tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War and exported widely to other countries LORAN-C transmitter Lampedusa is the X-Ray secondary station of the Mediterranean Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7990 The Mediterranean island of Lampedusa ( Italian: Isola di Lampedusa; Sicilian: Isula di Lampidusa) belongs to The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular: Benghazi or Bengasi ( Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī,) is the second largest city in Libya and the However, the missiles passed over the island, landing in the sea, and caused no damage.
In late 1987 a merchant vessel, the MV Eksund, was intercepted. Destined for the IRA, a large consignment of arms and explosives supplied by Libya was recovered from the Eksund. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the British intelligence believed this was not the first and that Libyan arms shipments had previously reached the IRA. (See Provisional IRA arms importation)
For most of the 1990s, Libya endured economic sanctions and diplomatic isolation as a result of Gaddafi's refusal to allow the extradition to the United States or Britain of two Libyans accused of planting a bomb on Pan Am Flight 103, which exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland. The Provisional Irish Republican Army began importing large quantities of weapons and ammunition into Ireland for use in Northern Ireland in the early 1970s Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years four months and 13 days after the blowing up of Pan Am Flight 103 on Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries on another for a variety of reasons Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Lockerbie ( Scottish Gaelic: Logarbaidh) is a town in the Dumfries and Galloway region of south-western Scotland. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Through the intercession of South African President Nelson Mandela - who made a high-profile visit to Gaddafi in 1997 - and U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, Gaddafi agreed in 1999 to a compromise that involved handing over the defendants to the Netherlands for trial under Scots law. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations The Scottish court in the Netherlands was the name given to the special High Court of Justiciary set up under Scots law in a disused United States Air Force Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. U. N. sanctions were thereupon suspended, but U. S. sanctions against Libya remained in force.
In August 2003, two years after Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi's conviction, Libya wrote to the United Nations formally accepting 'responsibility for the actions of its officials' in respect of the Lockerbie bombing and agreed to pay compensation of up to $2. Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي (not المقراحي as commonly misspelled by the media (born April 1 1952 is a former Libyan The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 7 billion – or up to $10 million each – to the families of the 270 victims. The same month, Britain and Bulgaria co-sponsored a U. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian N. resolution which removed the suspended sanctions. (Bulgaria's involvement in tabling this motion led to suggestions that there was a link with the HIV trial in Libya in which 5 Bulgarian nurses, working at a Benghazi hospital, were accused of infecting 426 Libyan children with HIV. The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect Benghazi or Bengasi ( Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī,) is the second largest city in Libya and the ) Forty per cent of the compensation was then paid to each family, and a further 40% followed once U. S. sanctions were removed. Because the U. S. refused to take Libya off its list of state sponsors of terrorism, Libya retained the last 20% ($540 million) of the $2. 7 billion compensation package.
On June 28, 2007 Megrahi was granted the right to a second appeal against the Lockerbie bombing conviction. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  One month later, the Bulgarian medics were released from jail in Libya. They returned home to Bulgaria and were pardoned by Bulgarian president, Georgi Parvanov. Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Георги Седефчов Първанов (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January
Simultaneously, Gaddafi has also emerged as a popular African leader. As one of the continent's longest-serving, post-colonial heads of state, the Libyan leader enjoys a reputation among many Africans as an experienced and wise statesman who has been at the forefront of many struggles over the years. Gaddafi has earned the praise of Nelson Mandela and others, and is always a prominent figure in various pan-African organizations, such as the Organization of African Unity (now replaced by the African Union). Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African He is also seen by many Africans as a humanitarian, pouring large amounts of money into sub-Saharan states. Large numbers of Africans have come to Libya to take advantage of the availability of jobs there.
Gaddafi also appeared to be attempting to improve his image in the West. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. Two years prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Libya pledged its commitment to fighting Al-Qaeda and offered to open up its weapons program to international inspection. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The Clinton administration did not pursue the offer at the time since Libya's weapons program was not then regarded as a threat, and the matter of handing over the Lockerbie bombing suspects took priority. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Following the attacks of September 11, Gaddafi made one of the first, and firmest, denunciations of the Al-Qaeda bombers by any Muslim leader. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Gaddafi also appeared on ABC for an open interview with George Stephanopoulos, a move that would have seemed unthinkable less than a decade earlier. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. George Robert Stephanopoulos (born February 10, 1961) is an American broadcaster
There are many explanations for the change of Gaddafi's politics. The most obvious is that the once very rich Libya became much less wealthy as oil prices dropped significantly during the 1990s. Since then, Gaddafi has tended to need other countries more than before and hasn't been able to dole out foreign aid as he once did. In this environment, the increasingly stringent sanctions placed by the UN and US on Libya made it more and more isolated politically and economically. Another possibility is that strong Western reactions have forced Gaddafi into changing his politics. It is also possible that realpolitik changed Gaddafi. Realpolitik ( German: de real “realistic” “practical” or “actual” and de Politik “politics” refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily His ideals and aims did not materialize: there never was any Arab unity, the various armed revolutionary organizations he supported did not achieve their goals, and the demise of the Soviet Union left Gaddafi's main symbolic target, the United States, stronger than ever. Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Following the overthrow of Saddam Hussein by US forces in 2003, Gaddafi announced that his nation had an active weapons of mass destruction program, but was willing to allow international inspectors into his country to observe and dismantle them. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 A weapon of mass destruction ( WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e US President George W. Bush and other supporters of the Iraq War portrayed Gaddafi's announcement as a direct consequence of the Iraq War by stating that Gaddafi acted out of fear for the future of his own regime if he continued to keep and conceal his weapons. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi, a supporter of the Iraq War, was quoted as saying that Gaddafi had privately phoned him, admitting as much. (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor Many foreign policy experts, however, contend that Gaddafi's announcement was merely a continuation of his prior attempts at normalizing relations with the West and getting the sanctions removed. To support this, they point to the fact that Libya had already made similar offers starting four years prior to it finally being accepted.  International inspectors turned up several tons of chemical weaponry in Libya, as well as an active nuclear weapons program. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. As the process of destroying these weapons continued, Libya improved its cooperation with international monitoring regimes to the extent that, by March 2006, France was able to conclude an agreement with Libya to develop a significant nuclear power program. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions
In March 2004, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair became one of the first western leaders in decades to visit Libya and publicly meet Gaddafi. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to Blair praised Gaddafi's recent acts, and stated that he hoped Libya could now be a strong ally in the international War on Terrorism. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U In the run-up to Blair's visit, the British ambassador in Tripoli, Anthony Layden, explained Libya's and Gaddafi's political change thus:
On May 15, 2006, the US State Department announced that it would restore full diplomatic relations with Libya, once Gaddafi declared he was abandoning Libya's weapons of mass destruction program. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The State Department also said that Libya would be removed from the list of nations supporting terrorism. On August 31, 2006, however, Gaddafi openly called upon his supporters to "kill enemies" who asked for political change. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
In July 2007, French president Nicolas Sarkozy visited Libya and signed a number of bilateral and multilateral (EU) agreements with Gaddafi. Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced, The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 
On 4 March 2008 Gadaffi announced his intention to dissolve the country's existing administrative structure and disburse oil revenue directly to the people. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The plan includes abolishing all ministries, except those of defense, internal security, and foreign affairs, and departments implementing strategic projects .
In October 1993, there was an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Gaddafi by elements of the Libyan army. In July 1996, bloody riots followed a football match as a protest against Gaddafi.
There are a number of political groups opposed to Gaddafi:
A website, actively seeking his overthrow, was set up in 2006 and lists 343 victims of murder and political assassination. The National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL is an opposition movement to Muammar al-Gaddafi 's regime in Libya.  The Libyan League for Human Rights (LLHR) – based in Geneva – petitioned Gaddafi to set up an independent inquiry into the February 2006 unrest in Benghazi in which some 30 Libyans and foreigners were killed. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking
Fathi Eljahmi is a prominent dissident who has been imprisoned since 2002 for calling for increased democratization in Libya. Fathi Eljahmi is an imprisoned Libyan who is considered Libya's "most prominent democratic dissident" and has received significant international attention A dissident, broadly defined is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine policy or institution Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime.
Gaddafi has eight children, seven of them sons. His eldest son, Muhammad Gaddafi, was born to a wife now in disfavour, but runs the Libyan Olympic Committee and owns all the telecommunication companies in Libya. Muhammad Qaddafi ( محمد القذافي) is the eldest son of Muammar al-Gaddafi. The next eldest, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, was born in 1972 and is a painter. Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi ( سيف الإسلام القذافي, translation Sword of Islam) (born June 25, 1972) is a He runs a charity which has been involved in negotiating freedom for hostages taken by Islamic militants, especially in the Philippines. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP In 2006, after sharply criticizing his father's regime, Saif Al Islam briefly left Libya, reportedly to take on a position in banking outside of the country. He returned to Libya soon after, launching an environment friendly initiative to teach children how they can help clean up parts of Libya. He has also been on the forefront of resolving the HIV case of the Palestinian doctor and Bulgarian nurses described previously. The third eldest, Al-Saadi Gaddafi, is married to the daughter of a military commander. Al-Saadi Qadhafi (الساعدي معمر القذافي (born May 28 1973 in Tripoli) is the son of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi and a professional Al Saadi runs the Libyan Football Federation, plays for Italian Serie A team U.C. Sampdoria, made billions of dollars in the petrol industry and produces films. Serie A (officially known as the Lega Calcio Serie A TIM for Sponsorship reasons is a professional league competition for football clubs located Unione Calcio Sampdoria (commonly nicknamed Blucerchiati, blue-ringed is a football club based in Genoa, Italy.
Gaddafi's fourth son, Mutasim-Billah Gaddafi, was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Libyan army. He fled to Egypt after allegedly masterminding an Egyptian backed coup attempt against his father. Gaddafi forgave Mutasim-Billah and he returned to Libya where he now holds the post of national security adviser and heads his own unit within the army. Saif Al Islam and Mutasim-Billah are both seen as possible successors to their father. The fifth eldest, Hannibal once worked for a public marine transportation company in Libya. He is most notable for being involved in a series of violent incidents throughout Europe, including charges against him for beating up his then pregnant girlfriend, Alin Skaf. (In September 2004, Hannibal was involved in a police chase in Paris. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ) Gaddafi has two younger sons, Saif Al Arab and Khamis, a police officer in Libya.
Gaddafi's only daughter is Ayesha Gaddafi, a lawyer who had joined the defense team of executed former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. Ayesha Qaddafi (عائشة القذافي is the daughter of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 She married a cousin of her father in 2006. A cousin couple is a pair of Cousins who are involved in a romantic or Sexual relationship His reportedly adopted daughter, Hanna, was killed in the 1986 USAF bombing raid. The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and At a "concert for peace", held on April 15, 2006 in Tripoli to mark the 20th anniversary of the bombing raid, U. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. S. singer Lionel Richie told the audience:
In January 2002, Gaddafi purchased a 7. 5% share of Italian football club Juventus for USD 21 million, through Lafico ("Libyan Arab Foreign Investment Company"). The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been This continued a longstanding association with the Italian industralist Gianni Agnelli. Giovanni Agnelli, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( March 12, 1921 – January 24, 2003) better known as Gianni Agnelli, was Gaddafi holds an honorary degree from Megatrend University in Belgrade proclaimed by former Yugoslav President Zoran Lilić. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding The Megatrend University of Applied Sciences ( Serbian: Мегатренд универзитет примењених наука / Megatrend univerzitet primenjenih nauka is Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. Zoran Lilić - Lilke ( Serbian Cyrillic: Зоран Лилић b 
Due to the inherent difficulties of transliterating written and regionally-pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name can be transliterated in many different ways. Transliteration is the practice of Transcribing a Word or text written in one Writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice An article published in the London Evening Standard in 2004 lists a total of 37 spellings; a 1986 column by The Straight Dope quotes a list of 32 spellings known at the Library of Congress. The London Evening Standard is an English Tabloid regional local newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast The Straight Dope is a popular question-and-answer Newspaper column published in the Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty Newspapers The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress  Muammar al-Gaddafi, used in this article, is the spelling used by Time magazine and the BBC. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and The Associated Press, CNN, and Fox News use the spelling Moammar Gadhafi, Al-Jazeera uses Muammar al-Qadhafi, the Edinburgh Middle East Report uses Mu'ammar Qaddafi and the U.S. Department of State uses Mu'ammar Al-Qadhafi. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner For the English-language channel see Al Jazeera English Al Jazeera (الجزيرة al-jazīrah,, meaning "The Island" The Edinburgh Middle East Report ( EMER) is Scotland 's only publication dedicated to the Middle East. In 1986, Gaddafi reportedly responded to a Minnesota school's letter in English using the spelling Moammar El-Gadhafi. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers 
In September 2006, at the ENO in London, the UK-based electronic band Asian Dub Foundation created and did 6 performances of a show commissioned by channel 4 and based on Gaddafi's story, called "Gaddafi: A Living Myth". English National Opera (ENO is the national opera company of England, and one of two opera companies in London, along with the Royal Opera at Covent London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Asian Dub Foundation are a British electronica band that plays a mix of Breakbeat, dub, Dancehall and Ragga, also Channel 4 is a public-service Television and Radio broadcaster in the United Kingdom centred around a television channel of the same name which began The title role was played by Ramon Tikaram. Ramon Pramod Junior Tikaram (born May 16, 1967 in Singapore) is a British stage and screen actor of Indo-Fijian and Sarawakian The book was by Shan Khan and the direction by David Freeman. David Freeman may refer to David Freeman (musician, collector historian and authority on old-time and bluegrass music David G The critics were generally not very flattering in the English-speaking press. Press coverage in Muslim countries was positive: see Charles T. Downey, Gaddafi: Failure or Triumph? (Ionarts, 18 September 2006).