|República de Moçambique|
Republic of Mozambique
|Anthem: Pátria Amada|
(formerly Viva, Viva a FRELIMO)
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Luísa Diogo|
|-||from Portugal||June 25, 1975|
|-||Total||801,590 km² (35th)|
309,496 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||2. The flag of Mozambique was adopted on May 1, 1983. It includes the image of an AK-47 and is the only national flag in the world to feature such The coat of arms of Mozambique, which was adopted in 1990 in the Constitution of Mozambique article 194 A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Pátria Amada is the National Anthem of Mozambique, it replaced Viva Viva a FRELIMO in 2002. "Viva Viva a FRELIMO " ( Portuguese: "Long Live FRELIMO") was the National anthem of Mozambique from June The demographics of Mozambique describes the condition and overview of Mozambique's peoples Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Latest election List List of Heads of State of Mozambique The official residence is the Palácio da Ponta Vermelha. Armando Emílio Guebuza (born 20 January 1943 is a Mozambican Politician and the President of Mozambique since 2005 List of Heads of Government of Mozambique Affiliations- FRELIMO = Frente da Libertação de Moçambique (Liberation Front of Mozambique Luísa Dias Diogo (born April 11, 1958) has been prime minister of Mozambique since February 2004 Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 2|
|-||2007 census||21,397,000 (52nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$27. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 013 billion (100th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,389 (158th)|
|Gini (1996-97)||39. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 6 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▼ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 384 (low) (172nd)|
|Currency||Mozambican metical (Mtn) (|
|Time zone||CAT (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+2)|
|1||Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The metical (plural meticais) is the Currency of Mozambique, abbreviated with the symbol MZN or MTn. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: Moçambique or República de Moçambique, pronounced [ʁɛ'publikɐ dɨ musɐ̃'bikɨ]), is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa centred at approximately 26o49'S 31o38'E The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa It was explored by Vasco da Gama in 1498 and colonized by Portugal in 1505. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira ('vaʃku dɐ 'gɐmɐ ( Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. By 1510, the Portuguese had control of all of the former Arab sultanates on the east African coast. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.
It is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and the Commonwealth of Nations. The Community of Portuguese Language Countries ( Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. Mozambique (Moçambique) was named after Muça Alebique, a sultan.
Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the west and north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. Mozambique was a Portuguese colony, overseas province and then a member state of Portugal. The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people The Zambezi (also spelled Zambesi) is the fourth-longest River in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers.
When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab commercial and slave trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold and slaves. Prospecting is the physical search for Minerals Fossils precious metals or mineral specimens and is also known as Fossicking. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers and officials who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonisation of Brazil. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of Mozambique to large private companies, like the Mozambique Company, the Zambezi Company and the Niassa Company, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighbouring countries and supplied cheap – often forced – African labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. The Mozambique Company, in Portuguese the Companhia de Moçambique, was a royal company in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique, that had the concession The Niassa Company, in Portuguese the Companhia do Niassa, was a royal company in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique, then known The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Because policies and development plans were primarily designed by the ruling authorities for the benefit of Mozambique's Portuguese population, little attention was paid to Mozambique's tribal integration and the development of its native communities. This affected a majority of the indigenous population who suffered both state-sponsored discrimination and enormous social pressure. Many felt they had received too little opportunity or resources to upgrade their skills and improve their economic and social situation to a degree comparable to that of the Europeans.
The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), initiated a guerrilla campaign against Portuguese rule in September 1964. The Liberation Front of Mozambique, better known by the acronym FRELIMO, from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (IPA /fɾeˈlimo/ This conflict, along with the two others already initiated in the other Portuguese colonies of Angola and Guinea-Bissau, became part of the so-called Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974). Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Republic of Guinea-Bissau (ˈgɪni bɨˈsaʊ República da Guiné-Bissau ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɐ giˈnɛ biˈsau is a country in Western Africa, and one of the smallest The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial also known as the Overseas War in Portugal (Guerra do Ultramar or in the former colonies as the
After 10 years of sporadic warfare and Portugal's return to democracy through a leftist military coup in Lisbon (the Carnation Revolution of April 1974), FRELIMO took control of the territory. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos was an almost bloodless military-led pro-democratic Coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon Within a year, almost all Portuguese population had left – some expelled by the government of the newly-independent territory, some fleeing in fear –, and Mozambique became independent from Portugal on June 25, 1975.
The new government, under president Samora Machel, gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of first Rhodesia and later South Africa (at that time still operating the apartheid laws) fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). The Mozambican Civil War began in 1975 following the war of independence. Samora Moisés Machel ( September 29, 1933 &ndash October 19, 1986) was a Mozambican military commander revolutionary socialist The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Zimbabwe African National Union was a militant organization that fought against White minority rule in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence The Mozambican National Resistance ( RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a conservative Political party in Mozambique Hence, civil war, sabotage from neighbouring white-ruled states such as Rhodesia and the Apartheid regime of South Africa, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. The Mozambican Civil War began in 1975 following the war of independence. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals and Mozambicans of Portuguese heritage, a weak infrastructure, and government nationalisation of privately owned industries. During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1. 7 million took refuge in neighbouring states, and several million more were internally displaced. On October 19, 1986 Samora Machel was on his way back from an international meeting in Zambia in the presidential Tupolev Tu-134 aircraft when the plane crashed in the Lebombo Mountains, near Mbuzini. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Lebombo Mountains, also called Lubombo Mountains, are a long narrow range of mountains in Southern Africa stretching from Hluhluwe in KwaZulu-Natal There were nine survivors but President Machel and twenty-four others died, including ministers and officials of the Mozambique government. The United Nations' Soviet delegation issued a minority report contending that their expertise and experience had been undermined by the South Africans. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Representatives of the USSR advanced the theory that the plane had been intentionally diverted by a false navigational beacon signal, using a technology provided by military intelligence operatives of the South African government (at that time still operating the laws of apartheid). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This article is about the radio navigation aid see VOR for other uses  Machel's successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. Joaquim Alberto Chissano (born 22 October 1939) served as the second President of Mozambique for nineteen years from 6 November 1986 The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords, brokered by the Community of Sant'Egidio. The Rome General Peace Accords between the Mozambican Civil War parties the Frelimo (government and the Renamo (rebels put an end to the Mozambique The Community of Sant'Egidio is a Christian community that is officially recognized by the Catholic Church as a "Church public lay association" Under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
By mid-1995 the more than 1. 7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighbouring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in sub-Saharan Africa. The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa centred at approximately 26o49'S 31o38'E The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya Additionally, a further estimated four million internally displaced persons returned to their areas of origin.
While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant Mozambique 's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbours and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.
During the 1970s and the early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's government to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the government of South Africa (at that time still operating under the laws of apartheid) continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique. It also belonged to the Front Line States. Front Line States (FLS was an organization established to achieve black majority rule in South Africa.
The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. The Nkomati Accord was a nonagression treaty signed on 16 March, 1984 between the Mozambican government and the apartheid government of This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighbouring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong.
In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some Western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well USSR and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians countries of Sweden (EU Member since 1995), Norway, Denmark (EU Member since 1973) and Iceland. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Plus Finland (EU Member since 1995) and the Netherlands within the European Union are becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, continue to play an important role as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.
Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African bloc in the United Nations and other international organisations. The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Mozambique also belongs to the African Union (formerly the Organisation of African Unity) and the Southern African Development Community. The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other working languages is a Confederation consisting of 53  African The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. The Southern African Development Community ( SADC) is an Inter-governmental organization. In 1994, the government became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizable Muslim population. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbours in the Commonwealth. An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. It is the only nation to join the Commonwealth that was never part of the British Empire. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Lusophone states. The Community of Portuguese Language Countries ( Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa, pron. A Lusophone (or lusophone) is someone who speaks the Portuguese language natively or by adoption
Mozambique is divided into ten provinces (provincias) and one capital city (cidade capital) with provincial status. |||} Mozambique is divided into 10 Provinces ( províncias) and 1 capital city ( cidade) with provincial status Cabo Delgado Province |||} The provinces of Mozambique are divided into 128 Districts The districts are listed below by province Cabo Delgado Province |||} The districts of Mozambique are divided into 405 postos. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. The provinces are subdivided into 129 districts (distritos). A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. The districts are further divided in 405 "Postos Administrativos" (Administrative Posts) and then into Localidades (Localities), the lowest geographical level of the central state administration. Since 1998, 33 "Municípios" (Municipalities) have been created in Mozambique.
At 309,475 square miles (801,590 km²), Mozambique is the world's 35th-largest country (after Pakistan). Cabo Delgado is the northernmost province of Mozambique. It has an area of 77867 km² and a population of 1650270 (2006 Gaza is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 75709 km² and a population of 1333106 (2006 Inhambane is a province of Mozambique located on the coast in the southern part of the country Manica is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 61661 km² and a population of 1 Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. Maputo is a province of Mozambique; the province excludes the city of Maputo (which comprises a separate province Nampula is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 81606 km² and a population of 3 Niassa is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 129056 km² and a population of 1 Sofala is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 68018 km² and a population of 1 Tete is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 100724 km² and a population of approximately 1 This article is about the Mozambican province The name Zambezia or Zambesia was also used up to 1895 for the territory later called Rhodesia Location Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel between South Africa and Tanzania Geographic coordinates: In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels The Map Library should not be confused with the Map Library of The British Museum. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and It is comparable in size to Turkey. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
Mozambique is located on the southeast coast of Africa. It is bound by Swaziland to the south, South Africa to the southwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Zambia and Malawi to the northwest, Tanzania to the north and the Indian Ocean to the east. The Kingdom of Swaziland is a country located in Southern Africa centred at approximately 26o49'S 31o38'E The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The country is divided into two topographical regions by the Zambezi River. The Zambezi (also spelled Zambesi) is the fourth-longest River in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa To the North of the Zambezi River, the narrow coastline moves inland to hills and low plateaux, and further west to rugged highlands, which include the Niassa highlands, Namuli or Shire highlands, Angonia highlands, Tete highlands and the Makonde plateau. Niassa is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 129056 km² and a population of 1 Mount Namuli is the highest peak in the Zambezia Province of Mozambique. Tete is the capital city of Tete Province in Mozambique. It is located on the Zambezi River, and is the site of the one-kilometre-long Tete Suspension The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. To the South of the Zambezi River, the lowlands are broader with the Mashonaland plateau and Lebomo mountains located in the deep south.
The country is drained by five principal rivers and several smaller ones with the largest and most important the Zambezi. The country has three lakes, Lake Niassa or Malawi, Lake Chiuta and Lake Shirwa, all in the north. Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Lago Niassa in Mozambique) is the most southerly Lake Lake Chiuta is a shallow lake on the border between Malawi and Mozambique. Lake Shirwa is a Lake located in Mozambique. It was discovered in 1859 by the Scottish explorer David Livingstone. The major cities are Maputo, Beira, Nampula, Tete, Quelimane, Chimoio, Pemba, Inhambane, Xai-Xai and Lichinga. Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. Beira is the second largest city in Mozambique. It lies in the central region of the country in Sofala Province, where the Pungue River meets the Nampula is the capital city of Nampula Province in Mozambique. Tete is the capital city of Tete Province in Mozambique. It is located on the Zambezi River, and is the site of the one-kilometre-long Tete Suspension Quelimane (pronounced "Kelly-mane" is a Seaport in Mozambique. Chimoio is the capital of Manica Province in Mozambique. It is the fifth-largest city in Mozambique This article is about the capital of the Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado. Inhambane is a town located in southern Mozambique, lying on Inhambane Bay 470 km northeast of Maputo. Xai-Xai (pronounced shy-shy) is a city in the south of Mozambique. Lichinga is the capital City of Niassa Province of Mozambique.
Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons. A wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. Climatic conditions, however, vary depending on altitude. Rainfall is heavy along the coast and decreases in the north and south. Annual precipitation varies from 500 to 900 mm (20 to 35 inches) depending on the region with an average of 590 mm (23 inches). Cyclones are also common during the wet season. Average temperature ranges in Maputo are from 13 to 24 degrees Celsius (55 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit) in July to 22 to 31 degrees Celsius (72 to 88 degrees Fahrenheit) in February.
Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. Politics of Mozambique takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Mozambique is Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. List of Heads of Government of Mozambique Affiliations- FRELIMO = Frente da Libertação de Moçambique (Liberation Front of Mozambique There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The Unicameral Assembly of the Republic is Mozambique's legislative body The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at eighteen. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally
In the 1994 elections. Elections in Mozambique gives information on Election and election results in Mozambique. Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and nine representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). The Liberation Front of Mozambique, better known by the acronym FRELIMO, from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (IPA /fɾeˈlimo/ The Mozambican National Resistance ( RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a conservative Political party in Mozambique Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly.
After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low.
In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than seven million voters).
The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turnout. Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a Ballot in an Election. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organised and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people.
President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his five-year term in January, 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented.
The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote.
The second local elections, involving thirty-three municipalities with some 2. 4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO won twenty-eight mayoral positions and the majority in twenty-nine municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won five mayoral positions and the majority in four municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for greater transparency.
In May 2004, the government approved a new general elections law that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections.
Presidential and National Assembly elections took place on December 1-2, 2004. FRELIMO candidate Armando Guebuza won with 64% of the popular vote. His opponent, Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO, received 32% of the popular vote. FRELIMO won 160 seats in Parliament. A coalition of RENAMO and several small parties won the 90 remaining seats. Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as the President of Mozambique on February 2, 2005. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. RENAMO and some other opposition parties made claims of election fraud and denounced the result. These claims were supported by international observers (among others by the European Union Election Observation Mission to Mozambique and the Carter Centre) to the elections who criticised the fact that the National Electoral Commission (CNE) did not conduct fair and transparent elections. They listed a whole range of shortcomings by the electoral authorities that benefited the ruling party FRELIMO. However, according to EU observers, the elections shortcomings have probably not affected the final result in the presidential election. On the other hand, the observers have declared that the outcome of the parliamentary election and thus the distribution of seats in the National Assembly does not reflect the will of the Mozambican people and is clearly to the disadvantage of RENAMO.
The Reporters Without Borders' Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2006 ranked Mozambique 45th out of 168 countries.
The official currency is the New Metical (as of 2007, 1 USD is roughly equivalent to 25 Meticals), which replaced old Meticals in rate thousand to one. The economy of Mozambique has developed since the end of the Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992 but the country is still one of the world's poorest and most underdeveloped The metical (plural meticais) is the Currency of Mozambique, abbreviated with the symbol MZN or MTn. The old currency will be redeemed by the Bank of Mozambique until the end of 2012. The Bank of Mozambique (Banco de Moçambique is the Central bank of Mozambique. US dollar, South African rand and recently also Euro are also widely accepted and used in business transactions. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The rand ( sign: R; code: ZAR) is the Currency of South Africa. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The minimum legal salary is around 60 dollars per month. Mozambique is member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The Southern African Development Community ( SADC) is an Inter-governmental organization. The SADC free trade protocol is aimed at making the Southern African region more competitive by eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary A trade barrier is a general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts International trade.
The resettlement of civil war refugees and successful economic reform have led to a high growth rate: the average growth rate from 1993 to 1999 was 6. The Mozambican Civil War began in 1975 following the war of independence. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race 7%; from 1997 to 1999 it averaged more than 10% per year. The devastating floods of early 2000 slowed GDP growth to 2. The 2000 Mozambique flood was a Natural disaster that occurred in February and March 2000 1%. A full recovery was achieved with growth of 14. 8% in 2001. In 2003, the growth rate was 7%. The government projects the economy to continue to expand between 7%-10% a year for the next five years, although rapid expansion in the future hinges on several major foreign investment projects, continued economic reform, and the revival of the agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. More than 75% of the population engages in small scale agriculture, which still suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment. However, 88% of Mozambique's arable land is still uncultivated. Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it In addition, the profitable exploitation of valuable titanium reserves has the potential to uplift this poverty stricken region of Africa. As a natural resource, it could play a significant role in solving unemployment and poverty.
The government's tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% in 1998-99. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time Economic disruptions stemming from the devastating floods of 2000 caused inflation to jump to 12. 7% that year, and it was 13% in 2003. The Mozambique's currency, the Metical, devaluated by 50% to the dollar in 2001, although in late 2001 it began to stabilize. The metical (plural meticais) is the Currency of Mozambique, abbreviated with the symbol MZN or MTn. Devaluation is a reduction in the value of a Currency with respect to other monetary units Since then, it has held steady at about 24,000 MZN to 1 U. The metical (plural meticais) is the Currency of Mozambique, abbreviated with the symbol MZN or MTn. S. dollar. New Metical replaced old Meticals in rate thousand to one on January 1, 2007 bringing the exchange rate to 25 (new) MZN to 1 USD. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatised. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business Preparations for privatisation and/or sector liberalisation are underway for the remaining parastatal enterprises, including telecommunications, energy, ports, and the railways. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatising a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2003-04 include Commercial Code reform; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability. Further political instability resulting from the floods left thousands homeless, displaced within their own country.
Imports remain almost 40% greater than exports, but this is a significant improvement over the 4:1 ratio of the immediate post-war years. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. In 2003, imports were $1. 24 billion and exports were $910 million. Support programs provided by foreign donors and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials, have largely compensated for balance-of-payments shortfalls. The medium-term outlook for exports is encouraging, since a number of foreign investment projects should lead to substantial export growth and a better trade balance. MOZAL, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, has greatly expanded the nation's trade volume. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea, and citrus fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. As well, Mozambique is less dependent on imports for basic food and manufactured goods because of steady increases in local production.
The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The demographics of Mozambique describes the condition and overview of Mozambique's peoples The estimated four million Macua are the dominant group in the northern part of the country; the Sena and Shona (mostly Ndau) are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Shangaan (Tsonga) dominate in southern Mozambique. The Macua are a Bantu people living in northern Mozambique. They live mostly in the Nampula region Shona (ˈʃoʊnə is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and southern Mozambique. This page is about the Ndau ethnic group and language of Africa (S 15a according to Guthrie's classification The Shangaan (Vatsonga or Vitsonga are a large group of people living mainly in southern Mozambique in Maputo and in Gaza Province; there is also Other groups include Makonde, Yao, Swahili, Tonga, Chopi, and Nguni (including Zulu). The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. For other uses see Yao. The waYao, or Yao, is a major ethnic and linguistic group based at the southern end of Lake Malawi The Swahili are a people and culture found on the coast of East Africa, mainly the coastal regions and the islands of Kenya and Tanzania, and north For the related ethnic group see Tonga people of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The Chopi are an Ethnic group of Mozambique. They have traditionally lived primarily in the Zavala region of southern Mozambique in the Inhambane The Zulu ( IsiZulu: amaZulu) are the largest South African ethnic group of an estimated 10-11 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal Bantu people comprise 99. Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people 66% of the population, the remaining 0. 34% include Europeans 0. 06% (largely of Portuguese ancestry), Euro-Africans 0. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. 2% (mestiço people of mixed Bantu and Portuguese heritage), and Indians 0. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 08%.  During Portuguese colonial rule, a large minority of people of Portuguese descent lived permanently in almost all areas of the country, and Mozambicans with Portuguese blood at the time of independence numbered about 260,000. Most of these left the region after independence from Portugal in 1975. The remaining minorities in Mozambique claim heritage from Pakistan, Portuguese India and Arab countries. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugal 's colonial holdings in India. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding There are also some 7,000 Chinese.
Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonisers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small-scale agriculture. Mozambique's most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The Makonde are an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage.
Portuguese is the official and most widely spoken language of the nation, because Bantus speak several of their different languages (most widely used of these are Swahili, Makhuwa, Sena, Ndau, and Shangaan — these have many Portuguese-origin words), but 40% of all people speak it — 33. Mozambique is a Multilingual country A number of Bantu languages are indigenous to Mozambique Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches The Makhuwa language (also spelled Makua and "Macua" is a Bantu language spoken by 2 Ndau is one of the Shona dialects It is spoken by people from the region of Chipinge. The Tsonga or Xitsonga language is spoken in southern Africa by the Tsonga people also known as the Shangaan. 5%, mostly Bantus, as their second language and only 6. 5%, mostly white Portuguese and mestiços, speak it as their first language. Arabs, Chinese, and Indians speak their own languages (Indians from Portuguese India speak any of the Portuguese Creoles of their origin) aside from Portuguese as their second language. This article is about Portuguese-based Creole languages See Creole peoples for the Portuguese Creole ethnicity Most educated Mozambicans speak English, which is used in schools and business as second or third language. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Under Portuguese rule, educational opportunities for poor Mozambicans were limited; Most of the Bantu population was illiterate, and many could not speak Portuguese. Education in Mozambique is organized by three main stages Primary education, Secondary education and Higher education. In fact, most of today's political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately in recent years, school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered. All Mozambicans are required by law to attend school through the primary level. After grade 7, students must take standardised national exams to enter secondary school, which runs from 8th to 10th grade. Secondary school students study Portuguese, mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, history, geography, physical education, technical drawing, and English (which all schoolchildren begin in grade 6). Another round of national exams after grade 10 allows passage into pre-university school (grades 11 and 12), in which students have the opportunity to study all of the former subjects (minus physical education) plus philosophy and French. Space in Mozambican universities is extremely limited; thus most students who complete pre-university school do not immediately proceed onto university studies. Many go to work as teachers or are unemployed. There are also institutes specialising in agricultural, technical, or pedagogical studies which students may attend after grade 10 in lieu of a pre-university school, which give more practical educations. A lot of children in Mozambique don't go to primary school because they have to work for their families' subsistence farms for a living.
According to the 1997 Second General Population and Housing Census, the religions of the polled population were as follows: 24. According to the most recent census conducted by the National Institute of Statistics in 1997 half of the population does not profess to practice a religion or creed however religious A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population 2% identified themselves as Roman Catholic; 24. 25% claimed to not be affiliated with a religion; 18. 7% adhering to Zionism (an African form of Christianity); 17. for Christians who believe that the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 was a fulfilment of Biblical prophecy see Christian Zionists For other 8% of the population were cited as Muslims; 11. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. 45% as other non-Catholic Christians; 3. 6% as "other".
The Roman Catholic Church has established twelve dioceses (Beira, Chimoio, Gurué, Inhambane, Lichinga, Maputo, Nacala, Nampula, Pemba, Quelimane, Tete, and Xai-Xai - archdioceses are Beira, Maputo and Nampula). Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. Nampula is the capital city of Nampula Province in Mozambique. Statistics for the dioceses range from a low 7. 44% Catholics in the population in the diocese of Chimoio, to 87. 50% in Quelimane diocese (2006 official Catholic figures).
Muslims are particularly present in the north of the country. They are organised in several "tariqa" or brotherhoods (of the Qadiriya or Shadhuliyyah branch). Two national organisations also exist - the Conselho Islamico de Moçambique (reformists) and the Congresso Islamico de Mocambique (pro-sufi). There are also important Indo-Pakistani associations as well as some Shia and particularly Ismaili communities.
Among the main Protestant churches are Igreja União Baptista de Moçambique, the Assembleias de Deus, the Seventh-day Adventists, the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, the Igreja do Evangelho Completo de Deus, the Igreja Metodista Unida, the Igreja Presbiteriana de Moçambique, the Igreja de Cristo and the Assembleia Evangélica de Deus. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. The World Assemblies of God Fellowship, or Assemblies of God for short is the world's largest Pentecostal denomination with over 283413 churches and outstations The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance The Anglican Church of Southern Africa is the Anglican province in the southern part of Africa, including 23 Dioceses in Angola, This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is also present as well as the Jehovah's Witnesses, the Brazilian Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus, and the Salvation Army. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG from Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus IURD is a rapidly growing Brazilian church. The Salvation Army is a Christian charity and church that is internally organised like a military service.
Mozambique has distinct styles of music and distinct patterns of use of instruments. Mozambique is a former Portuguese Colony, and its native Folk musics have been highly influenced by Portuguese forms Some of the music styles fall into the classification of Lusophone musical culture. Lusophone music refers to the music sung in Portuguese or in its many dialects and creoles.
This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U. Articles (arranged alphabetically related to Mozambique include 0-9 1975 independence A Telephones - main lines in use 69700 (2004 Telephones - mobile cellular 2360000(2007 Telephone system general assessment fair system but The Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique (LEMo the national Scouting organization of Mozambique, was founded in 1960 and became a member of the World Organization Below is a list of conservation areas in Mozambique. Transfrontier Parks Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park - Peace park which Military branches Army Naval Command Air and Air Defense Forces Militia Military manpower - availability males age 15-49 4142449 (2003 est This is a list of Holidays in Mozambique Railways total 3123 km narrow gauge 2983 km 1067-m gauge narrow gauge 140 km 0 The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the S. government publication, is in the public domain. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
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