In computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses) is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Computing is usually defined like the activity of using and developing Computer technology Computer hardware and software. A pointing device is an Input interface (specifically a Human interface device) that allows a user to input spatial (ie continuous and multi-dimensional data In mathematics the dimension of a Space is roughly defined as the minimum number of Coordinates needed to specify every point within it Physically, a mouse consists of a small case, held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as "wheels", which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations, or extra buttons or features can add more control or dimensional input. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a Graphical User Interface. In computing a cursor is an indicator used to show the position on a Computer monitor or other Display device that will respond to input from a text input or A visual display unit, often called simply a monitor or display, is a piece of Electrical equipment which displays images generated from the Video
The name mouse, originated at the Stanford Research Institute, derives from the resemblance of early models (which had a cord attached to the rear part of the device, suggesting the idea of a tail) to the common mouse. SRI International, based in the United States is one of the world's largest contract Research institutes. A mouse (plural mice) is a small Animal that belongs to one 
The first marketed integrated mouse — shipped as a part of a computer and intended for personal computer navigation — came with the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981. The Star Workstation, officially known as the Xerox 8010 Information System, was introduced
The first known publication of the term "mouse" as a pointing device is in Bill English's 1965 publication "Computer-Aided Display Control"
The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (third edition) and the fourth edition of The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language endorse both computer mice and computer mouses as correct plural forms for computer mouse. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ( AHD) is an American Dictionary of the English language published by The form mice, however, appears most commonly, while some authors of technical documents may prefer either mouse devices or the more generic pointing devices. The plural mouses treats mouse as a "headless noun. In the English Language, Nouns are inflected for Grammatical number —that is singular or Plural. "
Two manuals of style in the computer industry – Sun Technical Publication's Read Me First: A Style Guide for the Computer Industry and Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications from Microsoft Press – recommend that technical writers use the term mouse devices instead of the alternatives.
The world's first trackball invented by Tom Cranston, Fred Longstaff and Kenyon Taylor working on the Royal Canadian Navy's DATAR project in 1952. A trackball is a Pointing device consisting of a Ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes&mdashlike an upside-down Kenyon Taylor was a British electrical engineer and Inventor. For the history of Canada's naval forces after 1968 see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy ( RCN) was the DATAR, short for Digital Automated Tracking and Resolving, was a pioneering computerized battlefield information system It used a standard Canadian five-pin bowling ball. Five-pin bowling is a Bowling variant which is only played in Canada, where most bowling alleys offer it either alone or in combination with Ten-pin bowling It was not patented, as it was a secret military project.
Early mouse patents. From left to right: Opposing track wheels by Engelbart, Nov. 1970,. Ball and wheel by Rider, Sept. 1974, . Ball and two rollers with spring by Opocensky, Oct. 1976, .
The first computer mouse, held by inventor Douglas Engelbart, showing the wheels that make contact with the working surface
A Smaky mouse, as invented at the EPFL by Jean-Daniel Nicoud and André Guignard. Dr Douglas C Engelbart (born January 30 1925 is an American Inventor. The Smaky is a line of mostly 8-bit Personal computers and accompanying operating system developed by Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud and others at the École Polytechnique Jean-Daniel Nicoud (31 August 1938) is a Swiss computer scientist notably inventor of the Computer mouse with an optical encoder and André Guignard is a Swiss Engineer initially educated as a Watchmaker.
Douglas Engelbart at the Stanford Research Institute invented the mouse in 1963 after extensive usability testing. Dr Douglas C Engelbart (born January 30 1925 is an American Inventor. SRI International, based in the United States is one of the world's largest contract Research institutes. Usability testing is a technique used to evaluate a product by testing it on users
Eleven years earlier, the Royal Canadian Navy had invented the trackball using a Canadian five-pin bowling ball as a user interface for their DATAR system. For the history of Canada's naval forces after 1968 see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy ( RCN) was the A trackball is a Pointing device consisting of a Ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes&mdashlike an upside-down Five-pin bowling is a Bowling variant which is only played in Canada, where most bowling alleys offer it either alone or in combination with Ten-pin bowling DATAR, short for Digital Automated Tracking and Resolving, was a pioneering computerized battlefield information system 
Several other experimental pointing-devices developed for Engelbart's oN-Line System (NLS) exploited different body movements — for example, head-mounted devices attached to the chin or nose — but ultimately the mouse won out because of its simplicity and convenience. NLS, or the "oN-Line System" was a revolutionary Computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and the researchers The first mouse, a bulky device (pictured) used two gear-wheels perpendicular to each other: the rotation of each wheel translated into motion along one axis. In Mathematics and its applications a coordinate system is a system for assigning an n - Tuple of Numbers or scalars to each point Engelbart received patent US3541541 on November 17, 1970 for an "X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System". A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  At the time, Engelbart envisaged that users would hold the mouse continuously in one hand and type on a five-key chord keyset with the other. A keyset or chorded keyboard (also called a chord keyboard or chording keyboard) is a computer input device that allows the user to enter characters  The concept was preceded in the 19th century by the telautograph, which also anticipated the fax machine. The telautograph, an analog precursor to the modern Fax machine transmits electrical impulses recorded by Potentiometers at the sending station to
Bill English, builder of Engelbart's original mouse, invented the so-called ball mouse in 1972 while working for Xerox PARC. William "Bill" English is a Computer engineer who contributed to the development of the Computer mouse while working for Douglas Engelbart at PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc formerly Xerox PARC, is a Research and development company in Palo Alto California that began as a division of  The ball-mouse replaced the external wheels with a single ball that could rotate in any direction. It came as part of the hardware package of the Xerox Alto computer. The Xerox Alto was an early Personal computer developed at Xerox PARC in 1973. Perpendicular chopper wheels housed inside the mouse's body chopped beams of light on the way to light sensors, thus detecting in their turn the motion of the ball. This variant of the mouse resembled an inverted trackball and became the predominant form used with personal computers throughout the 1980s and 1990s. A trackball is a Pointing device consisting of a Ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes&mdashlike an upside-down A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated The Xerox PARC group also settled on the modern technique of using both hands to type on a full-size keyboard and grabbing the mouse when required.
The ball mouse utilizes two rollers rolling against two sides of the ball. One roller detects the horizontal motion of the mouse and other the vertical motion. The motion of these two rollers causes two disc-like encoder wheels to rotate, interrupting optical beams to generate electrical signals. The mouse sends these signals to the computer system by means of connecting wires. The driver software in the system converts the signals into motion of the mouse pointer along X and Y axes on the screen.
Based on another invention by Jack Hawley, proprietor of the Mouse House, Honeywell produced another type of mechanical mouse. Honeywell ( is a major American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer products engineering services and aerospace systems  Instead of a ball, it had two wheels rotating at off axes. Keytronic later produced a similar product. Key Tronic is a computer equipment manufacturer founded in 1969 
Modern computer mice took form at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) under the inspiration of Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud and at the hands of engineer and watchmaker André Guignard. Jean-Daniel Nicoud (31 August 1938) is a Swiss computer scientist notably inventor of the Computer mouse with an optical encoder and An engineer is a person professionally engaged in a field of Engineering. A watchmaker is an Artisan who makes and repairs Watches A modern watchmaker is more likely to repair a wristwatch or a pocketwatch than to actually create a watch André Guignard is a Swiss Engineer initially educated as a Watchmaker.  This new design incorporated a single hard rubber mouseball and three buttons, and remained a common design until the mainstream adoption of the scroll-wheel mouse during the 1990s. 
Another type of mechanical mouse, the "analog mouse" (now generally regarded as obsolete), uses potentiometers rather than encoder wheels, and is typically designed to be plug-compatible with an analog joystick. A potentiometer is a three-terminal Resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable Voltage divider. The "Color Mouse," originally marketed by Radio Shack for their Color Computer (but also usable on MS-DOS machines equipped with analog joystick ports, provided the software accepted joystick input) was the best-known example. RadioShack Corporation (formerly Tandy Corporation) (  is a chain of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of North America The Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer (also called Tandy Color Computer, or CoCo) was a Home computer launched in 1980 MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft.
A mouse described as simply "mechanical" has a contact-based incremental rotary encoder, a system prone to drag and unreliability of contact. A rotary encoder, also called a shaft encoder, is an Electro-mechanical device used to convert the angular position of a shaft or axle to an analog Opto-mechanical mice still use a ball or crossed wheels, but detect shaft rotation using an optical encoder with lower friction and more certain performance.
An optical mouse uses a light-emitting diode and photodiodes to detect movement relative to the underlying surface, rather than moving some of its parts — as in a mechanical mouse. A photodiode is a type of Photodetector capable of converting Light into either current or Voltage, depending upon the mode of operation
Early optical mice, circa 1980, came in two different varieties:
These two mouse types had very different behaviors, as the Kirsch mouse used an x-y coordinate system embedded in the pad, and would not work correctly when the pad was rotated, while the Lyon mouse used the x-y coordinate system of the mouse body, as mechanical mice do.
Modern surface-independent optical mice work by using an optoelectronic sensor to take successive pictures of the surface on which the mouse operates. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source detect and control Light, usually considered a sub-field of Photonics. A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument As computing power grew cheaper, it became possible to embed more powerful special-purpose image-processing chips in the mouse itself. Image processing is any form of Signal processing for which the input is an image such as photographs or frames of video the output of image processing can be either an image Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside This advance enabled the mouse to detect relative motion on a wide variety of surfaces, translating the movement of the mouse into the movement of the pointer and eliminating the need for a special mouse-pad. This advance paved the way for widespread adoption of optical mice. Optical mice illuminate the surface that they track over, using an LED or a laser diode. A laser diode is a Laser where the active medium is a Semiconductor similar to that found in a Light-emitting diode. Changes between one frame and the next are processed by the image processing part of the chip and translated into movement on the two axes using an optical flow estimation algorithm. Image processing is any form of Signal processing for which the input is an image such as photographs or frames of video the output of image processing can be either an image Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside In Mathematics and its applications a coordinate system is a system for assigning an n - Tuple of Numbers or scalars to each point Optical flow or optic flow is the pattern of apparent motion of objects surfaces and edges in a visual scene caused by the relative motion between an observer For example, the Avago Technologies ADNS-2610 optical mouse sensor processes 1512 frames per second: each frame consisting of a rectangular array of 18×18 pixels, and each pixel can sense 64 different levels of gray. In Digital imaging, a pixel ( pict ure el ement is the smallest piece of information in an image 
The laser mouse uses an infrared laser diode instead of an LED to illuminate the surface beneath their sensor. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of A laser diode is a Laser where the active medium is a Semiconductor similar to that found in a Light-emitting diode. As early as 1998, Sun Microsystems provided a laser mouse with their Sun SPARCstation servers and workstations. Sun Microsystems Inc ( is a multinational vendor of Computers computer components Computer software, and Information technology services  However, laser mice did not enter the mainstream market until 2004, when Logitech, in partnership with Agilent Technologies, introduced its MX 1000 laser mouse. Logitech International SA ( SWX: LOGN,) headquartered in Romanel-sur-Morges, Switzerland, is the Holding company for Logitech Agilent Technologies ( or Agilent, is a measurement and instrument company headquartered in Santa Clara, California.  This mouse uses a small infrared laser instead of an LED and has significantly increased the resolution of the image taken by the mouse. Image resolution describes the detail an Image holds The term applies equally to Digital images film images and other types of images The laser enables around 20 times more surface tracking power to the surface features used for navigation compared to conventional optical mice, via interference effects. In physics interference is the addition ( superposition) of two or more Waves that result in a new wave pattern While the implementation of a laser slightly increases sensitivity and resolution, the main advantage comes from power usage. 
Manufacturers often engineer their optical mice — especially battery-powered wireless models — to save power when possible. In order to do this, the mouse blinks the laser or LED when in standby-mode (Each mouse has a different standby time). This function may also increase the laser / LED life. Mice designed specifically for gamers, such as the Logitech G5 or the Razer Copperhead, often lack this feature in an attempt to reduce latency and to improve responsiveness. The Logitech G5 is a corded Laser mouse produced by Logitech targeted at the Gamer market
A typical implementation in Logitech mice (eg. Cordless Mouseman optical) has four power states, where the sensor is pulsed at different rates per second:
Some other mice turn the sensor fully off in the sleep state, requiring a button click to wake.
Unlike mechanical mice, which can become clogged with lint, optical mice have no rolling parts; therefore, they do not require maintenance other than removing debris that might collect under the light emitter. However, they generally cannot track on glossy and transparent surfaces, including some mouse-pads, sometimes causing the cursor to drift unpredictably during operation. In Optics, transparency (also called pellucidity) is the Material property of allowing Mice with less image-processing power also have problems tracking fast movement, though high-end mice can track at 2 m/s (80 inches per second) and faster.
Some models of laser mice can track on glossy and transparent surfaces, and have a much higher sensitivity than either their mechanical or optical counterparts. Such models of laser mice cost more than LED based or mechanical mice. 
As of 2006, mechanical mice have lower average power demands than their optical counterparts. In Physics, power (symbol P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted or the amount of energy required or expended for This typically has no practical impact for users of cabled mice (except possibly those used with battery-powered computers, such as notebook models), but has an impact on battery-powered wireless models. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy
Optical models will outperform mechanical mice on uneven, slick, soft, sticky, or loose surfaces, and generally in mobile situations lacking mouse pads. A mousepad (sometimes mouse pad, mousemat, or mouse mat) is a surface for enhancing the Usability of a Computer mouse. Because optical mice render movement based on an image which the LED illuminates, use with multi-colored mouse pads may result in unreliable performance; however, laser mice do not suffer these problems and will track on such surfaces. The advent of affordable high-speed, low-resolution cameras and the integrated logic in optical mice provides an ideal laboratory for experimentation on next-generation input-devices. Experimenters can obtain low-cost components simply by taking apart a working mouse and changing the optics or by writing new software.
Inertial mice use a tuning fork or other accelerometer (US Patent 4787051) to detect movement for every axis supported. An accelerometer is a device for measuring Acceleration and gravity induced reaction forces Usually cordless, they often have a switch to deactivate the movement circuitry between use, allowing the user freedom of movement without affecting the pointer position. A patent for an inertial mouse claims that such mice consume less power than optically based mice, and offer increased sensitivity, reduced weight and increased ease-of-use. 
Also known as flying mice, bats, or wands, these devices generally function through ultrasound. Probably the best known example would be 3DConnexion/Logitech's SpaceMouse from the early 1990s. 3Dconnexion, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Logitech International S
In the late 1990s Kantek introduced the 3D RingMouse. This wireless mouse was worn on a ring around a finger, which enabled the thumb to access three buttons. The mouse was tracked in three dimensions by a base station.  Despite a certain appeal, it was finally discontinued because it did not provide sufficient resolution.
A recent consumer 3D pointing device is the Wii Remote. The Wii Remote, sometimes Nicknamed " Wiimote " is the primary controller for Nintendo 's While primarily a motion-sensing device (that is, it can determine its orientation and direction of movement), Wii Remote can also detect its spatial position by comparing the distance and position of the lights from the IR emitter using its integrated IR camera (since the nunchuk lacks a camera, it can only tell its current heading and orientation). Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of The obvious drawback to this approach is that it can only produce spatial coordinates while its camera can see the sensor bar.
In February, 2008, at the Game Developers' Conference (GDC), a company called Motion4U introduced a 3D mouse add-on called "OptiBurst" for Autodesk's Maya application. The mouse allows users to work in true 3D with 6 degrees of freedom. The primary advantage of this system is speed of development with organic (natural) movement.
The double mouse system allows two mice to be used at once as input devices such as when operating various graphics and multimedia applications. 
To transmit their input, typical cabled mice use a thin electrical cord terminating in a standard connector, such as RS-232C, PS/2, ADB or USB. In Telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE ( Data Terminal Equipment The PS/2 connector is used for connecting some keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system Apple Desktop Bus (or ADB) is an obsolete bit-serial Computer bus connecting low-speed devices to computers Cordless mice instead transmit data via infrared radiation (see IrDA) or radio (including Bluetooth or WiFi), although many such cordless interfaces are themselves connected through the aforementioned wired serial buses. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of The Infrared Data Association ( IrDA) defines physical specifications Communications protocol standards for the short-range exchange of Data Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices creating wireless Wi-Fi (ˈwaɪfaɪ is the trade name for the popular wireless technology used
While the electrical interface and the format of the data transmitted by commonly available mice is currently standardized on USB, in the past it varied between different manufacturers. A bus mouse used a dedicated interface card for connection to an IBM PC or compatible computer. A bus mouse is a variety of PC mouse which is attached to the computer using a specialized interface (originally the Microsoft InPort interface
Standard PC mice once used the RS-232C serial port via a D-subminiature connector, which provided power to run the mouse's circuits as well as data on mouse movements. In Telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE ( Data Terminal Equipment The D-subminiature or D-sub is a common type of Electrical connector used particularly in Computers Calling them "subminiature" was appropriate The Mouse Systems Corporation version used a five-byte protocol and supported three buttons. The Microsoft version used an incompatible three-byte protocol and only allowed for two buttons. Due to the incompatibility, some manufacturers sold serial mice with a mode switch: "PC" for MSC mode, "MS" for Microsoft mode. 
With the arrival of the IBM PS/2 personal-computer series in 1987, IBM introduced the eponymous PS/2 interface for mice and keyboards, which other manufacturers rapidly adopted. The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBM 's third generation of Personal computers The PS/2 line released to the public in 1987 was created by IBM in an The most visible change was the use of a round 6-pin mini-DIN, in lieu of the former 5-pin connector. The mini-DIN connectors are a family of multi-pin Electrical connectors used in a variety of applications In default mode (called stream mode) a PS/2 mouse communicates motion, and the state of each button, by means of 3-byte packets.  For any motion, button press or button release event, a PS/2 mouse sends, over a bi-directional serial port, a sequence of three bytes, with the following format:
|Bit 7||Bit 6||Bit 5||Bit 4||Bit 3||Bit 2||Bit 1||Bit 0|
|Byte 2||X movement|
|Byte 3||Y movement|
Here, XS and YS represent the sign bits of the movement vectors, XV and YV indicate an overflow in the respective vector component, and LB, MB and RB indicate the status of the left, middle and right mouse buttons (1 = pressed). PS/2 mice also understand several commands for reset and self-test, switching between different operating modes, and changing the resolution of the reported motion vectors.
In Linux, a PS/2 mouse is detected as a /dev/psaux device.
A Microsoft IntelliMouse relies on an extension of the PS/2 protocol: the ImPS/2 or IMPS/2 protocol (the abbreviation combines the concepts of "IntelliMouse" and "PS/2"). IntelliMouse is a brand name by Microsoft for its line of computer mice. It initially operates in standard PS/2 format, for backwards compatibility. After the host sends a special command sequence, it switches to an extended format in which a fourth byte carries information about wheel movements. The IntelliMouse Explorer works analogously, with the difference that its 4-byte packets also allow for two additional buttons (for a total of five). 
The Typhoon mouse uses 6-byte packets which can appear as a sequence of two standard 3-byte packets, such that ordinary PS/2 driver can handle them. In computing a device driver or software driver is a Computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a Hardware device 
Mouse-vendors also use other extended formats, often without providing public documentation.
For 3D or 6DOF input, vendors have made many extensions both to the hardware and to software. In the late 90's Logitech created ultrasound based tracking which gave 3D input to a few millimeters accuracy, which worked well as an input device but failed as a money making product. In 2008, Motion4U introduced its "OptiBurst" system using IR tracking for use as a Maya plugin.
In 1986 Apple first implemented the Apple Desktop Bus allowing the daisy-chaining together of up to 16 devices, including arbitrarily many mice and other devices on the same bus with no configuration whatsoever. Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Apple Desktop Bus (or ADB) is an obsolete bit-serial Computer bus connecting low-speed devices to computers Featuring only a single data pin, the bus used a purely polled approach to computer/mouse communications and survived as the standard on mainstream models (including a number of non-Apple workstations) until 1998 when iMac began the industry-wide switch to using USB. The iMac is a desktop Macintosh computer designed and built by Apple Inc Beginning with the "Bronze Keyboard" PowerBook G3 in May 1999, Apple dropped the external ADB port in favor of USB, but retained an internal ADB connection in the PowerBook G4 for communication with its built-in keyboard and trackpad until early 2005. The PowerBook G4 was a series of Notebook computers that was manufactured marketed and sold by Apple Computer Inc
In 2000, Logitech introduced the "tactile mouse", which contained a small actuator that made the mouse vibrate. Logitech International SA ( SWX: LOGN,) headquartered in Romanel-sur-Morges, Switzerland, is the Holding company for Logitech An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system Such a mouse can augment user-interfaces with haptic feedback, such as giving feedback when crossing a window boundary. In Computing, a window is a visual area usually rectangular in shape containing some kind of User interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one To surf by touch requires the user to be able to feel depth or hardness; this ability was realized with the first electrorheological tactile mice but never marketed.
Computer-users usually utilize a mouse to control the motion of a cursor in two dimensions in a graphical user interface. In computing a cursor is an indicator used to show the position on a Computer monitor or other Display device that will respond to input from a text input or Clicking or hovering can select files, programs or actions from a list of names, or (in graphical interfaces) through pictures called "icons" and other elements. For example, a text file might be represented by a picture of a paper notebook, and clicking while the pointer hovers this icon might cause a text editing program to open the file in a window. (See also point-and-click)
Users can also employ mice gesturally; meaning that a stylized motion of the mouse cursor itself, called a "gesture", can issue a command or map to a specific action. Point-and-click is the action of a Computer user moving a cursor to a certain location on a screen ( point) and In Computing, a mouse gesture is a way of combining Computer mouse movements and Clicks which the Software recognizes as a specific For example, in a drawing program, moving the mouse in a rapid "x" motion over a shape might delete the shape.
Gestural interfaces occur more rarely than plain pointing-and-clicking; and people often find them more difficult to use, because they require finer motor-control from the user. However, a few gestural conventions have become widespread, including the drag-and-drop gesture, in which:
For example, a user might drag-and-drop a picture representing a file onto a picture of a trash-can, thus instructing the system to delete the file. In Computer Graphical user interfaces drag-and-drop is the action of (or support for the action of Clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to a different 'Wastebin' redirects here For the temporary deletion of a computer file see Recycle bin (computing.
Other uses of the mouse's input occur commonly in special application-domains. In interactive three-dimensional graphics, the mouse's motion often translates directly into changes in the virtual camera's orientation. 3D computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer For example, in the first-person shooter genre of games (see below), players usually employ the mouse to control the direction in which the virtual player's "head" faces: moving the mouse up will cause the player to look up, revealing the view above the player's head.
When mice have more than one button, software may assign different functions to each button. Often, the primary (leftmost in a right-handed configuration) button on the mouse will select items, and the secondary (rightmost in a right-handed) button will bring up a menu of alternative actions applicable to that item. Someone who is right-handed will prefer to use this hand for everyday activities such as writing, maintaining personal hygiene, Cooking and so forth For example, on platforms with more than one button, the Mozilla web browser will follow a link in response to a primary button click, will bring up a contextual menu of alternative actions for that link in response to a secondary-button click, and will often open the link in a new tab or window in response to a click with the tertiary (middle) mouse button. Mozilla was the official public original name of Mozilla Application Suite by the Mozilla Foundation, currently known as SeaMonkey suite. In Graphical user interfaces a tab is a navigational widget for switching between sets of controls or Documents. In Computing, a window is a visual area usually rectangular in shape containing some kind of User interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one
Performing different operations on the mouse provide the activation of specific actions on the interface, with different meanings. GUIs may define and trigger a separate event for each gesture. In Computer programming, an event is an action which can be initiated either by the user a device such as a timer or keyboard, or even by the Operating system
In contrast to the motion-sensing mechanism, the mouse's buttons have changed little over the years, varying mostly in shape, number, and placement. Rollover refers to a button as created by a web developer or web designer found within a Web page, used to provide interactivity between the user and the page itself In Computing and Telecommunications a menu is a list of commands presented to an operator by a Computer or Communications system. In Computer Graphical user interfaces drag-and-drop is the action of (or support for the action of Clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to a different Engelbart's very first mouse had a single button; Xerox PARC soon designed a three-button model, but reduced the count to two for Xerox products. After experimenting with 4-button prototypes Apple reduced it back to one button with the Macintosh in 1984, while Unix workstations from Sun and others used three buttons. OEM bundled mice usually have between one and three buttons, although in the aftermarket many mice have always had five or more.
A mouse click is the action of pressing (i. The Apple Mighty Mouse is a multi-button USB or Bluetooth mouse manufactured and sold by Apple Inc e. 'clicking', an onomatopoeia) a button in order to trigger an action, usually in the context of a graphical user interface (GUI). Onomatopoeia (also spelled onomatopœia, from Greek: ονοματοποιΐα is a Word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing 'Clicking' an onscreen button is accomplished by pressing on the real button mouse while the cursor is placed over the widget. In Computing, a button (sometimes known as a command button or Push button) is a widget that provides In computing a cursor is an indicator used to show the position on a Computer monitor or other Display device that will respond to input from a text input or
The reason for the clicking noise made is due to the specific switch technology used nearly universally in computer mice. This switch is called a micro switch or cherry switch and uses a stiff but flexible metal strip that is bent to actuate the switch. The bending of the metal makes a snapping or clicking noise.
The three-button scrollmouse has become the most commonly available design. As of 2007 (and roughly since the late 1990s), users most commonly employ the second button to invoke a contextual menu in the computer's software user interface, which contains options specifically tailored to the interface element over which the mouse pointer currently sits. A context menu (also contextual menu and shortcut menu) is a menu in a Graphical user interface (GUI that appears upon user interaction such By default, the primary mouse button sits located on the left-hand side of the mouse, for the benefit of right-handed users; left-handed users can usually reverse this configuration via software.
On systems with three-button mice, pressing the center button (a middle click) typically opens a system-wide noncontextual menu. In the X Window System, middle-clicking by default pastes the contents of the primary buffer at the pointer's position. Many users of two-button mice emulate a three-button mouse by clicking both the right and left buttons simultaneously. An emulator duplicates (provides an emulation of the functions of one System using a different system so that the second system behaves like (and appears to
The issue of whether pack-in bundled mice "should" have exactly one button or more than one has attracted an enormous amount of controversy. From the first Macintosh until late 2005 Apple shipped every computer with a single-button mouse, whereas most other platforms used multi-button mice. Apple and its advocates promoted single-button mice as more user-friendly, and portrayed multi-button mice as confusing for novice users. The Macintosh user interface, by design, always has and still does make all functions available with a single-button mouse. Apple's Human Interface Guidelines still specify that all software-providers need to make functions available with a single button mouse. However, X Window System applications, which Mac OS X can also run, have developed with the use of two-button or even three-button mice in mind, causing even simple operations like "cut and paste" to become awkward on the Macintosh. Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently For a pejorative meaning see Cut and paste job In Human-computer interaction, cut and paste and copy and paste offer
While there has always been an aftermarket for mice with two, three, or more buttons among experienced Macintosh users and extensive configurable support to complement such devices in all major software packages on the platform, Mac OS X shipped with hardcoded support for multi-button mice. On August 2, 2005, Apple introduced their Mighty Mouse multi-button mouse, which has four independently-programmable buttons and a trackball-like "scroll ball" which allows the user to scroll in any direction. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Apple Mighty Mouse is a multi-button USB or Bluetooth mouse manufactured and sold by Apple Inc Since the mouse uses touch-sensitive technology, users can treat it as a one-, two-, three-, or four-button mouse, as desired.
Advocates of multiple-button mice argue that support for a single-button mouse often leads to clumsy workarounds in interfaces where a given object may have more than one appropriate action. One workaround was the double click, first used on the Apple Lisa, to allow both the "select" and "open" operation to be performed with a single button. Several common workarounds exist, and some are specified by the Apple Human Interface Guidelines.
One such workaround (that favored on Apple platforms) has the user hold down one or more keys on the keyboard before pressing the mouse button (typically control on a Macintosh for contextual menus). In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys This has the disadvantage that it requires that both the user's hands be engaged. It also requires that the user perform actions on completely separate devices in concert; that is, holding a key on the keyboard while pressing a button on the mouse. This can be a difficult task for a disabled user, although can be remedied by allowing keys to stick so that they do not need to be pressed down. Sticky keys is a feature of computer Desktop Environments. It is an Accessibility feature to aid users who have physical disabilities.
Another involves the press-and-hold technique. In a press-and-hold, the user presses and holds the single button. After a certain period, software perceives the button press not as a single click but as a separate action. This has two drawbacks: first, a slow user may press-and-hold inadvertently. Second, the user must wait for the software to detect the click as a press-and-hold, otherwise the system might interpret the button-depression as a single click. Furthermore, the remedies for these two drawbacks conflict with each other: the longer the lag time, the more the user must wait; and the shorter the lag time, the more likely it becomes that some user will accidentally press-and-hold when meaning to click. Studies have found all of the above workarounds less usable than additional mouse buttons for experienced users.
Most machines running Unix or a Unix-like operating system run the X Window System which almost always encourages a three-button mouse. Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix) Operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system while not necessarily conforming An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination X numbers the buttons by convention. This allows user instructions to apply to mice or pointing devices that do not use conventional button placement. For example, a left-handed user may reverse the buttons, usually with a software setting. With non-conventional button placement, user directions that say "left mouse button" or "right mouse button" are confusing. The ground-breaking Xerox Parc Alto and Dorado computers from the mid-1970s used three-button mice, and each button was assigned a color. PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc formerly Xerox PARC, is a Research and development company in Palo Alto California that began as a division of The Xerox Alto was an early Personal computer developed at Xerox PARC in 1973. Red was used for the left (or primary) button, yellow for the middle (secondary), and blue for the right (meta or tertiary). Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength Yellow is the Color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M (long and medium wavelength Cone cells of the Retina about equally Blue is a Colour, the Perception of which is evoked by This naming convention lives on in some SmallTalk environments, such as Squeak, and can be less confusing than the right, middle and left designations. Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language. The Squeak Programming language is a Smalltalk implementation derived directly from Smalltalk-80 by a group at Apple Computer that included some of the original Smalltalk-80
Acorn's RISC OS based computers necessarily use all three mouse buttons throughout their WIMP based GUI. Acorn Computers was a British Computer company established in Cambridge, England, in 1978 RISC OS is an Operating system originally created by British manufacturer Acorn Computers for their ARM based Computers ranging In Human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for " window, icon, menu, Pointing device " denoting a style of interaction RISC OS refers to the three buttons (from left to right) as
Select functions in the same way as the "Primary" mouse button in other operating systems.
Menu will bring up a context-sensitive menu appropriate for the position of the mouse pointer, and this often provides the only means of activating this menu. This menu in most applications equates to the "Application Menu" found at the top of the screen in Mac OS, and underneath the window title under Microsoft Windows.
Adjust serves for selecting multiple items in the "Filer" desktop, and for altering parameters of objects within applications — although its exact function usually depends on the programmer.
Aftermarket manufacturers have long built mice with five or more buttons. Depending on the user's preferences and software environment, the extra buttons may allow forward and backward web-navigation, scrolling through a browser's history, or other functions, including mouse related functions like quick-changing the mouse's resolution/sensitivity. In Computer graphics, Movies, Television, and other kinetic displays scrolling is sliding text images or video across a monitor or display As with similar features in keyboards, however, not all software supports these functions. In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys The additional buttons become especially useful in computer games, where quick and easy access to a wide variety of functions (for example, weapon-switching in first-person shooters) can give a player an advantage. A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather A first-person shooter ( FPS) is an action Video game from the Shooter game The initial development of Maze War Because software can map mouse-buttons to virtually any function, keystroke, application or switch, extra buttons can make working with such a mouse more efficient and easier.
In the matter of the number of buttons, Douglas Engelbart favored the view "as many as possible". Dr Douglas C Engelbart (born January 30 1925 is an American Inventor. The prototype that popularised the idea of three buttons as standard had that number only because "we could not find anywhere to fit any more switches".
The scroll wheel, a notably different form of mouse-button, consists of a small wheel that the user can rotate to provide immediate one-dimensional input. A scroll wheel (or mouse wheel) is a hard Plastic or Rubbery disc (the " Wheel " on a Computer mouse that is perpendicular Usually, this input translates into "scrolling" up or down within the active window or GUI-element. In Computing, a window is a visual area usually rectangular in shape containing some kind of User interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one The wheel is often - but not always - engineered to turn in short steps, rather than continuously, to allow the operator to more easily intuit how far they are scrolling. The scroll wheel nearly always includes a third (center) button, activated by pushing the wheel down into the mouse.
The scroll wheel can provide convenience, especially when navigating a long document. In conjunction with the control key (Ctrl), the mouse wheel may often be used for zooming in and out; applications that support this feature include Adobe Reader, Microsoft Word, Internet Explorer, Opera, Mozilla Firefox and Mulberry. Adobe Acrobat is a family of computer programs developed by Adobe Systems, designed to view create manipulate and manage files in Adobe's Portable Document Microsoft Word is Microsoft 's flagship word processing software. Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE) commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical Opera is a Web browser and Internet suite developed by the Opera Software company Mulberry is a formerly proprietary now Open sourced E-mail client marketed by Cyrusoft from approximately 1995 to 2005 Some applications also allow the user to scroll left and right by pressing the shift key while using the mouse wheel. The shift key is a Modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate "upper" characters
Manufacturers may refer to scroll-wheels by different names for branding purposes; Genius, for example, usually brand their scroll-wheel-equipped products "Netscroll". Genius is a company founded in 1983, with headquarters in Taiwan and branch offices in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany A scroll wheel (or mouse wheel) is a hard Plastic or Rubbery disc (the " Wheel " on a Computer mouse that is perpendicular
Mouse Systems introduced the scroll-wheel commercially in 1995, marketing it as the Mouse Systems ProAgio and Genius EasyScroll. Mouse Systems Corporation, formerly Rodent Associates, was founded in 1982 by Steve Kirsch, inventor of the Optical mouse. Genius is a company founded in 1983, with headquarters in Taiwan and branch offices in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany However, mainstream adoption of the scroll wheel mouse did not occur until Microsoft released the Microsoft IntelliMouse in 1996. It became a commercial success in 1997 when their Microsoft Office application suite and their Internet Explorer browser started supporting its wheel-scrolling feature. Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications servers and services collectively referred to as an Office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE) commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a  Since then the scroll wheel has become a standard feature of many mouse models.
Some mouse models have two wheels, or wheels that can be moved sideways (such as the MX Revolution), separately assigned to horizontal and vertical scrolling. The Logitech MX Revolution is a wireless laser mouse manufactured by Logitech and released in 2006 Designs exist which make use of a "rocker" button instead of a wheel — a pivoting button that a user can press at the top or bottom, simulating "up" and "down" respectively. A peculiar early example was a mouse by Saitek which had a joystick-style hatswitch on it. Saitek is a designer and manufacturer of Consumer electronics founded in 1979 by Swiss Eric Winkler
A more recent form of mouse wheel is the tilt-wheel. Tilt wheels are essentially conventional mouse wheels that have been modified with a pair of sensors articulated to the tilting mechanism. These sensors are mapped, by default, to horizontal scrolling.
A third variety of built-in scrolling device, the scroll ball, essentially consists of a trackball embedded in the upper surface of the mouse. A trackball is a Pointing device consisting of a Ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes&mdashlike an upside-down The user can scroll in all possible directions in very much the same way as with the actual mouse, and in some mice, can use it as a trackball. A trackball is a Pointing device consisting of a Ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes&mdashlike an upside-down Mice featuring a scroll ball include Apple's Mighty Mouse and the IOGEAR 4D Web Cruiser Optical Scroll Ball Mouse. Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics The Apple Mighty Mouse is a multi-button USB or Bluetooth mouse manufactured and sold by Apple Inc IBM's ergonomics laboratory designed a mouse with a pointing stick in it, envisioned to be used for scrolling, zooming or (with appropriate software) controlling a second mouse cursor. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology The pointing stick (trademarked by IBM as the TrackPoint & by Synaptics as the Touchstyk) is an isometric joystick used as a Pointing device
The computer industry often measures mouse sensitivity in terms of counts per inch (CPI), commonly expressed less correctly as dots per inch (DPI) — the number of steps the mouse will report when it moves one inch. In early mice, this specification was called pulses per inch (ppi).  If the default mouse-tracking condition involves moving the pointer by one screen-pixel or dot on-screen per reported step, then the CPI does equate to DPI: dots of pointer motion per inch of mouse motion. The CPI or DPI as reported by manufacturers depends on how they make the mouse; the higher the CPI, the faster the pointer moves with mouse movement. However, software can adjust the mouse sensitivity, making the cursor move faster or slower than its DPI. Current software can change the speed of the pointer dynamically, taking into account the mouse's absolute speed and the movement from the last stop-point. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Different software may name the settings "acceleration" or "speed" — referring respectively to "threshold" and "pointer precision".
For simple software, when the mouse starts to move, the software will count the number of "counts" received from the mouse and will move the pointer across the screen by that number of pixels (or multiplied by a factor f1=1,2,3). So, the pointer will move slowly on the screen, having a good precision. When the movement of the mouse reaches the value set for "threshold", the software will start to move the pointer more quickly; thus for each number n of counts received from the mouse, the pointer may move (f2 x n) pixels, where f2=2,3. . . 10. Usually, the user can set the value of f2 by changing the "acceleration" setting.
Operating systems sometimes apply acceleration, referred to as "ballistics", to the motion reported by the mouse. Ballistics ( gr βάλλειν ('ba'llein' "throw" is the science of Mechanics that deals with the motion behavior and effects of Projectiles For example, versions of Windows prior to Windows XP doubled reported values above a configurable threshold, and then optionally doubled them again above a second configurable threshold. Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Windows XP is a family of 32-bit and 64-bit Operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and These doublings applied separately in the X and Y directions, resulting in very nonlinear response. This article describes the use of the term nonlinearity in mathematics For example one can see how the things work in Microsoft Windows NT. Starting with Windows XP OS version of Microsoft and many OS versions for Apple Macintosh, computers use a smoother ballistics calculation that compensates for screen-resolution and has better linearity. Windows XP is a family of 32-bit and 64-bit Operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc The display resolution of a Digital television or Computer display typically refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed
Englebart's original mouse did not require a mousepad; the mouse had two large wheels which could roll on virtually any surface. A mousepad (sometimes mouse pad, mousemat, or mouse mat) is a surface for enhancing the Usability of a Computer mouse. However, most subsequent mice starting with the steel roller ball mouse have needed mousepads in order to perform effectively.
The mousepad, the most common mouse accessory, appears most commonly in conjunction with mechanical mice, because in order to roll smoothly, the ball requires more friction than common desk surfaces usually provide. So-called "hard mousepads" for gamers or optical/laser mice also exist.
Although most optical and laser mice do not require a pad, some users find that using a mousepad provides more comfort and less jitter of the pointer on the display. Whether to use a hard or soft mousepad with an optical mouse is largely a matter of personal preference. One exception occurs when the desk surface creates problems for the optical or laser tracking, for example, a transparent or reflective surface. Other cases may involve keeping desk or table surfaces free of scratches and deterioration; when the grain pattern on the surface causes inaccurate tracking of the pointer, or when the mouse-user desires a more comfortable mousing surface to work on and reduced collection of debris under the mouse.
Mouse foot-covers (or foot-pads) consists of low-friction or polished plastic. This makes the mouse glide with less resistance over a surface. Some higher quality models have teflon feet to reduce friction even further. In Chemistry, poly(tetrafluoroethene or poly(tetrafluoroethylene ( PTFE) is a synthetic Fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications
Around 1981 Xerox included mice with its Xerox Star, based on the mouse used in the 1970s on the Alto computer at Xerox PARC. The Star Workstation, officially known as the Xerox 8010 Information System, was introduced PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc formerly Xerox PARC, is a Research and development company in Palo Alto California that began as a division of Sun Microsystems, Symbolics, Lisp Machines Inc. Sun Microsystems Inc ( is a multinational vendor of Computers computer components Computer software, and Information technology services Symbolics is a privately held company that acquired the assets of the now-defunct Computer manufacturer Symbolics Inc Lisp Machines Inc was a company formed in 1979 by Richard Greenblatt of MIT 's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to build Lisp machines , and Tektronix also shipped workstations with mice, starting in about 1981. Tektronix Inc is a North American company best known for its test and measurement equipment such as Oscilloscopes Logic analyzers, and video and mobile Later, inspired by the Star, Apple Computer released the Apple Lisa, which also used a mouse. Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics For the MOS 6502 assembler for Apple II computers see Lisa assembler. However, none of these products achieved large-scale success. Only with the release of the Apple Macintosh in 1984 did the mouse see widespread use. Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc
The Macintosh design, commercially successful and technically influential, led many other vendors to begin producing mice or including them with their other computer products (in 1985, Atari ST, Commodore Amiga, Windows 1. 0, and GEOS for the Commodore 64). The widespread adoption of graphical user interfaces in the software of the 1980s and 1990s made mice all but indispensable for controlling computers.
Mice often function as an interface for PC-based computer games and sometimes for video game consoles. A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. They often appear in combination with the keyboard. In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys
Due to the cursor-like nature of the crosshairs in shooter games, a combination of mouse and keyboard provides a popular way to play first-person shooter (FPS) games. A first-person shooter ( FPS) is an action Video game from the Shooter game The initial development of Maze War Players use the X-axis of the mouse for looking (or turning) left and right, leaving the Y-axis for looking up and down. The left button usually controls primary fire. Many gamers prefer this over a gamepad or joystick because it allows them to look around easily, quickly and accurately and also as a consequence aim without auto-aim assist. A gamepad, also called joypad or control pad, is a type of Game controller held in the hand where the digits (especially thumbs are used to provide input A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling If the game supports multiple fire-modes, the right button often provides secondary fire from the selected weapon. Secondary weapons include grenades, knives, etc. The right button may also provide bonus options for a particular weapon, such as allowing access to the scope of a sniper rifle or allowing the mounting of a bayonet or silencer or sometimes even jumping.
Gamers can use a scroll wheel for changing weapons, or for controlling scope-zoom magnification. On most FPS games, programming may also assign more functions to additional buttons on mice with more than three controls. A keyboard usually controls movement (for example, WASD, for moving forward, left, backward and right, respectively) and other functions such as changing posture. Since the mouse serves for aiming, a mouse that tracks movement accurately and with less lag (latency) will give a player an advantage over players with less accurate or slower mice.
An early technique of players, circle-strafing, saw a player continuously strafing while aiming and shooting at an opponent by walking in circle around the opponent with the opponent at the center of the circle. Players could achieve this by holding down a key for strafing while continuously aiming the mouse towards the opponent.
Games using mice for input have such a degree of popularity that many manufacturers, such as Logitech, and Razer USA Ltd, make peripherals such as mice and keyboards specifically for gaming. Logitech International SA ( SWX: LOGN,) headquartered in Romanel-sur-Morges, Switzerland, is the Holding company for Logitech Such devices frequently feature (in the case of mice) adjustable weights, high-resolution optical or laser components, additional buttons, ergonomic shape, and other features such as adjustable DPI. In Computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses)
Many games, such as first- or third-person shooters, have a setting named "invert mouse" or similar (not to be confused with "button inversion", sometimes performed by left-handed users) which allows the user to look downward by moving the mouse forward and upward by moving the mouse backward (the opposite of non-inverted movement). This control system resembles that of aircraft control sticks, where pulling back causes pitch up and pushing forward causes pitch down; computer joysticks also typically emulate this control-configuration. A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling
After id Software's Doom, the game that popularized FPS games but which did not support vertical aiming with a mouse (the y-axis served for forward/backward movement), competitor 3D Realms' Duke Nukem 3D became one of the first games that supported using the mouse to aim up and down. id Software (ɪd officially is an American computer game developer based in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. Doom (officially cased DOOM) is a 1993 Computer game by Id Software that is a landmark title in the First-person shooter 3D Realms (legal name Apogee Software Ltd) is the name of a video and computer game producer (not publisher and developer based in Garland Texas, a suburb of Duke Nukem 3D is a First-person shooter computer game developed by 3D Realms and published by Apogee Software. It and other games using the Build engine had an option to invert the Y-axis. The Build engine is a First-person shooter engine created by Ken Silverman for 3D Realms. The "invert" feature actually made the mouse behave in a manner that users now regard as non-inverted (by default, moving mouse forward resulted in looking down). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Soon after, id Software released Quake, which introduced the invert feature as users now know it. Quake is a First-person shooter Computer game that was released by Id Software on June 22, 1996. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Other games using the Quake engine have come on the market following this standard, likely due to the overall popularity of Quake. The Quake engine is the Game engine that was written to power 1996's Quake, written by Id Software.
In 1988 the educational video game system, the VTech Socrates, featured a wireless mouse with an attached mouse pad as an optional controller used for some games. The VTech Socrates was an educational Video game console released in 1988 by VTech. In the early 1990s the Super Nintendo Entertainment System video game system featured a mouse in addition to its controllers. The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit Video game console that was The Super NES Mouse is a peripheral released by Nintendo in 1992 for the Super Nintendo video game system (SNES The Mario Paint game in particular used the mouse's capabilities, as did its successor on the N64. Mario Paint (マリオペイント Mario Peinto) is a Video game created by Nintendo for use with the Super Nintendo Entertainment System The, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo 's third home Video game console for the international market Sega later released an official mouse for their Dreamcast console, which was compatible with a small number games such as Quake 3. Sony Computer Entertainment released an official mouse product for the PlayStation console, and included one along with the Linux for PlayStation 2 kit. ( SCEI) is a Japanese Video game company specializing in a variety of areas in the video game industry mostly in Video game consoles and is a full The PlayStation (abbreviated PS, PSone, PS1, or informally as PSX) is a 32-bit fifth generation Video game console Linux for PlayStation 2 is a kit released by Sony Computer Entertainment in 2002 that allows the PlayStation 2 console to be used as a Personal computer However, users can attach virtually any USB mouse to the PlayStation 2 console. In addition the PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 also support USB mice. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS. Recently the Wii also has this latest development added on in a recent software update.