In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch, brennig or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through a range. A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys On the route through the range, it is locally the highest point on the route. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have always presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war and migration. Travel is the change in location of people on a trip through the means of Transport from one location to another Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units
Topographically, a pass has the general form of a saddle between two mountains (the elevation as a function of two position coordinates is mathematically a saddle point). Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets A saddle surface is a Smooth surface containing one or more Saddle points The term derives of the peculiar shape of historical Saddles evolved In Mathematics, a saddle point is a point in the domain of a function of two variables which is a Stationary point but not a Local extremum They are often found just above the source of a river, constituting a sort of "bridge" over to the headwaters of a different river. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there Passes may be very short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or valleys of many kilometers, whose highest point is only identifiable by surveying. Slope is used to describe the steepness incline gradient or grade of a straight line. In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space Position of points and the distances and angles between
Roads have long been built through passes, and more recently railways. A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath, so as allow faster traffic flow year-round. A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon
The top of a pass is frequently the only flat ground in the area, a high vantage point, so it is often a preferred site for buildings. For countries whose borders are delimited by a mountain range, the pass is typically part of the border, and the facilities likely include a border control or customs station, and possibly a military post as well. Border controls are measures used by a Country to monitor or regulate its Borders The control of the flow of people animals and goods across a border may be controlled Customs is an Authority or agency in a Country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods For passes with roads, it is also customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The term above mean sea level ( AMSL) refers to the Elevation (on the ground or Altitude (in the Air) of any object relative to the
There are thousands of named passes around the world; some are familiar names, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass (2,473 m) in the Alps, the Khyber Pass (1,027 m) between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and the Khardung La (5,359 m) in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Great St Bernard Pass ( Fr Col du Grand-Saint-Bernard, It Colle del Gran San Bernardo) is the most ancient pass through The Khyber Pass, (also spelled Khaiber or Khaybar (درہ خیبر (altitude  m   ft is the Mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Khardung La ( la means pass in Tibetan) (elevation 5359 m is a high Mountain pass located in the Ladakh region Jammu and ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
The world's highest motorable pass may be the little known Marsimik La (5,590 meters) in India near the Chinese border. Marsimik La, elevation, is a high Mountain pass in the Chang-Chemno Range in northern India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Marsimek-La Pass is on the northern-most tip of the Changthang Plateau.
The word gap is more commonly used in the southern Appalachians, while notch is more common in New England. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the
In Scotland, the Gaelic term bealach (anglicised "Balloch") is often used. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages.
In the Lake District of north west England, the term hause is often used, although the term pass is also common. One distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is simply that highest part, often flattened somewhat into a high level plateau. In most cases, the formal term will be that which has been used locally over a long period.
As well as allowing easier access between two valleys, a pass also similarly provides the route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent, making it important also to hikers. Because of these advantages, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass, making them often convenient routes even when travelling between a summit and the valley floor.
Argentina and Chile share the world's third longest international border, 5. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the 300 km long, running from north to the south through the Andes mountains. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. They share 42 mountain passes between them. (see list)