A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area, with a peak. Mount Damāvand ( also known as Donbavand, is a Dormant volcano and the highest peak in Iran with a special place in the Persian mythology For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Blue Ridge, or Blue Ridge Mountains, is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit. Mountains cover 64% of Asia, 36% of North America, 25% of Europe, 22% of South America, 17% of Australia, and 3% of Africa. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. As a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. 10% of people live in mountainous regions. Most of the world's rivers are fed from mountain sources, and more than half of humanity depends on mountains for water. 
The adjective montane is used to describe mountainous areas and things associated with them.
Some authorities define a mountain as a peak with a topographic prominence over a defined value: for example, according to the Britannica Student Encyclopedia, the term "generally refers to rises over 2,000 feet (610 m)". Ben Nevis ( Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis, peˈɲivəʃ is the highest mountain in the British Isles. This article is about a mountain range in Scotland for other uses see Grampians. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit  The Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, does not prescribe any height, merely stating that "the term has no standardized geological meaning". The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc 
In England and Wales the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has defined "mountain" (as a mass noun) as all land over 600 metres for the purposes of right to roam legislation. History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception The Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs ( Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection In Linguistics, a mass noun (also uncountable noun or non-count noun) is a common Noun that presents entities as an unbounded mass The Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 is a UK Act of Parliament which came into force on November 30, 2000. This is a close metric equivalent of 2,000 feet (610 m).  The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 does not appear to draw this distinction, and in Scotland the term "mountain" is more subjective, often being used for hills exceeding 3,000 feet (914. The Land Reform (Scotland Act 2003 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. 4 m) listed as Munros. A Munro is a Scottish mountain with a height over 3000 feet (914 In the United Kingdom the term "hill" is commonly used for all hills and mountains, regardless of height.
In the United States, the U.S. Board on Geographic Names lists hundreds of landscape features under 1,000 feet (305 m) (some as low as 100 feet) named as "mountains. The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN is a United States federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International " This is true for all parts of the United States, including the west coast where such lofty ranges as the Cascade Mountains dominate. And yet the Board does not attempt to distinguish between such features as mountains, hills, or other prominences, and simply categorizes all of them as summit, regardless of what they are called or how high they are. However, the Board does list and categorize such low mountain ranges as the Mount Tom Range (with a high point of 1,200 feet; 366 m) as range. The Mount Tom Range is a Traprock mountain range located in the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts. 
The height of a mountain is measured as the elevation of its summit above mean sea level. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface The Himalayas average 5 km above sea level, while the Andes average 4 km. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The highest mountain on land is Everest, 8,848 metres (29,030 ft) in the Himalayas. Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in
Other definitions of height are possible. The peak that is farthest from the center of the Earth is Chimborazo in Ecuador. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 The inactive Stratovolcano Chimborazo (tʃimboˈraso is Ecuador's highest summit For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. At 6,267 metres (20,560 ft) above sea level it is not even the tallest peak in the Andes, but because Chimborazo is very close to the equator and the Earth bulges at the equator, it is 2,150 metres (7,100 ft) further away from the Earth's center than Everest. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the  The peak that rises farthest from its base is Mauna Kea on Hawaii, whose peak is 10,200 metres (33,500 ft) above its base on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. Mauna Kea is a Dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the Island of Hawaii. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions 
Even though Everest is the highest mountain on Earth today, there have been much taller mountains in the past. During the Precambrian era, the Canadian Shield once had mountains 12,000 m (39,370 ft) in height that are now eroded down into rolling hills. The Precambrian ( Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the Geologic timescale that came before the current An era is a commonly used word for long period of time When used in science for example geology eras denote clearly defined periods of time of arbitrary but well defined The Canadian Shield &mdash also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier Canadien (French &mdash is a large geological shield covered by These formed by the collision of tectonic plates much like the Himalaya and the Rocky Mountains. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America.
At 26 kilometres (85,000 ft) (Fraknoi et al. , 2004), the tallest known mountain in the solar system is Olympus Mons, located on Mars and is an ancient volcano. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Olympus Mons ( Latin for "Mount Olympus" is the highest known Volcano and Mountain in the Solar System. Volcanoes have been known to erupt on other planets and moons in our solar system in our life-times (volcanoes on Venus for example, constantly erupt) and some of them erupt ice instead of lava. Several years ago, the Hale telescope recorded the first known live images of a volcano erupting on a moon in our solar system.
High mountains, and mountains located closer to the Earth's poles, have elevations that exist in colder layers of the atmosphere. They are consequently often subject to glaciation and erosion through frost action. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Such processes produce the popularly recognizable mountain peak shape. A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a Mountaintop that has been modified by the action of Ice during Some of these mountains have glacial lakes, created by melting glaciers; for example, there are an estimated 3,000 glacial lakes in Bhutan. A glacial lake is a Lake with origins in a melted Glacier. Glacial lakes can be green as a result of pulverized minerals ( Rock flour) that support The Kingdom of Bhutan (buːˈtɑːn is a Landlocked nation in South Asia.
Sufficiently tall mountains have very different climatic conditions at the top than at the base, and will thus have different life zones at different altitudes. The Life Zone concept was developed by C Hart Merriam in 1889 as a means of describing areas with similar Plant and Animal communities The flora and fauna found in these zones tend to become isolated since the conditions above and below a particular zone will be inhospitable to those organisms. These isolated ecological systems are known as sky islands and/or microclimates. For the fantasy novel by L Frank Baum, see Sky Island (novel. A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the Climate differs from the surrounding area Tree forests are forests on mountain sides which attract moisture from the trees, creating a unique ecosystem. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Very tall mountains may be covered in ice or snow.
Mountains are colder than lower ground, because the Sun heats Earth from the ground up. The Sun's radiation travels through the atmosphere to the ground, where Earth absorbs the heat. Air closest to the Earth's surface is, in general, warmest (see lapse rate for details). The lapse rate is defined as the negative of the rate of change in an atmospheric variable usually Temperature, with height in an atmosphere Air as high as a mountain is poorly warmed and, therefore, cold.  Air temperature normally drops 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (1. 8 to 3. 6 degrees Fahrenheit) for each 300 meters (1000 feet) of altitude.
Mountains are generally less preferable for human habitation than lowlands; the weather is often harsher, and there is little level ground suitable for agriculture. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture At very high altitudes, there is less oxygen in the air and less protection against solar radiation (UV). Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Acute mountain sickness (caused by hypoxia - a lack of oxygen in the blood) affects over half of lowlanders who spend more than a few hours above 3,500 meters (11,483 feet). Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness ( AMS) altitude illness, or soroche, is a pathological condition that is caused by acute Chronic Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole ( generalized hypoxia) or region of the body ( tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate
A number of mountains and mountain ranges of the world have been left in their natural state, and are today primarily used for recreation, while others are used for logging, mining, grazing, or see little use of any sort at all. Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's Body or Mind. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular Some mountains offer spectacular views from their summits, while others are densely wooded. Summit accessibility ranges from mountain to mountain; height, steepness, latitude, terrain, weather, and the presence or lack thereof of roads, lifts, or tramways are all factors that affect accessibility. A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. The term ski lift can refer to many different types of uphill transport in three main classes Lift systems and networks The network lifts at a Ski An aerial tramway is a type of Aerial lift in which a cabin is suspended from a cable and is pulled by another cable Hiking, backpacking, mountaineering, rock climbing, ice climbing, downhill skiing, and snowboarding are recreational activities typically enjoyed on mountains. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage Backpacking (in US tramping, trekking, or bushwalking in other countries combines Hiking and camping in a single “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of Rock climbing is a Sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls with the goal of reaching the Ice climbing, as the term indicates is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations The downhill is an Alpine skiing discipline The rules for the downhill were originally developed by Sir Arnold Lunn for the 1921 British National Ski Championships Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a Snow -covered slope on a Snowboard attached to a participant's feet using a special boot set into a mounted binding Mountains that support heavy recreational use (especially downhill skiing) are often the locations of mountain resorts. A ski area is a developed recreational facility usually on a Mountain or large Hill, containing ski trails and vital supporting services
Mountains can be characterized in several ways. "Cervino" redirects here For the Italian town see Cervino (CE. A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a Mountaintop that has been modified by the action of Ice during Some mountains are volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Other mountains are shaped by glacial processes and can be characterized by their glaciated features. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Still others are typified by the faulting and folding of the Earth's crust, or by the collision of continental plates via plate tectonics (the Himalayas, for instance). In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement See also Folding The term fold is used in Geology when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces such as Sedimentary Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Shape and placement within the overall landscape also define mountains and mountainous structures (such as butte and monadnock). A butte (bjut is an isolated Hill with steep often vertical sides and a small flat top smaller than Mesas Plateaus and tables In some A monadnock or inselberg is an isolated hill knob ridge or small Mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding Plain Finally, many mountains can be characterized by the type of rock that make up their composition. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere More information on mountain types can be found in List of mountain types. Mountains can be characterized in several ways Some mountains are Volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history
A mountain is usually produced by the movement of lithospheric plates, either orogenic movement or epeirogenic movement. Orogeny (Greek for "mountain generating" is the process of natural Mountain building and may be studied as a tectonic structural event as a geographical event and Epeirogenic or continent forming movements act along the radius of the earth The compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upwards, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire are rocks formed by solidification of cooled Magma (molten rock The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain. The absolute heights of features termed mountains and hills vary greatly according to an area's terrain. Terrain, or relief, is the third or vertical dimension of land surface. The major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Two types of mountain are formed depending on how the rock reacts to the tectonic forces – block mountains or fold mountains.
The compressional forces in continental collisions may cause the compressed region to thicken, so the upper surface is forced upwards. In order to balance the weight, much of the compressed rock is forced downwards, producing deep "mountain roots". Mountains therefore form downwards as well as upwards (see isostasy). Isostasy (Greek isos = "equal" stásis = "standstill" is a term used in Geology to refer to the state of gravitational equilibrium between the However, in some continental collisions part of one continent may simply override part of the others, crumpling in the process.
Some isolated mountains were produced by volcanoes, including many apparently small islands that reach a great height above the ocean floor. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere.
Block mountains are created when large areas are widely broken up by faults creating large vertical displacements. This occurrence is fairly common. The uplifted blocks are block mountains or horsts. This article refers to the geological form For other uses see Horst. The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults Graben is German for ditch. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range province of Western North America and the Rhine valley. Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical elements such as Landforms living elements of flora and fauna abstract elements such as lighting East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Vosges (voːʒ is a French department, named after the Vosges mountain range. Basin and range is a geologic term for a type of Topography characterized by a series of separate and parallel mountain ranges with broad valleys interposed extending The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge These areas often occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon
The mid-ocean ridges are often referred to as undersea mountain ranges due to their bathymetric prominence. A mid-ocean ridge or mid-oceanic ridge is an underwater Mountain range typically having a valley known as a Rift running along its axis formed by
Where rock does not fault it folds, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines; in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura mountains are an example of folding. Over time, erosion can bring about an inversion of relief: the soft upthrust rock is worn away so the anticlines are actually lower than the tougher, more compressed rock of the synclines.
Mount Everest, 8,848 metres (29,030 ft), Himalayas, Nepal. Users of Neo-Latin have taken the Latin language to places the Romans never went hence a need arose to make Latin names of mountains that did not exist when Latin A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys This is a list of Mountain ranges organized alphabetically by continent “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of This is a list of ski areas and resorts around the world Africa Lesotho Oxbow Maluti This is a list of Mountain peaks ordered by their Topographic prominence. Mount Everest, also called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा meaning Head of the Sky) or Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia.
Yu Shan (Jade Mountain), 3,952 metres (12,970 ft), Taiwan. Vegetation Mountain Ash forest predominantly covers the lower slopes transitioning to snowgums The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australia 's most substantial Mountain range. Pilot Mountain, a Quartzite Monadnock rising to a peak above Sea level, is one of the most distinctive natural features in the state of The Sauratown Mountains are an isolated Mountain range located within Stokes and Surry counties in the U North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. The Chic-Choc Mountains, often called Shick Shocks in English, is a group of mountains in the central Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada The Gaspésie (official name or also Gaspé Peninsula or the Gaspé is a Peninsula constituting part of the south shore of the Saint Lawrence Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Yushan ( also known as Jade Mountain or Yu Mountain, is a national park and central mountain range in Taiwan. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.
Liskamm, 4,527 metres (14,850 ft), Pennine Alps, Switzerland. Lyskamm (or Liskamm) (4527 m is a Mountain in the Alps lying on the border between Switzerland and Italy. The Pennine Alps (also Valais Alps) are a Mountain range in the western part of the Alps. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
Sugarloaf Mountain, Brazil, 396 metres (1,300 ft), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sugarloaf Mountain (in Portuguese Pão de Açúcar) is a peak situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from the mouth of Guanabara Bay Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld