Mount Rainier as viewed from the northeast.
|Elevation||14,411 ft (4,392 m)|
|Location||Washington State, USA|
|Prominence||13,210 ft (4,026 m) Ranked 21st|
|Topo map||USGS Mount Rainier West|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Cascade Volcanic Arc|
|Age of rock||500,000 years|
|First ascent||1870 by Hazard Stevens and P. B. Van Trump|
|Easiest route||rock/ice climb via Disappointment Cleaver|
Mount Rainier is an active stratovolcano (also known as a composite volcano) in Pierce County, Washington, located 54 miles (87 km) southeast of Seattle, Washington, in the United States. In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys This is a list of Mountain peaks ordered by their Topographic prominence. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A topographic map is a type of Map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using Contour lines in modern The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. Mountains can be characterized in several ways Some mountains are Volcanoes and can be characterized by the type of lava and eruptive history A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or Mountains formed by Plate tectonics as an oceanic Tectonic plate subducts under A volcanic belt is a large volcanically active region Other terms are used for smaller areas of activity such as volcanic fields Volcanic belts are found above zones The Cascade Volcanoes (also known as the Cascade Volcanic Arc or the Cascade Arc) are a number of Volcanoes in a Volcanic arc in western The geologic time scale is a chronologic schema (or idealized Model) relating Stratigraphy to time that is used by Geologists and other Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year In Climbing, a first ascent (FA is the first modern recorded climb to reach the top of a Mountain, or the first to follow a particular Climbing route Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Hazard Stevens (9 June 1842 &ndash 11 October 1918 was an American military officer mountaineer politician and writer Philemon Beecher Van Trump (1839&ndash1916 also known as P B Van Trump, was a pioneering mountaineer and writer who lived in Washington, United States A climbing route is a path by which a climber reaches the top of a Mountain, rock or ice wall A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic Pierce County is the second most populous county in the US state of Washington. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It is the highest peak in the Cascade Range and Cascade Volcanic Arc at 14,411 feet (4,392 m). The Cascade Volcanoes (also known as the Cascade Volcanic Arc or the Cascade Arc) are a number of Volcanoes in a Volcanic arc in western The mountain and the surrounding area are protected within Mount Rainier National Park. Mount Rainier National Park is a United States National Park located in southeast Pierce County and northeast Lewis County in Washington With 26 major glaciers, Mount Rainier is the most heavily glaciated peak in the lower 48 states with 35 square miles (91 km²) of permanent snowfields and glaciers. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Snowfield is also a former name of the UK indie rock band Editors A snow field (also called a snowfield) is an extensive Terrain "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. The summit is topped by two volcanic craters, each over 1,000 feet (300 m) in diameter with the larger east crater overlapping the west crater. A volcanic crater is a circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity Geothermal heat from the volcano keeps areas of both crater rims free of snow and ice, and has formed an extensive network of glacier caves within the ice-filled craters. In Geology, geothermal refers to heat sources within the planet Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the A glacier cave is a Cave formed within the Ice of a Glacier. Glacier caves are often called Ice caves, but this term is properly used to describe A small crater lake, the highest in North America, occupies the lowest portion of the west crater below more than 160 feet (50 m) of ice and is accessible only via the caves. Crater Lake is a Caldera Lake located in the US state of Oregon.
Mount Rainier was originally known as Talol, or Tahoma, from the Lushootseed word təqʷúʔbəʔ ("mother of waters") spoken by the Puyallup. Lushootseed (also xʷəlšucid, dxʷləšúcid, Puget Salish, Puget Sound Salish, Skagit-Nisqually) is the language or Dialect The Puyallup are a Native American tribe from western Washington state U It has a topographic prominence of 13,210 feet (4,026 m), greater than that of K2. K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest) It is a prominent feature of the southern landscape in most of the Seattle metropolitan area. On clear days, it can also be seen from as far away as Portland, Oregon, and Victoria, British Columbia. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers Victoria (vɪkˈtɔɹiə is the capital city of British Columbia. Because of its scenic dominance, Seattle-Tacoma-area residents sometimes refer to it simply as "the Mountain. " 
The Carbon, Puyallup, Mowich, Nisqually, and Cowlitz Rivers begin at eponymous glaciers of Mount Rainier. The Carbon River is a River in the US state of Washington. It flows about 30 miles (48 km from its source, the Carbon Glacier The Puyallup River (pronounced pyoo-AL-uhp) is a River in the U The Mowich River is a River in the US state of Washington. Its watershed drains a portion of the western side of Mount Rainier, The Nisqually River (nɪskwɑːli is a river in west central Washington in the United States, approximately 81 mi (130 km long The Cowlitz River is a River in the state of Washington in the United States, a Tributary of the Columbia River. The sources of the White River are Winthrop, Emmons, and Fryingpan Glaciers. The White River is a River in the US state of Washington. It flows about 75 miles (121 km from its source the Emmons Glacier on Mount The Winthrop Glacier is a large Glacier on the northeastern side of Mount Rainier in Washington. Emmons Glacier is a Glacier on the northeast flank of Mount Rainier, in Washington. The Fryingpan Glacier is a medium-sized Glacier on the eastern face of the Little Tahoma Peak just to the east of Mount Rainier in Washington The White, Carbon, and Mowich join the Puyallup River, which discharges into Commencement Bay at Tacoma; the Nisqually empties into Puget Sound east of Lacey; and the Cowlitz joins the Columbia River between Kelso and Longview. Commencement Bay is a Bay of Puget Sound in the US state of Washington. Puget Sound (ˈpjuːʤᵻt is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest Lacey is a city in Thurston County, Washington, United States. The Columbia River (known as Kelso is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. Longview is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States.
Mount Rainier's earliest lavas are over 840,000 years old and are part of the Lily Formation (2. Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures 9 million to 840,000 years ago). The early lavas formed a "proto-Rainier" or an ancestral cone prior to the present-day cone. The present cone is over 500,000 years old.  The volcano is highly eroded, with glaciers on its slopes, and appears to be made mostly of andesite. For the extinct cephalopod genus see Andesites. Andesite (ˈændəsaɪt is an igneous, Volcanic rock, of intermediate Rainier likely once stood even higher than today at about 16,000 feet (4,900 m) before a major debris avalanche and the resulting Osceola Mudflow 5,000 years ago. This article refers to the natural event For other uses see Avalanche (disambiguation An avalanche is an abrupt and rapid flow of snow often
In the past, Rainier has had large debris avalanches, and has also produced enormous lahars (volcanic mudflows) due to the large amount of glacial ice present. A lahar is a type of Mudflow / Landslide composed of Pyroclastic material and Water that flows down from a Volcano, typically Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Mudslide redirects here it is also the name of a cocktail. A mudflow or mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h / 50 mph Its lahars have reached all the way to the Puget Sound. A lahar is a type of Mudflow / Landslide composed of Pyroclastic material and Water that flows down from a Volcano, typically Puget Sound (ˈpjuːʤᵻt is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest Around 5,000 years ago, a large chunk of the volcano slid away and that debris avalanche helped to produce the massive Osceola Mudflow, which went all the way to the site of present-day Tacoma and south Seattle.  This massive avalanche of rock and ice took out the top 1,600 feet (500 m) of Rainier, bringing its height down to around 14,100 feet (4,300 m). About 530 to 550 years ago, the Electron Mudflow occurred, although this was not as large-scale as the Osceola Mudflow.
After the major collapse 5,000 years ago, subsequent eruptions of lava and tephra built up the modern summit cone until about as recently as 1,000 years ago. As many as 11 Holocene tephra layers have been found. The Holocene is a Geological epoch which began approximately 10000 years ago (about 8000 BC
The most recent recorded volcanic eruption was between 1820 and 1854, but many eyewitnesses reported eruptive activity in 1858, 1870, 1879, 1882 and 1894 as well.  As of 2008, there is no imminent risk of eruption, but geologists expect that the volcano will erupt again.
Lahars from Rainier pose the most risk to life and property, as many communities lie atop older lahar deposits. A lahar is a type of Mudflow / Landslide composed of Pyroclastic material and Water that flows down from a Volcano, typically Not only is there much ice atop the volcano, the volcano is also slowly being weakened by hydrothermal activity. According to Geoff Clayton, a geologist with RH2, a repeat of the Osceola mudflow would destroy Enumclaw, Kent, Auburn, and most or all of Renton. Enumclaw is a city in King County, Washington, United States. Kent is a city located in King County Washington, United States. Auburn is a city of 67732 (2008 located in the US state of Washington, in King County with some spill-over Renton is a city in King County, Washington, United States. A suburb situated 13 miles (21 km southeast of Seattle Washington, Renton  Such a mudflow might also reach down the Duwamish estuary and destroy parts of downtown Seattle, and cause tsunamis in Puget Sound and Lake Washington. The Duwamish River is the name of the lower 12 miles (19 km of Washington state's Green River. Downtown is the Central business district of Seattle, Washington. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when Puget Sound (ˈpjuːʤᵻt is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest Lake Washington is the second largest natural Lake in state of Washington (after Lake Chelan) and the largest lake in King County. According to USGS, about 150,000 people live on top of old lahar deposits of Rainier. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government.  Rainier is also capable of producing pyroclastic flows as well as lava. A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current) is a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions.
Mount Rainier was first known by the Native Americans as Talol, Tahoma, or Tacoma, from the Lushootseed word təqʷúʔbəʔ ("mother of waters") spoken by the Puyallup. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Lushootseed (also xʷəlšucid, dxʷləšúcid, Puget Salish, Puget Sound Salish, Skagit-Nisqually) is the language or Dialect The Puyallup are a Native American tribe from western Washington state U At the time of European contact, the river valleys and other areas near the mountain were inhabited by many Pacific Northwest tribes who hunted and gathered berries in the forests and mountain meadows. The Pacific Northwest is a region in the northwest of North America (the term refers to the land not the ocean These included the Nisqually, Cowlitz, Yakama, Puyallup, and Muckleshoot. For other uses see Nisqually. Nisqually is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United The Cowlitz are a group of Native American peoples from what is now western Washington state in the United States. The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, or simply Yakama Nation (formerly Yakima) is a Native American group with nearly 10000 enrolled The Puyallup are a Native American tribe from western Washington state U The Muckleshoot are a Native American tribe descended from the Coast Salish people of the Pacific Northwest
Captain George Vancouver reached Puget Sound in 1792 and became the first European to see the mountain. Captain George Vancouver Puget Sound (ˈpjuːʤᵻt is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest He named it in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. Rear admiral is a Naval Commissioned officer rank above that of a Commodore and Captain, and below that of a Vice Admiral. Peter Rainier may be one of two British naval officers Peter Rainier junior (1741-1808 Peter Rainier (1784-1836 
In 1833, Dr. William Fraser Tolmie explored the area looking for medicinal plants. William Fraser Tolmie (aka "Dr Tolmie") ( February 3, 1812 &ndash December 8, 1886) was a Canadian Surgeon He was followed by other explorers seeking challenge. Hazard Stevens and P. B. Van Trump received a hero's welcome in the streets of Olympia after their successful summit climb in 1870. Hazard Stevens (9 June 1842 &ndash 11 October 1918 was an American military officer mountaineer politician and writer Philemon Beecher Van Trump (1839&ndash1916 also known as P B Van Trump, was a pioneering mountaineer and writer who lived in Washington, United States Olympia is the Capital of Washington and is the County seat of Thurston County.  John Muir climbed Mount Rainier in 1888, and although he enjoyed the view, he conceded that it was best appreciated from below. John Muir ( April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was a Scottish -born American Naturalist, author and early Muir was one of many who advocated protecting the mountain. In 1893, the area was set aside as part of the Pacific Forest Reserve in order to protect its physical/economic resources: timber and watersheds. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River,
Citing the need to also protect scenery and provide for public enjoyment, railroads and local businesses urged the creation of a national park in hopes of increased tourism. On March 2, 1899, President William McKinley established Mount Rainier National Park as America's fifth national park. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last Mount Rainier National Park is a United States National Park located in southeast Pierce County and northeast Lewis County in Washington A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Congress dedicated the new park "for the benefit and enjoyment of the people; and. . . for the preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific "
In 1998, the United States Geological Survey began putting together the Mount Rainier Volcano Lahar Warning System to assist in the emergency evacuation of the Puyallup River valley in the event of a catastrophic debris flow. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. Emergency evacuation is the movement of people from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event The Puyallup River (pronounced pyoo-AL-uhp) is a River in the U It is now run by the Pierce County Department of Emergency Management. Pierce County is the second most populous county in the US state of Washington. Tacoma, at the mouth of the Puyallup, is only 37 miles (60 km) west of Rainier, and moderately sized towns such as Puyallup and Orting are only 27 miles (43 km) and 20 miles (32 km) away, respectively. Puyallup Washington (pjuːˈɑːləp is a city in Pierce County, Washington about five miles east of Tacoma. Orting is a city located in Pierce County Washington. As of 2008 the city has a total population of 6075 according to the Washington State Office of Financial Management
Although "Rainier" had been considered the official name of the mountain, Theodore Winthrop, in his posthumously published 1862 travel book The Canoe and the Saddle, claimed the indigenous name of the mountain was "Tacoma" and afterwards, both names were used interchangeably, although "Mt. Theodore Winthrop ( September 22, 1828 &ndash June 10, 1861) was a writer lawyer and world traveler Tacoma" was preferred in the city of Tacoma. 
In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names declared that the mountain would be known as "Rainier". The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN is a United States federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic Following this in 1897, the Pacific Forest Reserve became the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve, and the national park was established three years later. Despite this, there was still a movement to change the mountain's name to "Tacoma" and Congress was still considering a resolution to change the name as late as 1924. 
After Rainier Brewing Company resumed producing "Rainier Beer" after the end of Prohibition and its advertisements became ubiquitous in the Seattle-Tacoma area, a rumor began circulating that the brewery's owner, Emil Sick, had bribed a Washington state committee with free beer to promote the name "Rainier". Rainier Brewing Company ( 1884 - 1999) was a Seattle Washington, company that brewed Rainier Beer a popular brand in the Pacific Northwest. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person This, however, is an urban legend and can still be heard today among Tacoma residents who preferred the alternate name. An urban legend or urban myth is a form of modern Folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them  Sick did, however, purchase the local baseball team and named them the Seattle Rainiers for this purpose. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each The Seattle Rainiers, originally named the Seattle Indians and also known as the Seattle Angels, were a Minor league baseball team in Seattle 
The broad top of Mount Rainier contains three named summits. The highest is called Columbia Crest. The second highest summit is Point Success, 14,158 feet (4,315 m), at the southern edge of the summit plateau, atop the ridge known as Success Cleaver. It has a topographic prominence of about 138 feet (42 m), so it is not considered a separate peak. The lowest of the three summits is Liberty Cap, 14,112 feet (4,301 m), at the northwestern edge, which overlooks Liberty Ridge, the Sunset Amphitheater, and the dramatic Willis Wall. Liberty Cap has a prominence of 492 feet (150 m), and so would qualify as a separate peak under most strictly prominence-based rules. A prominence cutoff of 400 feet (122 m) is commonly used in Washington state.  However it is not usually considered a separate peak, due to the massive size of Mount Rainier, relative to which a 492 foot (150 m) drop is not very large.
High on the eastern flank of Mount Rainier is a peak known as Little Tahoma, 11,138 feet (3,395 m), an eroded remnant of the earlier, much higher, Mount Rainier. Little Tahoma (also called Little Tahoma Peak) is a satellite peak of Mount Rainier that is quite noticeable from Seattle Washington (60 miles or It has a prominence of 858 feet (262 m), and it is almost never climbed in direct conjunction with Columbia Crest, so it is usually considered a separate peak. If considered separately from Mt. Rainier, Little Tahoma would be the third highest Mountain peak in Washington.
Mountain climbing on Mount Rainier is very difficult; it involves climbing on the largest glaciers in the U. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of S. south of Alaska. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Most climbers require two to three days to reach the summit. Climbing teams require experience in glacier travel, self-rescue, and wilderness travel. About 8,000 to 13,000 people attempt the climb each year, about 90% via routes from Camp Muir on the southeast flank.  Most of the rest ascend Emmons Glacier via Camp Schurman on the northeast. Emmons Glacier is a Glacier on the northeast flank of Mount Rainier, in Washington. About half of the attempts are successful, with weather and conditioning being the most common reasons for failure. About three mountaineering deaths each year occur due to rock and ice fall, avalanche, falls, and hypothermia associated with severe weather.
Hiking, photography, and camping are popular in the park. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped Hiking trails, including the Wonderland Trail, a 93 mile circumnavigation of the peak provide access to the backcountry. A trail is a Path or Road used for Walking, Cycling, Cross-country skiing, or other activities Mount Rainier is also popular for winter sports, including snowshoeing and cross-country skiing. A winter sport is a Sport commonly played during Winter. As a formal term it refers to a sport played on Snow or Ice, but informally can refer Development of snowshoes Origins Before humanity built snowshoes nature provided examples Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a Winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields primarily Northern Europe, In summer, visitors pass through vast meadows of wildflowers, on trails emanating from historic Paradise Inn. See also Paradise Washington Paradise Inn is a historic hotel built in 1916 at 5400 feet (1645 m on the south slope of Mount Rainier in Mount
The Washington state quarter, which was released on April 11, 2007, features Mount Rainier and a salmon. The 50 State Quarters program ( is the release of a series of commemorative coins by the United States Mint. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. 
The Open Directory Project ( ODP) also known as dmoz (from directory A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system.