Everest from Kala Patthar in Nepal
Location within Nepal on the Nepal-Tibet border
|Elevation||8,848 metres (29,029 ft)|
|Location|| Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal|
|Range||Mahalangur Himal, Himalaya|
|Prominence||8,848 m (29,029 ft)|
|First ascent||May 29, 1953|
|Easiest route||South Col (Nepal)|
Mount Everest, also called Chomolungma, Qomolangma or Zhumulangma (in Tibetan: ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ, in Chinese: 珠穆朗玛峰 Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng) or Sagarmatha (Nepali: सगरमाथा meaning Ocean Head) is the highest mountain on Earth, as measured by the height of its summit above sea level, which is 8,848 metres (29,029 feet). Kala Patthar is a Mountain in the Nepalese Himalaya. It appears as a big brown bump below the impressive south face of Pumori (7161m / 23494ft In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent Mountains on Earth that are more than above Sea level. Sagarmatha zone (सगरमाथा अञ्चल is a zone in eastern Nepal. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys The Mahalangur Himal is a subrange of the Himalayas spanning part of the border between Tibet and Nepal. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. In Climbing, a first ascent (FA is the first modern recorded climb to reach the top of a Mountain, or the first to follow a particular Climbing route Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 &ndash 11 January 2008 was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer A climbing route is a path by which a climber reaches the top of a Mountain, rock or ice wall The South Col usually refers to the southern col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the first and fourth highest mountains in the world Terrain or relief is an essential aspect of Physical geography, and as such its portrayal presents a central problem in Cartography, and more recently GIS Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used in mainland China and Taiwan Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma This article describes extreme locations on Earth. Entries listed in bold are Earth-wide extremes EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 In topography a summit is a point on a surface which is higher in Elevation than all points immediately adjacent to Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface The mountain, which is part of the Himalaya range in High Asia, is located on the border between Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal, and Tibet, China. Sagarmatha zone (सगरमाथा अञ्चल is a zone in eastern Nepal. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
In 1856, the Great Trigonometric Survey of India established the first published height of Everest at 29,002 ft (8,840 m), although at the time Everest was known as Peak XV. Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year The Great Trigonometric Survey was a project of the Survey of India throughout most of the 19th century In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon recommendation of Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India at the time. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year History Founding members of the Society include Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin and Francis Beaufort. Major General Sir Andrew Scott Waugh ( 3 February 1810 &ndash 21 February 1878) was a British army officer and surveyor The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Waugh was unable to propose an established local name due to Nepal and Tibet being closed to foreigners at the time, although Chomolungma had been in common use by Tibetans for centuries.
The highest mountain in the world attracts climbers of all levels, from well experienced mountaineers to novice climbers willing to pay substantial sums to professional mountain guides to complete a successful climb. The mountain, while not posing substantial technical climbing difficulty on the standard route (other eight-thousanders such as K2 or Nanga Parbat are much more difficult), still has many inherent dangers such as altitude sickness, weather and wind. The eight-thousanders are the fourteen independent Mountains on Earth that are more than above Sea level. K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest) Nanga Parbat ( Urdu:) is the ninth highest Mountain on Earth. By the end of the 2007 climbing season, there had been 3,679 ascents to the summit by 2,436 individuals. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. This means climbers are a significant source of tourist revenue for Nepal, whose government also requires all prospective climbers to obtain an expensive permit, costing up to US$25,000 per person. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  Everest has claimed 210 lives, including 15 who perished during a 1996 storm high on the mountain. Conditions are so difficult in the death zone that most corpses have been left where they fell, some of which are visible from standard climbing routes. The death zone, in Mountaineering, refers to Altitudes above a certain point where the amount of Oxygen cannot sustain Human life 
In 1808, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to determine the location and names of the world's highest mountains. Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Great Trigonometric Survey was a project of the Survey of India throughout most of the 19th century Starting in southern India, the survey teams gradually moved northward using giant 1100 pound (500 kg) theodolites (each requiring 12 men to carry) to measure heights as accurately as possible. A theodolite ( is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical Angles as used in Triangulation networks They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Events and trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down.
The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas. The Terai ("moist land" is a belt of marshy Grasslands Savannas and Forests at the base of the Himalaya range in India Conditions in Terai were difficult due to torrential rains and malaria — three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire due to failing health. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including
Nonetheless, in 1847, the British pressed on and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 150 mi (240 km) away. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made a number of observations from Sawajpore station located in the eastern end of the Himalayas. Events in November All Saints' Day (formerly All Hallows Day a Christian holy day is celebrated on November 1, the day after Halloween Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Major General Sir Andrew Scott Waugh ( 3 February 1810 &ndash 21 February 1878) was a British army officer and surveyor The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located At the time, Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, and with interest he noted a peak beyond it, some 140 mi (230 km) away. Kangchenjunga ( Nepali:कञ्चनजङ्घा Kanchanjaŋghā) SewaLungma ( Limbu language) is the third highest John Armstrong, one of Waugh's officials, also saw the peak from a location further west and called it peak 'b'. Waugh would later write that the observations indicated that peak 'b' was higher than Kangchenjunga, but due to the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak 'b', but clouds thwarted all attempts.
In 1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Nicolson was able to make two observations from Jirol, 118 mi (190 km) away. Nicolson then took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being 108 mi (174 km) away from the peak. 
Unknown to Nicolson, he had just completed the observations that would establish peak 'b' as the highest peak on Earth. Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations. Paṭnā ( Hindi: पटना is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent His raw data gave an average height of 30,200 ft (9,200 m) for peak 'b', but this did not take into account light refraction which distorts heights. Refraction is the change in direction of a Wave due to a change in its Speed. The number clearly indicated, however, that peak 'b' was higher than Kangchenjunga. Unfortunately, Nicolson came down with malaria and was forced to return home, calculations unfinished. Michael Hennessy, one of Waugh's assistants, had begun designating peaks based on Roman Numerals, with Kangchenjunga named Peak IX, while peak 'b' now became known as Peak XV. Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. 
In 1852, stationed at the survey's headquarters in Dehradun, Radhanath Sikdar, an Indian mathematician and surveyor from Bengal, was the first to identify Everest as the world's highest peak, using trigonometric calculations based on Nicolson's measurements. Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Dehradun (देहरादून, also sometimes spelled Dehra Doon, is the capital city of the state of Uttarakhand (earlier called Uttaranchal Radhanath Sikdar ( Bangla: রাধানাথ শিকদার (1813–1870 was a Bengali Indian Mathematician who calculated the height Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Circle-trig6svg|300px|thumb|right|All of the Trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O.  An official announcement that Peak XV was the highest was delayed for several years as the calculations were repeatedly verified. Waugh began work on Nicolson's data in 1854, and along with his staff spent almost two years working on the calculations, having to deal with the problems of light refraction, barometric pressure, and temperature over the vast distances of the observations. Finally, in March 1856 he announced his findings in a letter to his deputy in Calcutta. Kangchenjunga was declared to be 28,156 ft (8,582 m), while Peak XV was given the height of 29,002 ft (8,840 m). Waugh concluded that Peak XV was "most probably the highest in the world".  Peak XV was found to be exactly 29,000 feet (8,839 m) high, but was publicly declared to be 29,002 ft (8,840 m). The arbitrary addition of 2 feet (60 cm) was to avoid the impression that an exact height of 29,000 feet was nothing more than a rounded estimate. 
With the height now established, what to name the peak was clearly the next challenge. While the survey was anxious to preserve local names if possible (e. g. , Kangchenjunga and Dhaulagiri were local names), Waugh argued that he was unable to find any commonly used local name. Dhaulagiri (धौलागिरी is the seventh highest Mountain in the world Waugh's search for a local name was hampered by Nepal and Tibet being closed to foreigners at the time. Many local names existed, with perhaps the best known in Tibet for several centuries being Chomolungma, which had appeared on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D'Anville. Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville (1697-1782 perhaps the greatest geographical author of the 18th century was born at Paris on the 11th of July 1697 However, Waugh argued that with the plethora of local names, it would be difficult to favour one specific name over all others. So, he decided that Peak XV should be named after George Everest, his predecessor as Surveyor General of India. Colonel Sir George Everest ( 4 July, 1790 &ndash 1 December, 1866) was a Welsh surveyor, Geographer and  He wrote:
I was taught by my respected chief and predecessor, Colonel Sir George Everest to assign to every geographical object its true local or native appellation. But here is a mountain, most probably the highest in the world, without any local name that we can discover, whose native appellation, if it has any, will not very likely be ascertained before we are allowed to penetrate into Nepal. In the meantime the privilege as well as the duty devolves on me to assign…a name whereby it may be known among citizens and geographers and become a household word among civilized nations. 
George Everest opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that Everest could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by "the native of India". History Founding members of the Society include Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin and Francis Beaufort. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Waugh's proposed name prevailed despite the objections, and in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society officially adopted Mount Everest as the name for the highest mountain in the world. 
The Tibetan name for Mount Everest is Chomolungma or Qomolangma (ཇོ་མོ་གླིང་མ, which means "Saint Mother"), and the Chinese transliteration is Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng (simplified Chinese: 珠穆朗玛峰; traditional Chinese: 珠穆朗瑪峰); the Chinese translation is Shèngmǔ Fēng (simplified Chinese: 圣母峰; traditional Chinese: 聖母峰), but this name is seldom used. Tibetan refers to a group of languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia as well as by overseas A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity According to English accounts of the mid-19th century, the local name in Darjeeling for Mount Everest was Deodungha, or "Holy Mountain". The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Darjeeling ( Nepali:) is a town in the Indian state of West Bengal. 
In the 1960s, the Government of Nepal gave the mountain the official Nepali name of Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा), meaning "Goddess of the Sky". The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma 
In 1865, the mountain was officially given its English name by the Royal Geographical Society after being proposed by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Major General Sir Andrew Scott Waugh ( 3 February 1810 &ndash 21 February 1878) was a British army officer and surveyor The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Waugh chose to name the mountain after George Everest, first using the spelling Mont Everest, and then Mount Everest. Colonel Sir George Everest ( 4 July, 1790 &ndash 1 December, 1866) was a Welsh surveyor, Geographer and However, the modern pronunciation of Everest IPA: /ˈɛvərɪst, ˈɛvrɪst/ is in fact different from Sir George's own pronunciation of his surname, which was /ˈiːvrɪst/.
In the late 19th century, many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was "Gaurisankar".  This was a result of confusion of Mount Everest with the actual Gauri Sankar, which, when viewed from Kathmandu, stands almost directly in front of Everest. Gauri Sankar is a Mountain in the Himalayas the second highest peak of the Rolwaling Himal, behind Menlungtse (7181m Kathmandu (काठमांडौ येँ is the Capital and the largest city of Nepal.
In the early 1960s, the Nepalese government gave Mount Everest the official name Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा). The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. This name had not previously been used; the local inhabitants knew the mountain as Chomolungma.  The mountain was not known and named in ethnic Nepal (that is, the Kathmandu valley and surrounding areas). The Kathmandu Valley (नेपाः स्वनिगः Nepāḥ Svānigaḥ) located in the Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of The government set out to find a Nepalese name for the mountain because the Sherpa/Tibetan name Chomolangma was not acceptable, as it would have been against the idea of unification (Nepalization) of the country. For other uses of the word Sherpa see Sherpa (disambiguation.
In 2002, the Chinese People's Daily newspaper published an article making a case against the continued use of the English name for the mountain in the Western world, insisting that it should be referred to by its Tibetan name. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The People's Daily ( a daily Newspaper, is the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The newspaper argued that the Chinese (in nature a Tibetan) name preceded the English one, as Mount Qomolangma was marked on a Chinese map more than 280 years ago. 
In 1856, Andrew Waugh announced Everest (then known as Peak XV) as 29,002 feet (8,840 m) high, after several years of calculations based on observations made by the Great Trigonometric Survey. The Great Trigonometric Survey was a project of the Survey of India throughout most of the 19th century
More recently, the mountain has been found to be 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) high, although there is some variation in the measurements. On 22 May 2005, the People's Republic of China's Everest Expedition Team ascended to the top of the mountain. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On 9 October 2005, after several months of measurement and calculation, the PRC's State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping officially announced the height of Everest as 8,844. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 43 m ± 0. 21 m (29,017. 16 ± 0. 69 ft). A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit They claimed it was the most accurate and precise measurement to date.  This height is based on the actual highest point of rock and not on the snow and ice covering it. The Chinese team also measured a snow/ice depth of 3. 5 m, which is in agreement with a net elevation of 8,848 m. The snow and ice thickness varies over time, making a definitive height of the snow cap impossible to determine.
The elevation of 8,848 m (29,029 ft) was first determined by an Indian survey in 1955, made closer to the mountain, also using theodolites. A theodolite ( is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical Angles as used in Triangulation networks It was subsequently reaffirmed by a 1975 Chinese measurement.  In both cases the snow cap, not the rock head, was measured. In May 1999 an American Everest Expedition, directed by Bradford Washburn, anchored a GPS unit into the highest bedrock. Henry Bradford Washburn Jr ( June 7, 1910 - January 10, 2007) was an explorer mountaineer, photographer, and cartographer Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth A rock head elevation of 8,850 m (29,035 ft), and a snow/ice elevation 1 m (3 ft) higher, were obtained via this device.  Although it has not been officially recognized by Nepal, this figure is widely quoted. Geoid uncertainty casts doubt upon the accuracy claimed by both the 1999 and 2005 surveys. The geoid is that Equipotential surface which would coincide exactly with the mean ocean surface of the Earth if the oceans were in equilibrium at rest and extended through
A detailed photogrammetric map (at a scale of 1:50,000) of the Khumbu region, including the south side of Mount Everest, was made by Erwin Schneider as part of the 1955 International Himalayan Expedition, which also attempted Lhotse. Photogrammetry is the first Remote sensing technology ever developed in which geometric properties about objects are determined from photographic images Khumbu is one of three subregions of the main Sherpa settlement of the Himalaya, the other two being Solu and Pharak. Lhotse (in Nepal officially ल्होत्से, in China officially Lhozê; Tibetan in Wylie transliteration: lho rtse; An even more detailed topographic map of the Everest area was made in the late 1980s under the direction of Bradford Washburn, using extensive aerial photography. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets Aerial photography is the taking of Photographs of the ground from an elevated position 
It is thought that the plate tectonics of the area are adding to the height and moving the summit north-eastwards. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Two accounts suggest the rates of change are 4 mm (0. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to 16 in) per year (upwards) and 3-6 mm (0. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 12-0. 25 in) per year (northeastwards), but another account mentions more lateral movement (27 mm/1. 1 in), and even shrinkage has been suggested. 
Everest is the mountain whose summit attains the greatest distance above sea level. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface Several other mountains are sometimes claimed as alternative "tallest mountains on Earth". Mauna Kea in Hawaii is tallest when measured from its base; it rises over 10,200 m (6. Mauna Kea is a Dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the Island of Hawaii. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the 3 mi) when measured from its base on the mid-ocean floor, but only attains 4,205 m (13,796 ft) above sea level.
By the same measure of base to summit, Denali, in Alaska, is also taller than Everest. "Denali" redirects here For other meanings see Denali (disambiguation. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Despite its height above sea level of only 6,193. 6 m (20,320 ft), Denali sits atop a sloping plain with elevations from 300-900 m (1,000-3,000 ft), yielding a height above base in the range of 5,300-5,900 m (17,300-19,300 ft); a commonly quoted figure is 5,600 m (18,400 ft).  By comparison, reasonable base elevations for Everest range from 4,200 m (13,800 ft) on the south side to 5,200 m (17,100 ft) on the Tibetan Plateau, yielding a height above base in the range of 3,650 m (12,000 ft) to 4,650 m (15,300 ft). The Tibetan Plateau, also known as the Qinghai-Tibetan (Qingzang Plateau is a vast elevated Plateau in Central Asia covering most of the Tibet Autonomous 
The summit of Chimborazo in Ecuador is 2,168 m (7,113 ft) farther from the Earth's centre (6,384. The inactive Stratovolcano Chimborazo (tʃimboˈraso is Ecuador's highest summit For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. 4 km or 3,967. 1 mi) than that of Everest (6,382. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 3 km or 3,965. 8 mi), because the Earth bulges at the Equator. However, Chimborazo attains a height of only 6,267 m (20,561 ft) above sea level, and by this criterion it is not even the highest peak of the Andes. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America.
Measured from sea level, the mountain K2 is ranked second in height with 8,611 m (28,251 ft) high. K2 is the second- highest Mountain on Earth (after Mount Everest)
The deepest spot in the ocean is deeper than Everest is high: the Challenger Deep off the Mariana Islands, is so deep that if Everest could be placed into it there would be more than 2 km (more than 1. The Challenger Deep is the deepest surveyed point in the oceans with a depth of about 11000 metres (about 36000 feet The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning 3 mi) of water covering it.
Mt. Everest has two main climbing routes, the southeast ridge from Nepal and the northeast ridge from Tibet, as well as many other less frequently climbed routes. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European  Of the two main routes, the southeast ridge is technically easier and is the more frequently-used route. It was the route used by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953 and the first recognised of fifteen routes to the top by 1996. Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 &ndash 11 January 2008 was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer  This was, however, a route decision dictated more by politics than by design as the Chinese border was closed to western world in 1950s after the Communist China took over the control Tibet from the Republic of China. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES 
Most attempts are made during May before the summer monsoon season. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months As the monsoon season approaches, a change in the jet stream at this time pushes it northward, thereby reducing the average wind speeds high on the mountain. Jet streams are fast flowing relatively narrow air currents found at the Tropopause, the transition between the Troposphere (where temperature decreases  While attempts are sometimes made after the monsoons in September and October, when the jet stream is again temporarily pushed northward, the additional snow deposited by the monsoons and the less stable weather patterns (tail end of the monsoon) makes climbing more difficult.
The ascent via the southeast ridge begins with a trek to Base Camp at 5,380 m (17,700 ft) on the south side of Everest in Nepal. There are two base camps on opposite sides of Mt Everest to the South in Nepal, and to the North in Tibet. Expeditions usually fly into Lukla (2,860 m) from Kathmandu and pass through Namche Bazaar. Lukla is a town in the Khumbu region of eastern Nepal where most people visiting the Himalayas near Mount Everest start their journey Kathmandu (काठमांडौ येँ is the Capital and the largest city of Nepal. Namche Bazaar (नाम्चे बजार−also Nemche Bazaar or Namche Bazar is a village in the Khumbu region of Nepal. Climbers then hike to Base Camp, which usually takes six to eight days, allowing for proper altitude acclimatization in order to prevent altitude sickness. Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness ( AMS) altitude illness, or soroche, is a pathological condition that is caused by acute Climbing equipment and supplies are carried by yaks, dzopkyos (yak hybrids) and human porters to Base Camp on the Khumbu Glacier. The yak ( Bos grunniens) is a long-haired Bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai - A porter, also called a bearer, is a person who carries objects The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal and flows down from the Khumbu Icefall on the southern slopes of When Hillary and Tenzing climbed Everest in 1953, they started from Kathmandu Valley, as there were no roads further east at that time.
Climbers will spend a couple of weeks in Base Camp, acclimatizing to the altitude. During that time, Sherpas and some expedition climbers will set up ropes and ladders in the treacherous Khumbu Icefall. For other uses of the word Sherpa see Sherpa (disambiguation. The Khumbu Icefall is an Icefall at the head of the Khumbu Glacier. Seracs, crevasses and shifting blocks of ice make the icefall one of the most dangerous sections of the route. A serac (originally from Swiss French sérac, a type of crumbly white Cheese) is a block or column of Ice formed by intersecting Crevasses Many climbers and Sherpas have been killed in this section. To reduce the hazard, climbers will usually begin their ascent well before dawn when the freezing temperatures glue ice blocks in place. Above the icefall is Camp I at 6,065 metres (19,900 ft).
From Camp I, climbers make their way up the Western Cwm to the base of the Lhotse face, where Camp II or Advanced Base Camp (ABC) is established at 6,500 m (21,300 ft). Often called the "Valley of Silence" the Western Cwm ( cwm pronounced coom is Welsh for "valley" is a broad flat gently undulating Lhotse (in Nepal officially ल्होत्से, in China officially Lhozê; Tibetan in Wylie transliteration: lho rtse; The Western Cwm is a relatively flat, gently rising glacial valley, marked by huge lateral crevasses in the centre which prevent direct access to the upper reaches of the Cwm. A crevasse is a Fracture in a Glacier caused by a large Tensile stress at or near the glacier's surface Climbers are forced to cross on the far right near the base of Nuptse to a small passageway known as the "Nuptse corner". Nuptse is a Mountain in the Khumbu region of the Mahalangur Himal, in the Nepalese Himalaya. The Western Cwm is also called the "Valley of Silence" as the topography of the area generally cuts off wind from the climbing route. The high altitude and a clear, windless day can make the Western Cwm unbearably hot for climbers. High altitude are regions on the Earth 's surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above Mean sea level. 
From ABC, climbers ascend the Lhotse face on fixed ropes up to Camp III, located on a small ledge at 7,470 m (24,500 ft). Fixed rope is the practice of fixing in place bolted ropes to assist climbers and walkers in exposed mountain locations From there, it is another 500 metres to Camp IV on the South Col at 7,920 m (26,000 ft). The South Col usually refers to the southern col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the first and fourth highest mountains in the world From Camp III to Camp IV, climbers are faced with two additional challenges: The Geneva Spur and The Yellow Band. The Geneva Spur is an anvil shaped rib of black rock named by a 1952 Swiss expedition. Fixed ropes assist climbers in scrambling over this snow covered rock band. Scrambling (also known as alpine scrambling) is a method of ascending rocky faces and ridges The Yellow Band is a section of interlayered marble, phyllite, and semischist which also requires about 100 metres of rope for traversing it. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Phyllite is a type of foliated Metamorphic rock primarily composed of Quartz, Sericite Mica, and chlorite; the rock represents The schists form a group of medium-grade Metamorphic rocks chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar Minerals such as Micas chlorite 
On the South Col, climbers enter the death zone. The death zone, in Mountaineering, refers to Altitudes above a certain point where the amount of Oxygen cannot sustain Human life Climbers typically only have a maximum of two or three days they can endure at this altitude for making summit bids. Clear weather and low winds are critical factors in deciding whether to make a summit attempt. If weather does not cooperate within these short few days, climbers are forced to descend, many all the way back down to Base Camp.
From Camp IV, climbers will begin their summit push around midnight with hopes of reaching the summit (still another 1,000 metres above) within 10 to 12 hours. Climbers will first reach "The Balcony" at 8,400 m (27,600 ft), a small platform where they can rest and gaze at peaks to the south and east in the early dawn light. Continuing up the ridge, climbers are then faced with a series of imposing rock steps which usually forces them to the east into waist deep snow, a serious avalanche hazard. This article refers to the natural event For other uses see Avalanche (disambiguation An avalanche is an abrupt and rapid flow of snow often At 8,750 m (28,700 ft), a small table-sized dome of ice and snow marks the South Summit. 
From the South Summit, climbers follow the knife-edge southeast ridge along what is known as the "Cornice traverse" where snow clings to intermittent rock. This is the most exposed section of the climb as a misstep to the left would send one 2,400 m (8,000 ft) down the southwest face while to the immediate right is the 3,050 m (10,000 ft) Kangshung face. The Kangshung Face is the East Face of Mount Everest, one of the Tibetan sides of the mountain At the end of this traverse is an imposing 12 m (40 ft) rock wall called the "Hillary Step" at 8,760 m (28,740 ft). 
Hillary and Tenzing were the first climbers to ascend this step and they did it with primitive ice climbing equipment and without fixed ropes. Nowadays, climbers will ascend this step using fixed ropes previously set up by Sherpas. Once above the step, it is a comparatively easy climb to the top on moderately angled snow slopes - though the exposure on the ridge is extreme especially while traversing very large cornices of snow. With increasing numbers of people climbing the mountain in recent years, the Step has frequently become a bottleneck, with climbers forced to wait significant amounts of time for their turn on the ropes, leading to problems in getting climbers efficiently up and down the mountain. After the Hillary Step, climbers also must traverse a very loose and rocky section that has a very large entanglement of fixed ropes that can be troublesome in bad weather. Climbers will typically spend less than a half-hour on "top of the world" as they realize the need to descend to Camp IV before darkness sets in, afternoon weather becomes a serious problem, or supplemental oxygen tanks run out.
The northeast ridge route begins from the north side of Everest in Tibet. Expeditions trek to the Rongbuk Glacier, setting up Base Camp at 5,180 m (16,990 ft) on a gravel plain just below the glacier. ImageHimalaya_annotatedjpg|thumb|250px|right|Rongbuk Glacier and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station There are two base camps on opposite sides of Mt Everest to the South in Nepal, and to the North in Tibet. To reach Camp II, climbers ascend the medial moraine of the east Rongbuk Glacier up to the base of Changtse at around 6,100 m (20,000 ft). Changtse ( Tibetan: "north peak" is a Mountain situated between the Main Rongbuk and East Rongbuk Glaciers in Tibet immediately north of Mount Camp III (ABC - Advanced Base Camp) is situated below the North Col at 6,500 m (21,300 ft). The North Col refers to the pass or col connecting Mount Everest and Changtse in Tibet. To reach Camp IV on the north col, climbers ascend the glacier to the foot of the col where fixed ropes are used to reach the North Col at 7,010 m (23,000 ft). From the North Col, climbers ascend the rocky north ridge to set up Camp V at around 7,775 m (25,500 ft). The route goes up the north face through a series of gullies and steepens into downsloping slabby terrain before reaching the site of Camp VI at 8,230 m (27,000 ft). From Camp VI, climbers will make their final summit push. Climbers must first make their way through three rock bands known as First Step: 27,890 feet - 28,000 feet, Second Step: 28,140 feet - 28,300 feet, and Third Step: 28,510 feet - 28,870 feet. (The Second Step includes a climbing aid called the "Chinese ladder", a metal ladder placed semi-permanently in 1975 by a party of Chinese climbers. It has been almost continuously in place since, and is used by virtually all climbers on the route. ) Once above these steps, the final summit slopes (50 to 60 degrees) to the top. 
China is paving a 130 km (81 mi) dirt road from Tingri County to its Base Camp in order to accommodate growing numbers of climbers on their side of the mountain. Tingri County or Dhringgri County () is a county of the Xigazê Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region. It will become the highest asphalt-paved road in the world. Construction began on 18 June 2007 at a cost of 150 million yuan (US$19. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 7 million). China also routed the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay over Everest, going up the South Col route and back down the North Col route, on the way to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay was run from March 24 until August 8, 2008, prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics. 
A China Telecom cellular tower near the Base Camp provides phone coverage all the way to the summit. China Telecom Corp Ltd () is the largest fixed service Telecommunications provider in the People's Republic of China. 
In 1885, Clinton Thomas Dent, president of the Alpine Club, suggests that climbing Mount Everest is possible in his book Above the Snow Line. See also Mount Everest Timeline 1921 Reconnaissance expedition The first British expedition – organized and financed by the newly formed Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Clinton Thomas Dent FRCS ( 7 December 1850 – 26 August 1912) was an English Surgeon, Author and The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and was probably the world's first mountaineering club. 
On 8 June 1924, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine, both of the United Kingdom, made an attempt on the summit via the north col/north ridge route from which they never returned. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. George Herbert Leigh Mallory ( 18 June 1886  &ndash 8 June / 9 June 1924) was an English Mountaineer who took Andrew "Sandy" Comyn Irvine (born 8 April 1902; died 8 or 9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located On 1 May 1999, the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition found Mallory's body in the predicted search area near the old Chinese camp. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The goal of the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition of 1999 was to discover evidence of whether George Mallory and Andrew Irvine had been the first to summit Controversy has raged in the mountaineering community as to whether or not one or both of them reached the summit 29 years before the confirmed ascent (and of course, safe descent) of Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 &ndash 11 January 2008 was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer The general consensus among climbers has been that they did not. Consensus has two common meanings One is a general agreement among the members of a given group or Community, each of which exercises some discretion in
Mallory had gone on a speaking tour of the United States the year before in 1923; it was then that he exasperatedly gave the famous reply: "Because it is there!" to a New York journalist in response to hearing the question: "Why climb Everest?" for seemingly the thousandth time. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people
In 1933, Lady Houston, a British millionaire ex-showgirl, funded the Houston Everest Flight of 1933, which saw a formation of aircraft led by the Marquess of Clydesdale fly over the summit in an effort to deploy the British Union Flag at the top. Lucy Lady Houston DBE ( April 8 1857 &mdash December 29 1936) born Fanny Lucy Radmall, was an English benefactor philanthropist The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A showgirl is a Dancer or Performer in a stage entertainment show WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Air Commodore Douglas Douglas-Hamilton 14th Duke of Hamilton and 11th Duke of Brandon, KT, GCVO, AFC, PC, DL, The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 
Early expeditions – such as Bruce's in the 1920s and Hugh Ruttledge's two unsuccessful attempts in 1933 and 1936 – tried to make an ascent of the mountain from Tibet, via the north face. Hugh Ruttledge ( 24 October 1884 – 7 November 1961) was an English Mountaineer, and leader of two expeditions to Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Access was closed from the north to western expeditions in 1950, after the Chinese reasserted control over Tibet. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES However, in 1950, Bill Tilman and a small party which included Charles Houston, Oscar Houston and Betsy Cowles undertook an exploratory expedition to Everest through Nepal along the route which has now become the standard approach to Everest from the south. Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar (14 February 1898&ndash1977 was an English mountaineer 
In 1953, a ninth British expedition, led by John Hunt, returned to Nepal. Brigadier Henry Cecil John Hunt Baron Hunt KG, CBE, DSO, PC ( 22 June 1910 &ndash 8 November Hunt selected two climbing pairs to attempt to reach the summit. The first pair (Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans) came within 100 m (300 feet) of the summit on 26 May 1953, but turned back after becoming exhausted. Thomas Duncan Bourdillon (born in Kensington, London, 16 March 1924, died Bernese Oberland, Switzerland 29 July Sir Robert Charles Evans MD DSc ( 19 October 1918 &ndash 5 December 1995) was a British mountaineer surgeon and educator Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. As planned, their work in route finding and breaking trail and their caches of extra oxygen were of great aid to the following pair. Two days later, the expedition made its second and final assault on the summit with its second climbing pair, the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay from Nepal. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 &ndash 11 January 2008 was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer For other uses of the word Sherpa see Sherpa (disambiguation. They reached the summit at 11:30 a. m. local time on 29 May 1953 via the South Col Route. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At the time, both acknowledged it as a team effort by the whole expedition, but Tenzing revealed a few years later that Hillary had put his foot on the summit first.  They paused at the summit to take photographs and buried a few sweets and a small cross in the snow before descending. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half
News of the expedition's success reached London on the morning of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a Monarch with regal power specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head and the Returning to Kathmandu a few days later, Hunt (a Briton) and Hillary (a subject of Elizabeth, through her role as head of state of New Zealand) discovered that they had been promptly knighted in the Order of the British Empire, a KBE, for the ascent. Kathmandu (काठमांडौ येँ is the Capital and the largest city of Nepal. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British Order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. Tenzing (a subject of the King of Nepal) was granted the George Medal by the UK. The George Medal ( GM) is the second level Civil decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Hunt was ultimately made a life peer in Britain, while Hillary became a founding member of the Order of New Zealand. In the United Kingdom, life peers are created members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as Hereditary The Order of New Zealand is the highest honour in New Zealand 's honours system, created "to recognise outstanding service to the Crown and people of New Zealand
On 8 May 1978, Reinhold Messner (Italy) and Peter Habeler (Austria) made the first ascent without supplemental oxygen, using the southeast ridge route. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Reinhold Messner (born September 17 1944) is a Mountaineer and Explorer from the Province of Bolzano-Bozen in Italy Peter Habeler (born July 22 1942) is an Austrian mountaineer He was born in Mayrhofen, Austria.  On August 20, 1980, Messner reached the summit of the mountain solo for the first time, without supplementary oxygen or support, on the more difficult Northwest route via the North Col to the North Face and the Great Couloir. Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) He climbed for three days entirely alone from his base camp at 6,500 metres (21,300 ft). This route has been noted as the 8th climbing route to the summit. 
During the 1996 climbing season, fifteen people died trying to come down from the summit, making it the deadliest single year in Everest history. The 1996 Everest Disaster refers to a single day of the 1996 climbing season May 11, 1996, when eight people died on Mount Everest during summit attempts Eight of them died on May 11 alone. The disaster gained wide publicity and raised questions about the commercialization of Everest.
Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine, was in one of the affected parties, and afterwards published the bestseller Into Thin Air which related his experience. Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and Mountaineer, well-known for outdoor and mountain-climbing writing Outside is a magazine focused on the outdoors The first issue debuted in September 1977 with its mission statement declaring that the publication was "dedicated to covering Into Thin Air A Personal Account of the Mt Everest Disaster is a bestselling Non-fiction book written by Jon Krakauer. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide who felt impugned by Krakauer's book, co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb. Anatoli Nikoliavich Boukreev, Анато́лий Никола́евич Букре́ев ( January 16, 1958 - December 25, 1997) was a Russian The Climb is an account by Russian mountaineer Anatoli Boukreev of the 1996 Everest Disaster, during which eight climbers lost their lives on Mount The dispute sparked a large debate within the climbing community. In May 2004, Kent Moore, a physicist, and John L. Semple, a surgeon, both researchers from the University of Toronto, told New Scientist magazine that an analysis of weather conditions on May 11 suggested that freak weather caused oxygen levels to plunge approximately 14%. This article is about the University of Toronto's St George Campus New Scientist is a weekly International science magazine and website covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English -speaking 
The storm's impact on climbers on the mountain's other side, the North Ridge, where several climbers also died, was detailed in a first hand account by British filmmaker and writer Matt Dickinson in his book The Other Side of Everest. Matt Dickinson is a film-maker and Writer who specialises in the wild places and people of the world
2003 marked the 50th anniversary of the first ascent, and a record number of teams, including some very distinguished climbers, climbed or attempted to climb the mountain.
On 14 May 2005, pilot Didier Delsalle of France landed a Eurocopter AS 350 B3 helicopter on the summit of Mount Everest (without any witness) and took off after about four minutes. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Eurocopter Group is a European Helicopter manufacturing and support company formed in 1992 from the merger of German Daimler-Benz Aerospace (His rotors were continually engaged, constituting a "hover landing", and avoiding the risks of relying on the snow to support the aircraft. ) He thereby set rotorcraft world records, for highest of both landing (de facto) and take-off (formally). Classes of rotorcraft Helicopter See also Helicopter A helicopter is a rotorcraft whose rotors are driven by the engine(s throughout the flight 
Delsalle had also performed, two days earlier, a take-off from the South Col; some press reports suggested that the report of the summit landing was a misunderstanding of a South Col one. 
Double-amputee climber Mark Inglis revealed in an interview with the press on May 23, 2006, that his climbing party, and many others, had passed a distressed climber, David Sharp, on May 15, sheltering under a rock overhang 450 metres below the summit, without attempting a rescue. Mark Joseph Inglis ( ONZM, September 27[[ 959]] is a Mountaineer, Researcher, Winemaker and Motivational speaker Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. David Sharp ( 15 February[[ 972]] – 15 May[[ 006]] was an English Mountaineer who died near the summit of Mount Everest. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the The revelation sparked wide debate on climbing ethics, especially as applied to Everest. The climbers who left him said that the rescue efforts would be useless and only cause more deaths because of how many people it would have taken to pull him off.
Much of this controversy was captured by the Discovery Channel while filming the television program Everest: Beyond the Limit. Discovery Channel is an American Satellite and Cable TV channel (also delivered via IPTV, Terrestrial television and Everest Beyond the Limit is a Discovery Channel reality Television series about yearly attempts to summit Mount Everest organized A crucial decision affecting the fate of Sharp is shown in the program, where an early returning climber (Max Chaya) is descending and radios to his base camp manager (Russell Brice) that he has found a climber in distress. He is unable to identify Sharp, and Sharp had chosen to climb solo without any support, so he did not identify himself to other climbers. The base camp manager assumes that Sharp is part of a group that has abandoned him, and informs his climber that there is no chance of him being able to help Sharp [at 8000+ meters in altitude, barely anyone has the strength to help another man who is only semi conscious, and Max Chaya is only an amateur mountaineer]. As Sharp's condition deteriorates through the day and other descending climbers pass him, his opportunities for rescue diminish: his legs and feet curl from frost-bite, preventing him from walking; the later descending climbers are lower on oxygen and lack the strength to offer aid; time runs out for any Sherpas to return and rescue him. Most importantly, Sharp's decision to forgo all support leaves him with no margin for recovery.
As this debate raged, on May 26, Australian climber Lincoln Hall was found alive, after being declared dead the day before. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Lincoln Hall (born 1956 is a veteran Australian mountain climber and Author. He was found by a party of four climbers (Dan Mazur, Andrew Brash, Myles Osborne and Jangbu Sherpa) who, giving up their own summit attempt, stayed with Hall and descended with him and a party of 11 Sherpas sent up to carry him down. Dan Mazur (born October 1960 is an American mountain climber most widely known for the rescue of Lincoln Hall, an Australian climber on Mount Everest on Hall later fully recovered. Similar actions have been recorded since, including on 21 May 2007, when Canadian climber Meagan McGrath initiated the successful high-altitude rescue of Nepali Usha Bista. Events 878 - Syracuse Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia.
According to the Nepalese government, the youngest person to climb Mount Everest was a 15-year-old Sherpa girl, and the youngest foreigner was 18-year-old Californian Samantha Larson in 2007. Samantha Larson (born 1988 is an American Mountain climber from Long Beach California. 
The fastest ascent over the northeast ridge was accomplished in 2007 by Austrian climber Christian Stangl, who needed 16h 42min for the 10km distance from Camp III to the summit, just barely beating Italian Hans Kammerlander's record of 17 hours, accomplished in 1996. Christian Stangl (born 1966 in Landl, Austria) is an Alpine style professional mountain climber Both men climbed alone and without supplementary oxygen. The fastest oxygen-supported ascent over the southeast ridge was Nepalese Pemba Dorjie Sherpa's 2004 climb, using 8h 10min for the 17km route. The fastest ascent without supplementary oxygen over the southeast ridge was accomplished by French Marc Batard who needed 22h 30min in 1988. 
The oldest climber to successfully reach Mt. Everest's summit was 76-year-old Min Bahadur Sherchan, who did so 25 May 2008. Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
While conditions for any area classified as a death zone apply to Mount Everest (altitudes higher than 8,000 m/26,246 ft), it is significantly more difficult for a climber to survive at the death zone on Mount Everest. The death zone, in Mountaineering, refers to Altitudes above a certain point where the amount of Oxygen cannot sustain Human life Temperatures can dip to very low levels, resulting in frostbite of any body part exposed to the air. Frostbite ( congelatio in Medical terminology) is the Medical condition whereby damage is caused to Skin and other tissues Because temperatures are so low, snow is well-frozen in certain areas and death by slipping and falling can also occur. High winds at these altitudes on Everest are also a potential threat to climbers. The atmospheric pressure at the top of Everest is about a third of sea level pressure, meaning there is about a third as much oxygen available to breathe as at sea level. 
In May 2007, the Caudwell Xtreme Everest undertook a medical study of oxygen levels in human blood at extreme altitude. Over 200 volunteers climbed to Everest Base Camp where various medical tests were performed to examine blood oxygen levels. A small team also performed tests on the way to the summit. 
Even at base camp the low level of available oxygen had direct effect on blood oxygen saturation levels. At sea level these are usually 98% to 99%, but at base camp this fell to between 85% and 87%. Blood samples taken at the summit indicated very low levels of oxygen present. A side effect of this is a vastly increased breathing rate, from 20-30 breaths per minute to 80-90 breaths, leading to exhaustion just trying to breathe.
Lack of oxygen, exhaustion, extreme cold, and the dangers of the climb all contribute to the death toll.
People who die during the climb are typically left behind. About 150 bodies have never been recovered. It is not uncommon that corpses are visible from the standard climbing routes. 
One sometimes deadly phenomenon, however, does not plague climbers — lightning. Lightning does not strike Mount Everest. NASA's lightning detection system does record significant lightning in the Tibet plateau, but none along the high Tibetan mountains, from about 2000 m (7,000 feet) and above. 
Most expeditions use oxygen masks and tanks above 8,000 m (26,246 ft). An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing Oxygen gas from a storage tank to the Lungs. Everest can be climbed without supplementary oxygen but this increases the risk to the climber. Humans do not think clearly with low oxygen, and the combination of severe weather, low temperatures, and steep slopes often require quick, accurate decisions. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature
The use of bottled oxygen to ascend Mount Everest has been controversial. George Mallory himself described the use of such oxygen as unsportsmanlike, but he later concluded that it would be impossible to summit without it and consequently used it. George Herbert Leigh Mallory ( 18 June 1886  &ndash 8 June / 9 June 1924) was an English Mountaineer who took  When Tenzing and Hillary made the first successful summit in 1953, they used bottled oxygen. For the next twenty-five years, bottled oxygen was considered standard for any successful summit.
Reinhold Messner was the first climber to break the bottled oxygen tradition and in 1978, with Peter Habeler, made the first successful climb without it. Reinhold Messner (born September 17 1944) is a Mountaineer and Explorer from the Province of Bolzano-Bozen in Italy Peter Habeler (born July 22 1942) is an Austrian mountaineer He was born in Mayrhofen, Austria. Although critics alleged that he sucked mini-bottles of oxygen - a claim that Messner denied - Messner silenced them when he summited the mountain, without supplemental oxygen or support, on the more difficult northwest route, in 1980. In the aftermath of Messner's two successful ascents, the debate on bottled oxygen usage continued.
The aftermath of the 1996 disaster further intensified the debate. The 1996 Everest Disaster refers to a single day of the 1996 climbing season May 11, 1996, when eight people died on Mount Everest during summit attempts Jon Krakauer's Into Thin Air (1997) expressed the author's personal criticisms of the use of bottled oxygen. Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and Mountaineer, well-known for outdoor and mountain-climbing writing Into Thin Air A Personal Account of the Mt Everest Disaster is a bestselling Non-fiction book written by Jon Krakauer. Krakauer wrote that the use of bottled oxygen allowed otherwise unqualified climbers to attempt to summit, leading to dangerous situations and more deaths. The May 11, 1996 disaster was partially caused by the sheer number of climbers (33 on that day) attempting to ascend, causing bottlenecks at the Hillary Step and delaying many climbers, most of whom summited after the usual 2 p. The 1996 Everest Disaster refers to a single day of the 1996 climbing season May 11, 1996, when eight people died on Mount Everest during summit attempts m. turnaround time. He proposed banning bottled oxygen except for emergency cases, arguing that this would both decrease the growing pollution on Everest—many bottles have accumulated on its slopes—and keep marginally qualified climbers off the mountain. The 1996 disaster also introduced the issue of the guide's role in using bottled oxygen.  Guide Anatoli Boukreev's decision not to use bottled oxygen was sharply criticized by Jon Krakauer. Anatoli Nikoliavich Boukreev, Анато́лий Никола́евич Букре́ев ( January 16, 1958 - December 25, 1997) was a Russian Boukreev's supporters (who include G. Weston DeWalt, who co-wrote The Climb) state that using bottled oxygen gives a false sense of security. The Climb is an account by Russian mountaineer Anatoli Boukreev of the 1996 Everest Disaster, during which eight climbers lost their lives on Mount  Krakauer and his supporters point out that, without bottled oxygen, Boukreev was unable to directly help his clients descend.  They state that Boukreev said that he was going down with client Martin Adams, but just below the South Summit, Boukreev determines that Adams was doing fine on the descent and so descends at a faster pace, leaving Adams behind. Adams states in The Climb: "For me, it was business as usual, Anatoli's going by, and I had no problems with that. "
Some climbers have reported life-threatening thefts from supply caches. Vitor Negrete, the first Brazilian to climb Everest without oxygen and part of David Sharp's party, died during his descent, and theft from his high-altitude camp may have contributed. Vitor Negrete ( November 13, 1967 - May 19, 2006) was a prominent Mountaineer and the first Brazilian to reach the summit 
In addition to theft, the 2008 book High Crimes by Michael Kodas describes unethical guides and sherpas, prostitution and gambling at the Tibet Base Camp, fraud related to the sale of oxygen bottles, and climbers collecting donations under the pretense of removing trash from the mountain. 
Euophrys omnisuperstes, a minute black jumping spider, has been found at elevations as high as 6,700 metres (22,000 ft), possibly making it the highest confirmed permanent resident on Earth. Euophrys omnisuperstes (the specific name means standing above everything) is a small black Jumping spider that lives at elevations of up to 6700 The jumping spider family ( Salticidae) contains more than 500 described genera and over 5000 Species, making it the largest family of Spiders with about They lurk in crevices and possibly feed on frozen insects that have been blown there by the wind. It should be noted that there is a high likelihood of microscopic life at even higher altitudes.  Birds, such as the bar-headed goose, have been seen flying at the higher altitudes of the mountain, while others such as the Chough have been spotted as high as the South Col (7,920 m), scavenging on food, or even corpses, left over by climbing expeditions. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The Bar-headed Goose ( Anser indicus) is a Goose which breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes Chough is the Genus Pyrrhocorax of Birds in the Corvidae ( Crow) family. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed
Geologists have subdivided the rocks comprising Mount Everest into three units called "formations". Each of these formations are separated from each other by low-angle faults, called “detachments”, along which they have been thrust over each other. In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement From the summit of Mount Everest to its base these rock units are the Qomolangma Formation, the North Col Formation, and the Rongbuk Formation.
From its summit to the top of the Yellow Band, about 8,600 m above sea level, the top of Mount Everest consists of the Qomolangma Formation, which has also been designated as either the Everest Formation or Jolmo Lungama Formation. It consists of grayish to dark gray or white, parallel laminated and bedded limestone interlayered with subordinate beds of recrystallized dolomite with argillaceous laminae and siltstone. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Dolomite (ˈdɒləmaɪt is the name of a Sedimentary Carbonate rock and a Mineral, both composed Siltstone is a Sedimentary rock which has a composition intermediate in grain size between the coarser Sandstones and the finer Mudstones and Gansser reported finding visible fragments of crinoids in these limestones. Crinoids, also known as sea lilies or feather-stars, are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the Echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata Petrographic analysis of samples of this Ordovician limestone from near the summit revealed them to be composed of carbonate pellets and finely fragmented remains of trilobites, crinoids, and ostracods. The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six of the Paleozoic era, and covers the time between 488 Trilobites ("three-lobes" are extinct Arthropods that form the class Trilobita. Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance Other samples were so badly sheared and recrystallized that their original constituents could not be determined. The Qomolangma Formation is broken up by several high-angle faults that terminate at the low angle thrust fault, the Qomolangma Detachment. This detachment separates it from the underlying Yellow Band. The lower five metres of the Qomolangma Formation overlying this detachment are very highly deformed. 
The bulk of Mount Everest, between 7,000 and 8,600 m, consists of the North Col Formation, of which the Yellow Band forms its upper part between 8,200 to 8,600 m. The Yellow Band consists of intercalated beds of diopsite-epidote-bearing marble, which weathers a distinctive yellowish brown, and muscovite-biotite phyllite and semischist. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Phyllite is a type of foliated Metamorphic rock primarily composed of Quartz, Sericite Mica, and chlorite; the rock represents The schists form a group of medium-grade Metamorphic rocks chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar Minerals such as Micas chlorite Petrographic analysis of marble collected from about 8,300 m found it to consist as much as five percent of the ghosts of recrystallized crinoid ossicles. The upper five metres of the Yellow Band lying adjacent to the Qomolangma Detachment is badly deformed. A 5–40 cm thick fault breccia separates it from the overlying Qomolangma Formation. Breccia (ˈbrɛtʃiə ˈbrɛʃiə breach is a rock composed of angular fragments of several Minerals or rocks in a matrix, that is a cementing material 
The remainder of the North Col Formation, exposed between 7,000 to 8,200 m on Mount Everest, consists of interlayered and deformed schist, phyllite, and minor marble. Between 7,600 and 8,200 m, the North Col Formation consists chiefly of biotite-quartz phyllite and chlorite-biotite phyllite intercalated with minor amounts of biotite-sericite-quartz schist. Between 7,000 and 7,600 m, the lower part of the North Col Formation consists of biotite-quartz schist intercalated with epidote-quartz schist, biotite-calcite-quartz schist, and thin layers of quartzose marble. These metamorphic rocks appear to the result of the metamorphism of deep sea flysch composed of interbedded, mudstone, shale, clayey sandstone, calcareous sandstone, graywacke, and sandy limestone. Flysch is a sequence of Sedimentary rocks that is deposited in a deep Marine facies in the Foreland basin of a developing Orogen. Mudstone (also called mudrock) is a fine grained Sedimentary rock whose original constituents were Clays or Muds Grain size is up Shale (also called mudstone) is a fine-grained Sedimentary rock whose original constituents were Clay minerals or Muds It is characterized by Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Greywacke ( German grauwacke, signifying a grey earthy rock is a variety of Sandstone generally characterized by its hardness dark color and poorly-sorted The base of the North Col Formation is a regional thrust fault called the “Lhotse detachment”. 
Below 7,000 m, the Rongbuk Formation underlies the North Col Formation and forms the base of Mount Everest. It consists of sillminite-K-feldspar grade schist and gneiss intruded by numerous sills and dikes of leucogranite ranging in thickness from one cm to 1,500 m. Gneiss (ˈnaɪs is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally In Geology, a sill is a tabular Pluton that has intruded between older layers of Sedimentary rock, beds of Volcanic A dike or dyke in Geology is a type of Sheet intrusion referring to any geologic body that cuts Discordantly ' across planar Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. 
View of Mount Everest from the Rongbuk Monastery
Mount Everest and Nubtse from Kala Patthar
Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) as seen from Kala Pattar
Northern panoramic view of Everest from Tibetan Plateau KS
The last rays of sunlight on Mount Everest on May 5, 2007