|Elevation||5,642 metres (18,510 ft) |
|Location||on the border of Asia and Europe|
|Prominence||4,741 metres (15,554 ft) Ranked 10th|
|Topo map||Elbrus and Upper Baksan Valley by EWP |
|Age of rock||Unknown|
|Last eruption||50 CE ± 50 years|
|First ascent||(west summit) 1874, by Florence Crauford Grove, Frederick Gardner, Horace Walker, Peter Knubel and guide Ahiya Sottaiev|
(lower summit) 22 July 1829 by Chelar Hachirov
|Easiest route||basic snow/ice climb|
Volcanic Seven Summits
Mount Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a mountain located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia, in the northern Iranian plateau. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak This article is about the terrestrial Eurasian mountain range A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Карача́ево-Черке́сская респу́блика Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern A stratovolcano that has lain dormant for about 2,000 years, it is the highest mountain in the Caucasus. A stratovolcano, also called a composite volcano is a tall conical Volcano composed of many layers of hardened Lava, Tephra, and Volcanic Mt. Elbrus (west summit) stands at 5,642 metres (18,510 ft) and can be considered to be the highest mountain in Europe; it is also the highest point of Russia. This article describes extreme locations on Earth. Entries listed in bold are Earth-wide extremes This is a list of the extreme points and extreme elevations in Russia. The east summit is slightly lower: 5,621 metres (18,442 ft).
The name Elbrus is a sound metathesis of Alborz. Metathesis (məˈtæθəsɨs is a Sound change that alters the order of Phonemes in a Word. For the Iranian Frigate Alborz see Iranian frigate Alborz. For Alborz High School (in Persianدبیرستان البرز see Alborz High  The name Alborz is derived from that of Harā Bərəzaitī, a legendary mountain in Persian mythology . By Persian Mythology is meant the myths and sacred narratives of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau Harā Bərəzaitī reflects Proto-Iranian *Harā Bṛzatī. *Bṛzatī is the feminine form of the adjective *bṛzant- "high", the reconstructed ancestor of modern Farsi boland (بلند) and Barz/Berazandeh. Harā may be interpreted as "watch" or "guard", from an Indo-European root *ser- "protect". . In Middle Persian, Harā Bərəzaitī became Harborz, Modern Persian Alborz, which is cognate with Elbrus. Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of Southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224-654 CE became a Prestige dialect Cognates in Linguistics are words that have a common origin They may occur within a language such as shirt and skirt as two English words descended from
There may be some connection between Elbrus and an Indo-European root *Alba meaning "mountain" and "white" (cf. White is a Color, the perception which is evoked by Light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive Cone cells in the Human eye snow) which appears in such names as Albania and the Alps.
Elbrus stands 20 km (12 mi) north of the main range of the Greater Caucasus and 65 km (40 miles) south-southwest of the Russian town of Kislovodsk. The Turkic languages constitute a Language family of some thirty languages spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the The Perso-Arabic script is a Writing system that is based on the Arabic alphabet. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region principally inhabiting Adygeya (24 Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people Greater Caucasus (Большой Кавказ Azerbaijani: Böyük Qafqaz Dağları sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major" "Big Caucasus" or "Large The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States Kislovodsk (Кислово́дск is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia. Its permanent icecap feeds 22 glaciers, which in turn give rise to the Baksan, Kuban, and Malka Rivers. An ice cap is an Ice mass that covers less than 50 000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Kuban River (Куба́нь ku'banʲ Adyghe: Псыж Psyzh) is a River in Russia, in the North Caucasus region Malka River (Малка also known as Balyksu River (Балыксу is a river in Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia, Terek 's left tributary 
The ancients knew the mountain as Strobilus, Latin for 'pine cone', a direct loan from the ancient Greek strobilos, meaning 'a twisted object' — a long established botanical term that describes the shape of the volcano's summit. Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made by means of Artificial satellites. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A cone (in formal botanical usage Strobilus, plural strobili is an organ on Plants in the division Pinophyta ( Conifers The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Myth held that here Zeus had chained Prometheus, the Titan who had stolen fire from the gods and given it to ancient man — likely a reference to historic volcanic activity. See also Mythology Myth is derived from the Greek word μύθος mythos, which simply means 'story' Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Προμηθεύς "forethought" is a Titan known for his wily intelligence who stole Fire from Zeus Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. The lower of the two summits was first ascended on 10 July 1829 (Julian calendar) by Kilar Hachirov, a Circassian Kabardian guide for an Imperial Russian army scientific expedition led by General Emmanuel, and the higher (by about 40 m - 130 ft) in 1874 by an English expedition led by F. Crauford Grove and including Frederick Gardner, Horace Walker, a Swiss climber Peter Knubel. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Military history of Imperial Russia encompasses the period of warfare in which Russian Empire ground, naval and air forces participated from its creation England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Florence Crauford Grove (1838 – 1902 was an English Mountaineer and Author, sometimes known as F Frederick (Fred Dozier Gardner ( November 6, 1869 December 18, 1933) an American businessman and coffin and hearse manufacturer from St Horace Walker (1838 – 1908 was an English Mountaineer who made many notable First ascents, including Mount Elbrus and the Grandes Jorasses Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation During the early years of the Soviet Union, mountaineering became a popular sport of the masses, and there was tremendous traffic on the mountain. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of In the winter of 1936, a very large group of inexperienced Komsomol members attempted the mountain, and ended up suffering many fatalities when they slipped on the ice and fell to their deaths. Winter is one of the four Seasons of Temperate zones Calculated astronomically, it begins on the Solstice and ends on the Equinox Komsomol (Комсомол is a Syllabic abbreviation word from the Russian Kom munisticheskiy So yuz Mol odiozhi (Коммунистический Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia The Wehrmacht briefly occupied the area surrounding the mountain during World War II with 10,000 soldiers of a Gebirgsjäger (Mountain Troop) division. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Gebirgsjäger, in English Mountain Huntsmen, is the German designation for mountain infantry. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers A possibly apocryphal story tells of a Soviet pilot being given a medal for bombing the main mountaineering hut, Priyut 11 ("Refuge of the 11"), while it was occupied. He was then later nominated for a medal for not hitting the hut, but instead the German fuel supply, leaving the hut standing for future generations. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy When news reached Adolf Hitler that a detachment of mountaineers was sent by the general officer commanding the German division to climb to the summit of Elbrus and plant the swastika flag at its top, he reportedly flew into a rage, called the achievement a "stunt" and threatened to court martial the general. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The flag of Germany is a Tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: Black, A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject 
The Soviet Union encouraged ascents of Elbrus, and in 1956 it was climbed en masse by 400 mountaineers to mark the 400th anniversary of the incorporation of Kabardino-Balkaria, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic where Elbrus was located. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs of the Soviet Union were administrative units created for certain nations
From 1959 through 1976, a cable car system was built in stages that can take visitors as high as 3,800 metres (12,500 ft). An aerial tramway is a type of Aerial lift in which a cabin is suspended from a cable and is pulled by another cable There is a wide variety of routes up the mountain, but the normal route, which is free of crevasses, continues more or less straight up the slope from the end of the cable car system. A crevasse is a Fracture in a Glacier caused by a large Tensile stress at or near the glacier's surface During the summer, it is not uncommon for 100 people to be attempting the summit via this route each day. Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days A day (symbol d is a unit of Time equivalent to 24 Hours and the duration of a single Rotation of planet Earth with respect to the Winter ascents are rare, and are usually undertaken only by very experienced climbers. Elbrus is notorious for its brutal winter weather, and summit attempts are few and far between. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. The climb is not technically difficult, but it is physically arduous because of the elevations and the frequent strong winds. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) The average annual death toll on Elbrus is 15-30, primarily due to many unorganized and poorly equipped attempts to summit the mountain. 
Mount Elbrus should not be confused with the Alborz (also called Elburz) mountains in Iran, which also derive their name from the legendary mountain Harā Bərəzaitī in Persian mythology. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Harā Bərəzaitī, literally meaning "High Watchpost" is the name given in the Avestan language to a legendary mountain around which the stars and planets revolve
In 1997, a Land Rover Defender was driven to the summit, breaking into the Guinness Book of Records. The NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing organization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States (US The Land Rover Defender is a British four wheel drive Off-road utility vehicle Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U 
The Normal Route is the easiest, safest and fastest on account of the cable car and chairlift system which operates from about 9am till 3pm. A chairlift (technically an elevated passenger ropeway is a type of Aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating Steel cable loop strung Starting for the summit at about 2am from the Diesel Hut should allow just enough time to get back down to the chairlift if movement is efficient. Note in bad weather the chairlift section may be closed, also note the chairlift ride is 15 minutes long and can be very cold, particularly if you have come up from the hot valley wearing a T shirt and shorts!
The majority of groups take the cable car system from Azau roadhead to Mir Station from where either a 1 hour walk or a chairlift takes them to Garabashi - "The Barrels". A minute is a Unit of measurement of Time or of Angle. The minute is a unit of Time equal to 1/60th of an Hour or 60 In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is The hour (symbol h) is a unit of Time. It is not an SI unit but is accepted for use with the SI Above it may be possible to hire a snow cat to go to the Diesel Hut (site of the burnt Priut Hut) or higher to Pastukhova Rocks. Walking this takes 90 minutes to the hut and almost 2 hours more to the rocks. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere The walk to the Saddle takes another 3 to 4 hours and from there to the summit, a further 5 to 6 hours should be allowed for.
There are no major difficulties on the route, however after strong winds icy sections may be exposed and a fall could result in a slide. Particular care should be taken on the traversing ascent from the Saddle. The Saddle hut is a ruin that offers no shelter. There are few crevasses of any size or danger if you stick to the route but only 50m off the route you could be in dangerous terrain. Details and diagrams: 
A longer ascent route starts from below the cable-way Mir station and heads west over glacier slopes towards the Khotiutau pass. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Some distance before reaching this the south spur of the Kiukurtliu Cupola is climbed to a broad glaciated saddle behind pt. 4912 (top of the SW spur). Now a rising traverse north is made to attain the easy northwest spur by which the summit is gained. This expedition involves 3 nights camping-bivouacs; parties also need a rope, axe and crampons. Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped A bivouac (pronounced /ˈbɪvuˌæk/ biv-oo-ak traditionally refers to a military encampment made with Tents or improvised shelters usually without shelter or protection from A rope is a length of Fibers twisted or Braided together to improve strength for pulling and Connecting. The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon Crampons are outdoor footwear that are made from spikes and are worn on boots to provide traction on snow and Ice. Kiukurtliu route details
Climbing Elbrus from other directions is a tougher proposition because of lack of permanent high facilities. Freshfield always maintained that a route from the east up the Iryk valley, Irykchat glacier and over the Irykchat pass (3667m) on to snowfields below long rock ribs of the east spur would become the shortest and most used approach. A hut built long ago on the north side of the lrykchat pass is now wrecked, and in any event the vertical interval calls for at least 2 camp-bivouacs. Other route details and map
Three are required:
1. Border Zone Permit. Foreigners require a permit to be in any area south of the Baksan. This is obtained at the military head office of the border rangers in Nalchik. You should also be registered at their local posts: in the Baksan valley at the Alpine Base Baksan; in the Adyrsu valley near the Alpine Camp Ullutau.
Pogranotryad in Nalchik issues permits at 192 Kabardinskaya street. Passes are issued between 9. 00 and 13. 00, and the following documents are necessary:
- a stamped letter of application from an MFA-approved organisation; - passports of all participants; - a route sheet.
This sounds easy but Russian bureaucracy will probably force foreigners to stay in Nalchik for a few days. It is best to do it through an agency.
2. Prielbrusie National Park Permit. No strict system exists for obtaining this permit. Prices are negotiable. Park offices are located in Elbrus village.
3. OVIR Registration. Foreigners have to be registered in OVIR (Visa and Registration department) in Tyrnyauz. Tyrnyauz (Тырныауз is a town and the administrative center of Elbrussky District of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Russia, situated Generally hotels arrange registration. Last year the "official" fee was 50 roubles per person. The ruble or rouble (in Russian: рубль rubl') is a unit of currency It may be obtained at Moneralnye Vody airport at a much higher price. Unregistered climbers may face a fine that can be very high - but negotiable.
All of these permits are generally arranged in advance by agents. 
It is said to be home to the 'world's nastiest' outhouse which is close to being the highest privy in Europe. An outhouse, usually refers to a type of Toilet in a small structure separate from the main building which does not have a flush or sewer attached The title was conferred by Outside Magazine following a 1993 search and article. [] The outhouse is surrounded by and covered in ice, perched off the end of a rock, and with a pipe pouring effluvia onto the mountain. []