(Αυτόνομη Μοναστική Πολιτεία Αγίου Όρους)
Aftonomi Monastiki Politia Agiou Orous
Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain1
|Official languages||Greek, Church Slavonic, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian|
|-||Head of State2||Dora Bakoyannis|
|-||Ecumenical Patriarch||Bartholomew I|
|-||Total||335.64 km² |
129. The Flag of Greece ( Σημαία της Ελλάδος, popularly referred to as the Γαλανόλευκη or the Κυανόλευκη Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. It is the seat of the clerical and secular administration of the Athonite monastic state An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Church Slavonic (also Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian) is the Liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group Georgian (ka ქართული ენა kartuli ena) is the Official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Dora Bakoyannis ( Greek: Ντόρα Μπακογιάννη born Theodora Mitsotakis) ( May 6 1954) is a Greek politician the current "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I ( Greek: Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Α' Turkish: Patrik I Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare different Orders of magnitude and geographical regions we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km² 59 sq mi
|-||Density||6. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 7/km² |
17. 455/sq mi
|1||Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly|
|2||Greece's Minister for Foreign Affairs.|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||i, ii, iv, v, vi, vii|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1988 (12th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Mount Athos (Greek: Όρος Άθως) is a mountain on the peninsula of the same name in Macedonia, northern Greece, called in Greek Άγιον Όρος (Agion Oros, transliterated often as Hagion Oros), or in English, "Holy Mountain". A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. Macedonia ( Μακεδονία, Makedonía,) is a geographical and historical region of Greece in southeastern Europe Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In Classical times, the peninsula was called Ακτή (Acte or Akte). The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Politically it is known in Greece as the Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία This World Heritage Site is home to 20 Eastern Orthodox monasteries and forms a self-governed monastic state within the sovereignty of the Hellenic Republic. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. States wishing to retain territorial integrity in opposition to ethnic or indigenous demands for self-determination or independence sometimes offer or impose limited territorial autonomy MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor
The peninsula, the easternmost "leg" of the larger Chalcidice peninsula, protrudes into the Aegean Sea for some 60 kilometres (37 mi) at a width between 7 to 12 km and covers an area of 335. Chalkidiki, also Halkidiki or Chalcidice, less often Khalkidiki and rarely Chalkidice (Χαλκιδική xalkʲiðiˈkʲi is one of the Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. 637 square kilometres (129. 59 sq mi), with the actual Mount Athos and its steep, densely forested slopes reaching up to 2,033 metres (6,670 ft). The seas around the end of the peninsula can be dangerous.
Though land-linked, it is accessible only by boat. The number of visitors is restricted and all are required to get a special entrance permit before entering Mount Athos. Only males are allowed entrance into Mount Athos, which is called "Garden of the Virgin" by monks, and Orthodox Christians take precedence in the permit issuance procedure. Only males over the age of 18 who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church are allowed to live on Athos. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world There are religious guards, who are not monks, that assist the monks, and any other people not monks are required to live in the peninsula's capital, Karyes. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. It is the seat of the clerical and secular administration of the Athonite monastic state The 2001 Greek national census counted a population of 2,262 inhabitants. The National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG is a General Secretariat of the Greek Ministry of Economy and Finance with more than 1100 employees
The sovereign monasteries, in the order of their place in the Athonite hierarchy:
In the context of Greek mythology Athos was the name of one of the Gigantes that challenged the Greek gods during the Gigantomachia. The Monastery of Great Lavra (Μονή Μεγίστης Λαύρας is the first monastery built on Mount Athos. The Holy and Great Monastery of Vatopedi (Βατοπέδι or Βατοπαίδι on the Mount Athos was built during the second half of the 10th century by three monks Athanasius Iviron monastery ( Greek: Μονή Ιβήρων Georgian: ივერთა მონასტერი is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery Hilandar (Хиландар - Hilandar Χιλανδαρίου Хилендар Hilendar) is a Serbian Orthodox Monastery on Mount Dionysiou monastery (Μονή Διονυσίου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece in southwest Koutloumousiou monastery (Μονή Κουτλουμουσίου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece Pantokratoros monastery (Μονή Παντοκράτορος is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece Xeropotamou monastery (Μονή Ξηροποτάμου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, in the The Saint George the Zograf or Zograf Monastery (Зографски манастир Zografski manastir; Μονή Ζωγράφου Moní Zográphou) is Dochiariou monastery (Μονή Δοχειαρείου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. Karakalou monastery (Μονή Καρακάλου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. Filotheou monastery (Μονή Φιλοθέου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. Simonopetra Monastery ( Greek: Σιμωνόπετρα literally "Simon's Rock" Agiou Pavlou monastery (Μονή Αγίου Παύλου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. Stavronikita monastery ( Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos Ksenofondos monastery (Μονή Ξενοφώντος is an Orthodox Christian Monastery at the monastic state of Osiou Grigoriou monastery (Μονή Οσίου Γρηγορίου is an Orthodox Christian Monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece Esphigmenou monastery (Μονή Εσφιγμένου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece St Panteleimon Monastery ( Greek: Άγιος Παντελεήμων Aghios Panteleimon; Russian: Пантелеймонов known as Ρωσσικόν Konstamonitou monastery (Μονή Κοσταμονίτου is an orthodox christian Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece The Romanian Skete Prodromos (Schitul românesc Prodromu is a Romanian Cenobitic Skete belonging to the Great Lavra Monastery located in the Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. It is the seat of the clerical and secular administration of the Athonite monastic state Dafni (Δάφνη is a small settlement in Mount Athos. It is located on the southern coast of the athonite peninsula between Xiropotamou monastery and Simonopetra Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance See Gigantes y cabezudos for the giant figures of Spanish culture A listing of Greek mythological beings Many of the gods and goddesses had Roman and Etruscan equivalents. Athos threw a massive rock against Poseidon which fell in the Aegean sea and became the Athonite Peninsula. In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker" Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. According to another version of the story, Poseidon used the mountain to bury the defeated giant.
Herodotus tells us that Pelasgians from the island of Lemnos populated the peninsula, then called Acte or Akte. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The name Pelasgians (from Ancient Greek grc Πελασγοί Pelasgoí, singular Πελασγός Pelasgós) was used by some ancient Greek Lemnos (Λήμνος is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. (Herodotus, VII:22) Strabo reports of five cities on the peninsula: Dion (Dium), Cleonae (Kleonai), Thyssos (Thyssus), Olophyxos (Olophyxis), Acrothoï (Akrothoön), of which the last is near the crest. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Cleonae or Cleonæ or Kleonai may refer to any of several ancient cities including Archaies Kleones formerly Cleonae in Argolis (Strabo, Geography, VII:33:1) Eretria also established colonies on Acte. This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria on Euboea It should not be confused with Eretria in western Magnesia, Greece or the modern African nation Two other cities were established in the Classical period: Acanthus (Akanthos) and Sane. Acanthus or Akanthos ( Greek: or Modern Greek: Aχανθος (modern town of Ierissos, also Erisso) was an ancient Greek city Some of these cities minted their own coins.
The peninsula was on the invasion route of Xerxes I, who spent three years  excavating a channel across the isthmus to allow the passage of his invasion fleet in 483 BC. Xerxes I of Persia was a King of Persia (reigned 485–465 BC of the Achaemenid dynasty. Events By place Persian empire Xerxes I of Persia is encouraged by his cousin and brother-in-law After the death of Alexander the Great, the architect Dinocrates (Deinokrates), proposed to carve the entire mountain into a statue of Alexander. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Dinocrates of Rhodes (also Deinocrates; Δεινοκράτης ο Ρόδιος fl
The history of the peninsula during latter ages is shrouded by the lack of historical accounts. Archaeologists have not been able to determine the exact location of the cities reported by Strabo. It is believed that they must have been deserted when Athos' new inhabitants, the monks, started arriving at some time before the 7th century AD. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. 
According to the athonite tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was sailing accompanied by St John the Evangelist from Joppa to Cyprus to visit Lazarus. This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary Saint John the Evangelist (d ca 110 יוחנן " The LORD is merciful" Standard Hebrew Yoḥanan, Tiberian Hebrew Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Lazarus ( Hebrew: אלעזר Elʿāzār Eleazar "God (has helped" is the name of two separate men mentioned in the New Testament. When the ship was blown off course to then pagan Athos it was forced to anchor near the port of Klement, close to the present monastery of Iviron. The Virgin walked ashore and, overwhelmed by the wonderful and wild natural beauty of the mountain, she blessed it and asked her Son for it to be her garden. A voice was heard saying "Ἔστω ὁ τόπος οὖτος κλῆρος σός καί περιβόλαιον σόν καί παράδεισος, ἔτι δέ καί λιμήν σωτήριος τῶν θελόντων σωθῆναι" (Translation: "Let this place be your inheritance and your garden, a paradise and a haven of salvation for those seeking to be saved"). From that moment the mountain was consecrated as the garden of the Mother of God and was out of bounds to all other women.
Historical documents on ancient Mount Athos history are very few. It is sure that monks were already there since the 4th century, or possibly since the 3rd. During Constantine I's reign (324-337) both Christians and pagans were living there. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Events By Place Roman Empire July 3 — Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, forcing him Events By Place Roman Empire September 9 — Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their During the reign of Julian the Apostate (361-363), the churches of Mount Athos were destroyed, and Christians hid in the woods and inaccessible places. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar Events By Place Roman Empire Julian the Apostate becomes Roman Emperor, and tries to restore paganism in the empire Events By Place Roman Empire March 5 — Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 against the Later, during Theodosius I's reign (383-395), the pagan temples were destroyed. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Events By Place The British Isles Niall of the Nine Hostages becomes the first High King of Ireland Roman Events By Place Roman Empire After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Empire is re-divided into an eastern and a western half The lexicographer Hesychius of Alexandria states that in the 5th century there was still a temple and a statue of "Zeus Athonite". Hesychius of Alexandria (῾Ησύχιος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς a Grammarian who flourished probably in the 5th century CE compiled the richest lexicon Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology After the Islamic conquest of Egypt in the 7th century, many orthodox monks from the Egyptian desert tried to find another calm place; some of them came to the Athos peninsula. At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. An ancient document states that monks ". . . built huts of wood with roofs of straw (. . . ) and by collecting fruit from the wild trees were providing themselves improvised meals. . . "
The chroniclers Theophanes the Confessor (end of 8th century) and Georgios Kedrenos (11th century) wrote that the 726 eruption of the Thera volcano was visible from Mount Athos, proving that it was inhabited at the time. Saint Theophanes Confessor (c 758/760 &ndash March 12, 817/818 was a Byzantine aristocratic Ascetic monk and Chronicler He is venerated Georgios Kedrenos (fl 11th century also known as George Cedrenus, was a Byzantine historian The historian Genesios recorded that monks from Athos participated at the 7th Ecumenical Council of Nicaea of 843. The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh Ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council Around 860, the famous monk Efthymios the Younger came to Athos and a number of monk-huts ("skete of Saint Basil") were created around his habitation, possibly near Krya Nera. During the reign of emperor Basil I the Macedonian, the former Archbishop of Crete (and later of Thessaloniki) Basil the Confessor built a small monastery at the place of the modern harbour ("arsanas") of Chilandariou Monastery. For the Russian ruler see Basil I of Russia Basil I, called the Macedonian ( Greek: Βασίλειος Α΄ο Μακεδών Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia Soon after this, a document of 883 states that a certain Ioannis Kolovos built a monastery at Megali Vigla. On a chrysobull of emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain is proclaimed a place of monks, and no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders are allowed to be settled there. A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin) attached to a decree issued by The next year, in an imperial edict of emperor Leo VI the Wise we read about the ". This article is about the Byzantine Emperor There is also an article on Pope Leo VI Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" . . so-called ancient seat of the council of gerondes (council of elders). . . ", meaning that there was already a kind of monks' administration and that it was already "ancient". In 887, some monks expostulate to the emperor Leo the Wise as the monastery of Kolovos is growing more and more and they lose their peace. In 908, the existence of a Protos ("First monk") is documented, who is the "head" of the monastic community. Protos ( Greek Πρώτος translation "First" is a monastic office at the Eastern Orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos. In 943, the borders of the monastic state was precisely mapped while we know that Karyes is already the capital town and seat of the administration and has the name "Megali Mesi Lavra" (Big Central Assembly). In 956, a decree offered land of about 1/4 of an acre (2 500 m²) to the Xiropotamou monastery, which means that this monastery was already quite big.
In 958, the monk Athanasios the Athonite (Άγιος Αθανάσιος ο Αθωνίτης) arrived on Mount Athos. Athanasios the Athonite (Αθανάσιος ο Αθωνίτης also called Athanasius of Trebizond (c In 962, the big central church of the "Protaton" in Karies is built. In the next year, with the support of his friend, Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, the monastery of Great Lavra was founded, still the largest and most prominent of the 20 monasteries existing today. The Monastery of Great Lavra (Μονή Μεγίστης Λαύρας is the first monastery built on Mount Athos. It enjoyed the protection of the emperors of the Byzantine Empire during the following centuries and its wealth and possessions grew considerably. The Fourth Crusade in the 13th century brought new Roman Catholic overlords which forced the monks to complain and ask for the intervention of Pope Innocent III, until the restoration of the Byzantine Empire came. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January The peninsula was raided by Catalan mercenaries in the 14th century, a century that also saw the theological conflict over the hesychasm practised on Mount Athos and defended by Gregory Palamas. The Catalan Company of the East ( Catalan Companyia Catalana d'Orient) officially the Company of the Army of the Franks in Romania Hesychasm ( Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, "stillness rest quiet silence" is an Eremitic tradition of Prayer in Saint Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς (1296 - 1359 was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later the Archbishop of
The Byzantine Empire was conquered in the 15th century and the newly established Islamic Ottoman Empire took its place. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Athonite monks tried to maintain good relations with the Ottoman Sultans and therefore when Murad II conquered Thessaloniki in 1430 they immediately pledged allegiance to him. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with Murad II ( June 1404 Amasya February 3, 1451, Edirne) ( Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia In return, Murad recognized the monasteries' properties, something which Mehmed II formally ratified after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar In this way the Athonite independence was somewhat guaranteed.
The 15th and 16th centuries were particularly peaceful for the Athonite community. This led to relative prosperity for the monasteries. An example of this is the foundation of Stavronikita monastery which completed the current number of Athonite monasteries. Stavronikita monastery ( Greek: Μονή Σταυρονικήτα is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos Following the conquest of the Serbian Despotate by the Ottomans many Serbian monks came to Athos. The Serbian Despotate ( Serbian: Српска деспотовина or Srpska despotovina) was among the last Serbian states to be conquered by the The extensive presence of Serbian monks is depicted in the numerous elections of Serbian monks to the office of the Protos during the era. Protos ( Greek Πρώτος translation "First" is a monastic office at the Eastern Orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos.
Sultan Selim I was a substantial benefactor of the Xiropotamou monastery. Selim I ( Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ISelim; also known as "the Grim" or "the Brave" Yavuz in Xeropotamou monastery (Μονή Ξηροποτάμου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece, in the In 1517, he issued a fatwa and a Hatt-i Sharif, "noble edict" that "the place, where the Holy Gospel is preached, whenever it is burned or even damaged, it shall be erected again. A fatwā (فتوى plural fatāwā فتاوى in the Islamic faith is a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an The Hatt-i Sharif (Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane (Noble Edict of the Rose Chamber was an 1839 proclamation by Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I that " He also endowed privileges to the Abbey and financed the construction of the dining area and underground of the Abbey as well as the renovation of the wall paintings in the central church that were completed between the years 1533-1541. 
Despite the fact that most time the monasteries were left on their own, the Ottomans heavily taxed them and sometimes they seized important land parcels from them. This eventually culminated an economic crisis in Athos during the 17th century. This led to the adoption of the so called "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle (a semi-eremitic variant of Christian monasticism) by a few monasteries at first and later, during the first half of the 18th century, by all. A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" This new way of monastic organization was an emergency measure taken by the monastic communities to counter their harsh economic environment. Contrary to the cenobitic system, monks in idiorrhythmic communities have private property, work for themselves, they are solely responsible for acquiring food and other necessities and they dine separately in their cells, only meeting with other monks at church. At the same time, the monasteries' abbots were replaced by committees and at Karyes the Protos was replaced by a four member committee. The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. 
Russian tsars, and princes from Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia (until the end of the 15th century) helped the monasteries to survive, offering large donations. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The population of monks and their wealth declined over the next centuries, but were revitalized during the 19th century, particularly by the patronage of the Russian government. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar As a result, the monastic population grew steadily throughout the century, reaching a high point of over 7000 monks in 1902. In 1912, during the First Balkan War, the Ottomans were forced out by the Greek Navy, which claimed the peninsula as part of the peace treaty in 1913. The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 pitted the Balkan League ( Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria The Hellenic Navy ( HN) ( Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval force of Greece The Treaty of London was signed on 30 May 1913, to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
In June of 1913 a small Russian fleet, consisting of the gunboat Donets and the transport ships Tsar and Kherson, delivered the archbishop of Vologda, and a number of troops to Mount Athos to intervene in the theological controversy over imiaslavie (a Russian Orthodox movement). Vologda (Во́логда is a city in Russia and the administrative center of Vologda Oblast. Imiaslavie (Имяславие or Imiabozhie (Имябожие also spelled imyaslavie or imyabozhie and also referred as onomatodoxy, is a dogmatic movement The archbishop held talks with the imiaslavtsy and tried to make them change their beliefs voluntarily, but was unsuccessful. On July 31 the troops stormed the St. Panteleimon Monastery. Although the monks were not armed and did not actively resist, the troops showed very heavy-handed tactics. After the storming of St. Panteleimon Monastery the monks from the Andreevsky Skete surrendered voluntarily. The military transport Kherson was converted into a prison ship and several imiaslavtsy monks were sent to Russia.
After a brief diplomatic conflict between Greece and Russia over sovereignty, the peninsula formally came under Greek sovereignty after World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
The self-governed region of the Holy Mountain, according to the Decree passed by the Holy Community on the 3rd October 1913 and according to the international treaties of London (1913), Bucharest (1913), Neuilly (1919), Sèvres (1920) and Lausanne (1923), is considered part of the Greek state. The Treaty of London was signed on 30 May 1913, to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on November 27 The Treaty of Sèvres ( 10 August 1920) was the Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War The Treaty of Lausanne ( July 24, 1923) was a Peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the Partitioning The Decree, "made in the presence of the Holy Icon of Axion Estin", stated that the Holy Community recognised the Kings of Greece as the lawful sovereigns and "successors on the Mountain" of the "Emperors who built" the monasteries and declared its territory as belonging to the then Kingdom of Greece. Axion estin ( Greek: Άξιον εστίν, Slavonic: Достóйно éсть Dostóino yesť) or It is Truly Meet, This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Later a "Special Double Assembly" of the Holy Community in Karyes passed the "Constitutional Charter" of the Holy Mountain, which was ratified by the Greek Parliament. This regime originates from the "self-ruled monastic state" as stated on a chrysobull parchment signed and sealed by the Byzantine Emperor John Tzimisces in 972. A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin) attached to a decree issued by John I Tzimiskes or Tzimisces, (Ιωάννης Α΄ Τζιμισκής Iōannēs I Tzimiskēs; Հովհաննես Ա Չմշկիկ Hovhannes Ayp Chmshgig 972 was a year in the 10th century. Events By Place Europe Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine This important document is preserved in the House of the Holy Administration in Karyes. The autonomy of the Holy Mountain was later reaffirmed by the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1095. Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 According to the constitution of Greece, Mount Athos (the "Monastic State of Hagion Oros") is, "following ancient privilege", politically self-governed and consists of 20 main monasteries which constitute the Holy Community, and the capital town and administrative centre, Karyes, also home to a governor as the representative of the Greek state. The governor is an executive appointee. The status of the Holy Mountain and the jurisdiction of the Hagiorite institutions were expressly described and ratified upon admission of Greece to the European Union (then the European Community). The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992
In modern times, the Mount Athos monasteries have repeatedly been struck by wildfires, e. g. in August 1990, and in March 2004, fire gutted a large section of the Serbian monastery, Hilandar. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Hilandar (Хиландар - Hilandar Χιλανδαρίου Хилендар Hilendar) is a Serbian Orthodox Monastery on Mount Due to the secluded locations of the monasteries, often atop small hills, as well as the unavailability of suitable fire fighting gear, the damages inflicted by these fires are often considerable.
On September 12, 2004, the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, Peter VII, was killed, together with 16 others, in a helicopter crash in the Aegean Sea off the peninsula. The Patriarch of Alexandria is the Archbishop of Alexandria and Cairo, Egypt. Petros VII ( September 3, 1949 &ndash September 11, 2004) was the Eastern Orthodox Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. The Patriarch was heading to Mount Athos. The cause of the crash remains unknown.
The monasteries of Mount Athos have a history of opposing ecumenism, or movements towards reconciliation between the Orthodox Church of Constantinople and the Roman Catholic Church. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor The Esphigmenou monastery is particularly outspoken in this respect, having raised black flags to protest against the meeting of Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople and Pope Paul VI in 1972 . Esphigmenou monastery (Μονή Εσφιγμένου is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece Aristocles Spyrou / Αριστοκλής Σπύρου) ( March 25, 1886 - July 7, 1972) was the 268th Ecumenical Patriarch of Pope Esphigmenou was subsequently expelled from the representative bodies of the Athonite Community. The conflict escalated in 2002 with Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople declaring the monks of Esphigmenou an illegal brotherhood and ordering their eviction; the monks refuse to be evicted, and oppose their replacement with a new brotherhood. Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I ( Greek: Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης Βαρθολομαῖος Α' Turkish: Patrik I
After reaching a low point of just 1145 mainly elderly monks in 1971, the monasteries have been undergoing a steady and sustained renewal, both in the quality and the quantity of new monks that have been drawn to the Athonite monastic community. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. By the year 2000, the monastic population had reached 1610, with all 20 monasteries and their associated sketes receiving an infusion of mainly young well-educated monks with a zeal for the faith unseen in many decades. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Many younger monks possess university education and advanced skills that allow them to work on the cataloguing and restoration of the Mountain's vast repository of manuscripts, vestments, icons, liturgical objects and other works of art, most of which remain unknown to the public because of their sheer volume. Projected to take several decades to complete, this restorative and archival work is well under way, funded by UNESCO and the EU, and aided by many academic institutions. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The Holy Mountain is governed by the "Holy Community" (Iera Kinotita) which consists of the representatives of the 20 Holy Monasteries, having as executive committee the four-membered "Holy Administration" (Iera Epistasia), with the Protos being its head. Karyes is a settlement in Mount Athos. It is the seat of the clerical and secular administration of the Athonite monastic state Protos ( Greek Πρώτος translation "First" is a monastic office at the Eastern Orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos. Civil authorities are represented by the Civil Governor, appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose main duty is to supervise the function of the institutions and the public order. Spiritually, Mount Athos comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
In each of the 20 monasteries - which today all follow the coenobitic system - the administration is in the hands of the "Abbot" (Hēgoumenos) who is elected by the brotherhood for life. He is the lord and spiritual father of the monastery. The Convention of the brotherhood is the legislative body. All the other establishments (cloisters, cells, huts, retreats, hermitages) are dependencies of some of the 20 monasteries and are assigned to the monks by a document called "homologon".
Beyond the monasteries there are 12 skētae, smaller communities of monks, as well as many (solitary) hermitages throughout the peninsula. A skete is a community of Christian Hermits following a monastic rule allowing them to Worship in comparative Solitude, while also All persons leading a monastic life thereon acquire Greek citizenship without further formalities, upon admission as novices or monks. Visits to the peninsula are possible for laymen, but they need special permission.
Of the 20 monasteries located on the Holy Mountain, the brethren of 17 are predominantly ethnically Greek and of the other 3 is drawn from the monks of other origins, who become Greek subjects notwithstanding: the Chelandari Monastery — Serbians, the Zografou Monastery — Bulgarians and the Aghios Panteleimon Monastery — Russians. Among the 12 cloisters, two are Romanian, the coenobitic "Skētē Timiou Prodromou" (which belongs to the Monastery Meghistis Lavras) and the idiorrythmic "Skētē Aghiou Dēmētriou tou Lakkou", also called "Lakkoskētē" (which belongs to the Aghios Pavlos Monastery) and another one is Bulgarian, "Skētē Bogoroditsa" (which belongs to the Aghios Panteleimon Monastery).
Entry to the mountain is usually by ferry boat either from the port of Ouranoupolis (for west coast monasteries) or Ierrisos for those on the east coast. Before embarking on the boat all visitors must have been issued a diamonētērion, a form of Byzantine visa that is written in Greek, dated to the Julian calendar, and signed by four of the secretaries of leading monasteries. There are generally two kinds of diamonētērion: the general diamonētērion that enables the visitor to stay overnight at any one of the monasteries but only stay in the mountain for three days, and the special diamonētērion which allows a visitor to visit only one monastery or skete but to stay as many days as he has agreed with the monks. A skete is a community of Christian Hermits following a monastic rule allowing them to Worship in comparative Solitude, while also The general diamonētērion is available upon application from the Pilgrims' Bureau in Thessaloniki. Once this has been granted it will be issued at the port of departure, on the day of departure. Once granted, the pilgrim can then contact the monastery where they would like to stay in order to reserve a bed (one night only per monastery). The ferries require reservations, both ways.
Most visitors arrive at the small port of Dafni from where they can take the only paved road in the mountain to the capital Karyes or continue via a further smaller boat to other monasteries down the coast. Dafni (Δάφνη is a small settlement in Mount Athos. It is located on the southern coast of the athonite peninsula between Xiropotamou monastery and Simonopetra There is a public bus between Dafni and Karyes. Expensive taxis operated by monks are available for hire at Dafni and Karyes. They are all-wheel drive vehicles since most roads in the mountain are unpaved. Visitors to monasteries on the mountain's western side prefer to stay on the ferry and disembark at the monastery they wish to visit.
Upon arrival at a monastery, the visitor may ask the guest-master if and when they may see and venerate the relics and miraculous icons and may receive a kind of guided tour and information about the history of the monastery. Visitors should not miss the old church of "Protaton" with its exceptional murals and to venerate the miraculous holy icon of Virgin Mary, called "Axion Esti", which is the household icon of the patron saint of the Holy Mountain.
Monks feel that the presence of women alters the social dynamics of the community and therefore slows the path towards spiritual enlightenment. It is incorrect to suggest that the prohibition is in order to reduce sexual temptation. This myth has earned the Holy Mountain a certain amount of unnecessary notoriety. However, female domestic animals are forbidden (with the exception of cats, which keep down the rodent population, and chickens, which lay eggs that provide the fresh egg yolk needed for the paint used in iconography). Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images The interdiction is punished by imprisonment from one to two years. The European parliament has urged Greece twice to change this rule, but the demand was rejected. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU 
Athos did shelter refugees including women and girls twice in its history: during the aftermath of the failed 1770 Orlov Revolt, and during the Greek War of Independence in 1821. The Orlov Revolt ( 1770) was a precursor to the Greek War of Independence ( 1821) which saw a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese at The Greek War of Independence (1821–1829 also commonly known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi; Ottoman
There was an incident in the 1930s regarding Aliki Diplarakou, the first Greek beauty pageant contestant to win the Miss Europe title, who shocked the world when she dressed up as a man and sneaked into Mount Athos. Aliki Diplarakou, in Greek: Αλίκη Διπλαράκου, ( August 28, 1912 - October The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Miss Europe is a popular regional Beauty pageant among female contestants from the nations of the European continent established at the end of World War II by Her escapade was discussed in the July 13, 1953 Time magazine article entitled The Climax of Sin. Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and 
On May 26, 2008, five Moldovans illegally entered Greece by way of Turkey, ending up on Athos; four of the migrants were women. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Moldovans, or Moldavians (original name Moldoveni; Молдовень in the Moldovan Cyrillic script, used nowadays only in Transnistria The monks forgave them for trespassing and informed them that the area was forbidden to females. 
For the purposes of the European Union treaty, Mount Athos is a part of a member state, only outside EU VAT territory. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The Athonian monasteries possess huge deposits of invaluable medieval art treasures, including icons, liturgical vestments and objects (crosses, chalices), codices and other Christian texts, imperial chrysobulls, holy relics etc. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics A chalice (from Latin calix, cup borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell husk is a goblet intended to hold drink A codex ( Latin for block of wood, Book; plural codices) is a book in the format used for modern books with separate pages normally A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin) attached to a decree issued by A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial Until recently no organized study and archiving had been carried out, but a EU-funded effort to catalogue, protect and restore them is under way since the late 1980s. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Their sheer number is such, it is estimated that several decades will pass before the work is completed.
Greek is commonly used in all Greek monasteries, but in some monasteries there are other languages in use: in St Panteleimonos, Russian (35 monks in 2000); in Hilandar, Serbian (46); in Zographou, Bulgarian (15); and in the sketae of Prodromos and Lacu, Romanian (64). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly St Panteleimon Monastery ( Greek: Άγιος Παντελεήμων Aghios Panteleimon; Russian: Пантелеймонов known as Ρωσσικόν Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group The Romanian Skete Prodromos (Schitul românesc Prodromu is a Romanian Cenobitic Skete belonging to the Great Lavra Monastery located in the Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Today, many of the Greek monks also speak English. Since there are monks from many nations in Athos (some come as far as Latin America), they also speak their own native languages.
Monastic life in the sketae is totally different. A skete is a community of Christian Hermits following a monastic rule allowing them to Worship in comparative Solitude, while also Some of them resemble a tidy farmhouse, others are poor huts, others have the gentility of Byzantine tradition or of Russian architecture of the past century. The monk of a cell, having to take care of the worries of everyday life, makes up his program by himself. For the visitor, it is worth experiencing this side of monastic life, but most of the cells have very little or no capacity for hospitality.
There are two types of "cloisters" ("sketae"): the coenobitic skete and the idiorrhythmic skete. The first, both in architecture and life-style, follows the typical model of a monastery. In contrast, the second is rather like a hamlet, and daily life there is much like that of a "cell", but there are also some duties for the community. Near the centre of the settlement is the central church called "Kyriakon" (that could be translated "for Sunday") where the whole brotherhood meets on Sundays and religious celebrations. Usually there are also an administration house, a library, storehouses and a guesthouse.
A Russian post office was established at Karyai in the last years of the 19th Century. This post office was selling Russian Levant stamps and, from 1910, special ROPIT (Р. Ο. П. и. Т. ) stamps overprinted with "Mont-Athos" and values in ottoman currency. 
In the winter of 1915-1916 the allied forces were considering occupation of the Holy Mountain. Design Extensive changes to the design were made in converting the ship to a seaplane tender with propulsion machinery moved aft and a working deck occupying the forward half of In anticipation of this they prepared a set of stamps which were intended for issue on 25 January 1916 for the use of the Governing body of the Monastic Community. A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
These stamps were produced in sheets of 12, (3 rows of 4), on board the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. Design Extensive changes to the design were made in converting the ship to a seaplane tender with propulsion machinery moved aft and a working deck occupying the forward half of Six values were produced, ranging up to one shilling, and all were printed in black but on various different paper types.
The design of these stamps consisted of a square border with the name MOUNT ATHOS at the bottom in English, the left in Russian and on the right in Greek. At the top was inscribed THEOCRACY. The denomination appeared at each corner with the English in the lower corners, Greek in the top left and Russian in the top right. The inner section showed a double headed Byzantine eagle with the effigy of the Madonna and Child in an oval on its breast.
These stamps have no official status but fall into the category of prepared for use but not issued.
For political reasons in 1916 the Greek Government overprinted greek "Campaign 1912" and postage due (1913 issue) stamps, as well as postal stationary, with the inscription "Ι. Κοινότης Αγ. Όρους" (Holly Community of Sacred Mountain). The decision was recalled before the stamps were officially issued. 
In 2008 the Hellenic Postal Service started issuing postage stamps for postal use only at the two post offices of Mount Athos (Karyai and Dafni). The Hellenic Post (Ελληνικά Ταχυδρομεία abbreviated EΛTA ELTA) is the state-owned provider of postal services in Greece. The first set of 5 stamps was issued on May 16, 2008. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Hellenic Post issues the modern era Mount Athos stamps despite opposition from the Hellenic Philatelic Federation (Ελληνική Φιλοτελική Ομοσπονδία) and the Hellenic Philatelic Society.  A second set of five stamps was issued on June 13, [, according to the published programme. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for
The Friends of Mount Athos is a society formed in 1990 by people who shared a common interest for the monasteries of Mount Athos. Timothy Ware, auxiliary bishop Kallistos of Diokleia, is the President of the society. Timothy Ware (born 1934) also known as His Excellency the Most Reverend Metropolitan Kallistos of Diokleia, is a titular Metropolitan of the Eastern See also Bishop (Catholic Church An auxiliary bishop, in the Roman Catholic Church, is an additional bishop assigned to a Diocese because Among its members are Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Charles, Prince of Wales, Heir Apparent to the British throne. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy