|Born||August 26, 1910|
Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
|Died||5 September 1997 (aged 87)|
|Occupation||Roman Catholic nun, humanitarian|
Mother Teresa (Albanian: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, Macedonian: Агнес Гонџа Бојаџиу, Latinic: Agnes Gondža Bojadžiu; IPA: ['agnɛs 'gɔndʒa bɔ'jadʒu]) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was an Albanian Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata (Calcutta), India in 1950. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Skopje (Скопје; Shkup or Shkupi is the Capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population The Republic of Macedonia (Република Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Macedonian () is the official Language of the Republic of Macedonia and is a part of the Eastern group of South Slavic languages. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4500 Nuns India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For over forty years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries.
By the 1970s she had become internationally famed as a humanitarian and advocate for the poor and helpless, due in part to a documentary, and book, Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. Humanitarianism is an active belief in Humanism (the idea of the value of human life whereby Humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge ( Croydon, England 24 March 1903 &ndash 14 November 1990) was a British Journalist She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity continued to expand, and at the time of her death it was operating 610 missions in 123 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools.
Following her death she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta. Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Pope 
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Chaldean Syrian Church
Agnes Gonxha (Albanian for "rosebud") Bojaxhiu was born on August 26, 1910, in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. Christianity is India's third-largest religion, with approximately 24 million followers constituting 2 Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Malankara Church of India is the Christian church believed to be started by St The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an Ethnoreligious group from Kerala, India. This article addresses the Saint Thomas Christians and the various churches and denominations that form the Nasrani people. Malankara Metropolitan is the title of the head of Malankara Church of Kerala, India, believed to be started by St See also Syrian Malabar Nasrani Knanaya (Hebקנאים Malayalam ക്നാനായ Arقينان literally meaning "Knai people" are an The Synod of Diamper, held at Udayamperoor /Diamper ( Kerala, India) formally united the ancient Christian Church of the Malabar Coast Saint Thomas The Coonan Cross Oath was taken in 1653, by a group of Saint Thomas Christians, reacting to the persecution of their Church by the Portuguese colonials The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian state of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia Thomas the Apostle, also called Judas Thomas, Doubting Thomas, or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco Reginald Heber ( April 21, 1783 - April 3, 1826) was a Church of England bishop now remembered chiefly as a hymn-writer Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara was the co-founder and first prior-general of the Congregation of the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate and of the Congregation of the Henry Martyn ( 18 February, 1781 - 16 October 1812) was an Anglican priest and Missionary to the peoples of India George Edward Lynch Cotton ( October 29, 1813 – October 6, 1866) was an English and educator and churchman renowned for his connections William Carey may refer to William Carey (1761&ndash1834 an English Protestant missionary William Carey (c Biography Early life Groves was born in Newton Valance, Hampshire, England Hugh Findlay ( Newmilns, Ayrshire, Scotland, June 9, 1822 &ndash March 2, 1900 in Fish Haven Idaho Advent Christian Conference Anglican Church of India Apatani Christian Fellowship Apostolic Christian Assembly Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. The Church of North India (CNI the dominant Protestant denomination in northern India is a United church established on 29 November 1970 by The Church of South India ( Abbreviation: CSI) is a union of many Protestant Denominations spread throughout South India. The Brethren are a Christian Evangelical Premillennial religious movement The Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPC is the largest indigenous Pentecostal movement in India, with its headquarters at Hebron Kumbanad, Kerala The Jacobite Syrian Christian Church is the Malankara Archdiocese of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Kerala, India. Malabar Independent Syriac Church is also known as Thozhyur Sabah (church and Anjoor church The Mar Thoma Church is a Christian denomination from Kerala, the South Western State of India. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East, The Roman Catholic Church in India is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. St Thomas Evangelical Church of India (STECI is an Evangelical, Episcopal denomination based in Kerala, India. The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (also known as Malankara Syrian Catholic Church Malankara Syriac Catholic Church) The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Chaldean Rite Major Archiepiscopal Church in Full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Skopje (Скопје; Shkup or Shkupi is the Capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population The Republic of Macedonia (Република  She was the youngest of the children of a family from Shkodër, Albania, born to Nikola and Dranafile (Albanian for "rose", nicknamed "Drone") Bojaxhiu. Shkodër (Shkodër or Shkodra is a city located on Lake Shkodër in northwestern Albania in the District This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Nikola was involved in Albanian politics. In 1919, after a political meeting he fell ill and died when Agnes was about eight years old.  After her father's death, her mother raised her as a Roman Catholic. According to a biography by Joan Graff Clucas, in her early years Agnes was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service, and by age 12 was convinced that she should commit herself to a religious life. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes.  She left home at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto as a missionary. The Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary are more commonly known as the Loreto Sisters. She never again saw her mother or sister. 
Agnes initially went to the Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland to learn English, the language the Sisters of Loreto used to teach school children in India. Rathfarnham ( Irish: Ráth Fearnáin, meaning Fearnán's Ringfort) is a suburb of Dublin's Southside. Rathfarnham ( Irish: Ráth Fearnáin, meaning Fearnán's Ringfort) is a suburb of Dublin's Southside. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world  She arrived in India in 1929, and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, near the Himalayan mountains. Novitiate, alt noviciate, is the period of training and preparation that a Novice (or prospective) monastic or member Darjeeling ( Nepali:) is a town in the Indian state of West Bengal.  She took her first religious vows as a nun on May 24, 1931. Religious vows are the public Vows made by the members of the religious life – cenobitic and eremitic – of the Roman Catholic, Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At that time she chose the name Teresa after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries.  She took her solemn vows on May 14, 1937, while serving as a teacher at the Loreto convent school in eastern Calcutta. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta.  A famine in 1943 brought misery and death to the city; and the outbreak of Hindu/Muslim violence in August 1946 plunged the city into despair and horror. 
On September 10, 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as "the call within the call" while traveling to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling for her annual retreat. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Darjeeling ( Nepali:) is a town in the Indian state of West Bengal. "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith. " She began her missionary work with the poor in 1948, replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple white cotton chira decorated with a blue border, adopted Indian citizenship, and ventured out into the slums. " Initially she started a school in Motijhil; soon she started tending to the needs of the destitute and starving.  Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the Prime Minister, who expressed his appreciation. 
Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulties. She had no income and had to resort to begging for food and supplies. Teresa experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months. She wrote in her diary:
|“||Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then the comfort of Loreto [her former order] came to tempt me. 'You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again,' the Tempter kept on saying . . . Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come. ||”|
Teresa received Vatican permission on October 7, 1950 to start the diocesan congregation that would become the Missionaries of Charity. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4500 Nuns  Its mission was to care for, in her own words, "the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone. Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium " It began as a small order with 13 members in Calcutta; today it has more than 4,000 nuns running orphanages, AIDS hospices, and charity centers worldwide, and caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless, and victims of floods, epidemics, and famine. A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life An orphanage is an institution devoted to the care of children whose parents are deceased or otherwise unable to care for them Palliative care (from Latin palliare to cloak is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of Disease Symptoms 
In 1952 Mother Teresa opened the first Home for the Dying in space made available by the City of Calcutta. With the help of Indian officials she converted an abandoned Hindu temple into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, a free hospice for the poor. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Kalighat Home for the Dying is a hospice for the poor in Calcutta, India, founded by Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu also known as Mother Teresa Palliative care (from Latin palliare to cloak is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of Disease Symptoms She renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday).  Those brought to the home received medical attention and were afforded the opportunity to die with dignity, according to the rituals of their faith; Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received the Last Rites.  "A beautiful death," she said, "is for people who lived like animals to die like angels — loved and wanted. " Mother Teresa soon opened a home for those suffering from Hansen's disease, commonly known as leprosy, and called the hospice Shanti Nagar (City of Peace).  The Missionaries of Charity also established several leprosy outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, bandages and food. Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4500 Nuns
As the Missionaries of Charity took in increasing numbers of lost children, Mother Teresa felt the need to create a home for them. Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4500 Nuns In 1955 she opened the Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children's Home of the Immaculate Heart, as a haven for orphans and homeless youth. 
The order soon began to attract both recruits and charitable donations, and by the 1960s had opened hospices, orphanages, and leper houses all over India. Palliative care (from Latin palliare to cloak is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of Disease Symptoms An orphanage is an institution devoted to the care of children whose parents are deceased or otherwise unable to care for them Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Mother Teresa then expanded the order throughout the globe. Its first house outside India opened in Venezuela in 1965 with five sisters. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life  Others followed in Rome, Tanzania, and Austria in 1968; during the 1970s the order opened houses and foundations in dozens of countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the United States. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Her philosophy and implementation have faced some criticism. While noting how little evidence Mother Teresa's critics were able to find against her, David Scott wrote that Mother Teresa limited herself to keeping people alive rather than tackling poverty itself. David Scott is an author with a special interest in religion and culture  She has also been criticized for her view on suffering: according to an article in the Alberta Report, she felt that suffering would bring people closer to Jesus. Alberta Report was a right-wing weekly newsmagazine based in Edmonton  The quality of care offered to terminally ill patients in the Homes for the Dying has been criticised in the medical press, notably The Lancet and the British Medical Journal, which reported the reuse of hypodermic needles, poor living conditions, including the use of cold baths for all patients, and an anti-materialist approach that precluded the use of systematic diagnosis. This article is about the journal For other uses of the term "lancet" see Lancet (disambiguation. A hypodermic needle is a hollow needle commonly used with a Syringe to inject substances into the body 
In 1982, at the height of the Siege of Beirut, Mother Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas. Historical Setting The PLO moved its primary base of operations to Beirut in the late 1960s after an attempt on their part to overthrow the government The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit  Accompanied by Red Cross workers, she traveled through the war zone to the devastated hospital to evacuate the young patients. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated 
When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late 1980s, she expanded her efforts to Communist countries that had previously rejected the Missionaries of Charity, embarking on dozens of projects. She was undeterred by criticism about her firm stand against abortion and divorce stating, "No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work. An Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. "
Mother Teresa traveled to assist and minister to the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl, and earthquake victims in Armenia. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Chernobyl (as transliterated from the Чернобыль) or Chornobyl (as transliterated from Чорнобиль tʃɔrˈnɔbɪlʲ was a city in northern Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani  In 1991, Mother Teresa returned for the first time to her homeland and opened a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana, Albania. Tirana (Tiranë or Tirana is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics.
By 1996, she was operating 517 missions in more than 100 countries.  Over the years, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands serving the "poorest of the poor" in 450 centers around the world. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx, New York; by 1984 the order operated 19 establishments throughout the country. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous 
The spending of the charity money received has been criticized by some. Christopher Hitchens and the Stern have said that money that was donated with the intention of it being spent on the keeping of the poor was spent on other projects instead. Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British Author, Journalist, Literary critic and American Stern ( English "Star" is a weekly News magazine published in Germany. 
Mother Teresa suffered a heart attack in Rome in 1983, while visiting Pope John Paul II. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pope After a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. For other uses see Pacemaker (disambiguation A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker In 1991, after a battle with pneumonia while in Mexico, she suffered further heart problems. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. She offered to resign her position as head of the Missionaries of Charity. But the nuns of the order, in a secret ballot, voted for her to stay. Mother Teresa agreed to continue her work as head of the order.
In April 1996, Mother Teresa fell and broke her collar bone. In August she suffered from malaria and failure of the left heart ventricle. Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic In the Heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects Blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle and She had heart surgery, but it was clear that her health was declining. Cardiac surgery is Surgery on the Heart and/or Great vessels performed by a Cardiac surgeon. On March 13, 1997, she stepped down from the head of Missionaries of Charity and died on September 5, 1997. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar
The Archbishop of Calcutta, Henry Sebastian D'Souza, said he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism on Mother Teresa with her permission when she was first hospitalized with cardiac problems because he thought she may be under attack by the devil. Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure is the practice of evicting Demons or other evil The Devil is the 
At the time of her death, Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters, an associated brotherhood of 300 members, and over 100,000 lay volunteers, operating 610 missions in 123 countries. In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy. These included hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counseling programs, orphanages, and schools. Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common A soup kitchen or a bread line is a place where Food is offered to the Poor and Homeless for free or at a reasonably low Price
Mother Teresa lay in state in St Thomas, Kolkata for one week prior to her funeral, in September 1997. St Thomas's Church in Kolkata, India, is one of the colonial style buildings of the city She was granted a state funeral by the Indian Government in gratitude for her services to the poor of all religions in India. A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour Heads of state or other important people of national significance  Mother Teresa had first been recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier when she was awarded the Padma Shri in 1962. Padma Shri (also spelt Padma Shree, Padmashree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the Government of India generally She continued to receive major Indian rewards in successive decades including, in 1972, the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding and, in 1980, India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू ʤəʋäɦəɾläl nɛɦɾu (14 November 1889 27 May 1964 was a major political leader of the Congress Party Bharat Ratna (translates to Jewel of India or Gem of India in English) is India 's highest Civilian award, awarded for the 
Indian views on Mother Teresa were not uniformly favourable. Her critic Aroup Chatterjee, who was born and bred in Calcutta but lived in London, reports that "she was not a significant entity in Calcutta in her lifetime". Aroup Chatterjee (born Kolkata is the author of the book Mother Teresa The Final Verdict which seeks to challenge the claim to fame of Mother Teresa as a symbol Chatterjee blames Mother Teresa for promoting a negative image of his home city.  Her presence and profile grated in parts of the Indian political world, as she often opposed the Hindu Right. Hindu nationalism is a nationalist Ideology that sees the modern State of the Republic of India as a Hindu Polity The Bharatiya Janata Party clashed with her over the Christian Dalits, but praised her in death, sending a representative to her funeral. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste. The Vishwa Hindu Parishad, on the other hand, opposed the Government's decision to grant her a state funeral. Viśva Hindū Pariṣad ( Devanāgarī: विश्व हिन्दु परिषद World Hindu Council widely Its secretary Giriraj Kishore said that "her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental" and accused her of favouring Christians and conducting "secret baptisms" of the dying. Acharya Giriraj Kishore is an Indian Activist and Politician. But Parvathi Menon, writing the front page tribute for the Indian fortnightly Frontline, dismissed these charges as "patently false" and said that they had "made no impact on the public perception of her work, especially in Calcutta". Parvathi Menon (പാര്വതി മേനോന് is an actress who hails from Kerala, India. Frontline ( is a Fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. Although praising her "selfless caring", energy and bravery, Menon was critical of Mother Teresa's public campaigning against abortion and that she claimed to be non-political when doing so.  More recently, the Indian daily The Telegraph referred to her as "the Saint of the Gutters", also mentioning calls for "Rome to investigate whether she did anything to alleviate the condition of the poor or just took care of the sick and dying and needed them to further a sentimentally-moral cause". The Telegraph is a Kolkata (Calcutta based broadsheet newspaper in English. 
In 1962, Mother Teresa received the Philippines-based Ramon Magsaysay Award for International Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF based in New York City. The citation said that "the Board of Trustees recognizes her merciful cognizance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation".  By the early 1970s, Mother Teresa had become an international celebrity. Her fame can be in large part attributed to the 1969 documentary Something Beautiful for God, which was filmed by Malcolm Muggeridge and his 1971 book of the same title. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge ( Croydon, England 24 March 1903 &ndash 14 November 1990) was a British Journalist Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time.  During the filming of the documentary, footage taken in poor lighting conditions, particularly the Home for the Dying, was thought unlikely to be of usable quality by the crew. After returning from India, however, the footage was found to be extremely well lit. Muggeridge claimed this was a miracle of "divine light" from Mother Teresa herself.  Others in the crew thought it was due to a new type of ultra-sensitive Kodak film. Eastman Kodak Company ( is an American multinational Public company which produces imaging and photographic materials and equipment  Muggeridge later converted to Catholicism.
Around this time, the Catholic world began to honor Mother Teresa publicly. In 1971, Paul VI awarded her the first Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, commending her for her work with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace. Pope Pope John (numberingBlessed  She later received the Pacem in Terris Award (1976). The Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award has been awarded annually since 1964 in commemoration of the 1963 Encyclical " Pacem in Terris  Since her death, Mother Teresa has progressed rapidly along the steps towards sainthood, currently having reached the stage of having been beatified. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church
Mother Teresa was honored by both governments and civilian organizations. The United Kingdom and the United States each repeatedly granted awards, culminating in the Order of Merit in 1983, and honorary citizenship of the United States received on November 16, 1996. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Mother Teresa's Albanian homeland granted her the Golden Honor of the Nation in 1994.  Her acceptance of this and another honour granted by the Haitian government proved controversial. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Mother Teresa attracted criticism, particularly from the left, for implicitly giving support to the Duvaliers, to corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell, and to politicians on the right of Western politics, such as U. Duvalier is a surname and may refer to François Duvalier (nicknamed "Papa Doc" President of Haiti from 1957-1971 Simone Ovid Duvalier Charles Humphrey Keating Jr (born December 4 1923 in Cincinnati Ohio) is a retired American lawyer politician and banker best known for his involvement in the Ian Robert Maxwell MC ( June 10, 1923 – November 5, 1991) was a Czechoslovakian born British Media proprietor Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined K. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and United States President Ronald Reagan. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 In Keating's case she wrote to the judge of his trial asking for clemency to be shown. 
Universities in both the West and in India granted her honorary degrees. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding  Other civilian awards include the Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978), and the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975). The International Balzan Prize Foundation awards four annual monetary prizes to people or organisations who have made outstanding achievements in the fields of humanities natural Albert Schweitzer, MD, OM, (January 14 1875 &ndash September 4 1965 was an Alsatian theologian, Musician, Philosopher 
In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitute a threat to peace. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor " She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet given to laureates, and asked that the $192,000 funds be given to the poor in India, stating that earthly rewards were important only if they helped her help the world's needy. When Mother Teresa received the prize, she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered "Go home and love your family. " Building on this theme in her Nobel Lecture, she said: "Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society - that poverty is so hurtable [sic] and so much, and I find that very difficult. " More specifically, she singled out abortion as 'the greatest destroyer of peace in the world'. 
Her death was mourned in both secular and religious communities. In tribute, Nawaz Sharif, the Prime Minister of Pakistan said that she was "a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif also known as Nawaz Sharif ( Urdu:) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning "Grand Minister", is the Head of Government Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity. " The former U.N. Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar said: "She is the United Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920, in Lima) is a Peruvian Diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security She is peace in the world. " During her lifetime and after her death, Mother Teresa was consistently found by Gallup to be the single most widely admired person in the US, and in 1999 was ranked as the "most admired person of the 20th century" by a poll in the US. The Gallup Organization provides a variety of Management consulting, human resources and statistical research services Gallup's List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire is a list compiled annually by The Gallup She out-polled all other volunteered answers by a wide margin, and was in first place in all major demographic categories except the very young.
Towards the end of her life, Mother Teresa attracted some negative attention in the Western media. The journalist Christopher Hitchens has been one of her most active critics. See also Christopher Hitchens Christopher Hitchens (born April 13, 1949, in Portsmouth, England) is a British-American He was commissioned to co-write and narrate the documentary Hell's Angel about her for the British Channel 4 after Aroup Chatterjee encouraged the making of such a program, although Chatterjee was unhappy with the "sensationalist approach" of the final product. Channel 4 is a public-service Television and Radio broadcaster in the United Kingdom centred around a television channel of the same name which began Aroup Chatterjee (born Kolkata is the author of the book Mother Teresa The Final Verdict which seeks to challenge the claim to fame of Mother Teresa as a symbol  Hitchens expanded his criticism in a 1995 book, The Missionary Position. The Missionary Position Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice is a book by Christopher Hitchens about Mother Teresa 's life and work 
Chatterjee writes that while she was alive Mother Teresa and her official biographers refused to collaborate with his own investigations and that she failed to defend herself against critical coverage in the Western press. He gives as examples a report in The Guardian in Britain whose "stringent (and quite detailed) attack on conditions in her orphanages . The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. . . [include] charges of gross neglect and physical and emotional abuse", and another documentary Mother Teresa: Time for Change? broadcast in several European countries.  Both Chatterjee and Hitchens have themselves been subject to criticism for their stance.
The German magazine Stern published a hostile article on the first anniversary of Mother Teresa's death. Stern ( English "Star" is a weekly News magazine published in Germany. This concerned allegations regarding financial matters and the spending of donations. The medical press has also published criticism of her, arising from very different outlooks and priorities on patients' needs.  Other critics include Tariq Ali, a member of the editorial committee of the New Left Review, and the Irish-born investigative journalist Donal MacIntyre. Tariq Ali ( Arabic: طارق علی) (born October 21, 1943) is a British - Pakistani historian novelist filmmaker The New Left Review is a political Journal, founded in 1960 in the UK after the editors of the New Reasoner and the Donal MacIntyre (born 1966 in Dublin) is an Irish investigative Journalist, specialising in hard hitting investigations undercover operations 
Analyzing her deeds and achievements, John Paul II asked: "Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart. Pope Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The Sacred Heart is a religious devotion to Jesus ' physical heart as the representation of the divine love for humanity "
In his first encyclical Deus Caritas Est, Benedict XVI mentioned Teresa of Calcutta three times and he also used her life to clarify one of his main points of the encyclical. See also Catholic theology of the body Deus Caritas Est ( Latin for "God is Love" is the first Encyclical written by Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger "In the example of Blessed Teresa of Calcutta we have a clear illustration of the fact that time devoted to God in prayer not only does not detract from effective and loving service to our neighbour but is in fact the inexhaustible source of that service. " Mother Teresa specified that "It is only by mental prayer and spiritual reading that we can cultivate the gift of prayer. Mental prayer is a form of Prayer recommended in the Catholic Church whereby one loves God through Dialogue with him meditating on his words Spiritual reading is a practice of reading Books and articles about spirituality with the purpose of growing in holiness. "
Although there was no direct connection between Mother Teresa's order and the Franciscan orders, she was known as a great admirer of St. Francis of Assisi. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise.  Accordingly, her influence and life show influences of Franciscan spirituality. The Sisters of Charity recite the peace prayer of St. Francis every morning during thanksgiving after Communion and many of the vows and emphasis of her ministry are similar. Thanksgiving after Communion is a spiritual practice among Christians who believe in the Real Presence of Jesus Christ in the Eucharist they  St. Francis emphasized poverty, chastity, obedience and submission to Christ. He also devoted much of his own life to service of the poor, especially lepers in the area where he lived.
Mother Teresa wrote numerous letters to her confessors and superiors over a 66-year period. She had asked that her letters be destroyed, concerned that "people will think more of me -- less of Jesus. " However, despite this request, the correspondences have been compiled in Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light (Doubleday).  In one publicly released letter to a spiritual confidant, the Rev. Michael van der Peet, she wrote, "Jesus has a very special love for you. [But] as for me, the silence and the emptiness is so great, that I look and do not see, — Listen and do not hear — the tongue moves [in prayer] but does not speak . . . I want you to pray for me — that I let Him have [a] free hand. "
Many news outlets have referred to Mother Teresa's writings as an indication of a "crisis of faith. " However, others such as Brian Kolodiejchuk, Come Be My Light's editor, draw comparisons to the 16th century mystic St. John of the Cross, who coined the term the "dark night" of the soul to describe a particular stage in the growth of some spiritual masters. For another saint who lived around the same time and area see John of Avila.  The Vatican has indicated that the letters would not affect her path to sainthood.  In fact, the book is edited by the Rev. Brian Kolodiejchuk, her postulator, the official responsible for gathering the evidence for her sanctification. In the Roman Catholic Church, a postulator is a church official who presents a plea for canonization or beatification of a person they think should become a saint 
The Missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in 1963, and a contemplative branch of the Sisters followed in 1976. Lay Catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the Co-Workers of Mother Teresa, the Sick and Suffering Co-Workers, and the Lay Missionaries of Charity. In answer to the requests of many priests, in 1981 Mother Teresa also began the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests, and in 1984 founded with Fr. Joseph Langford the Missionaries of Charity Fathers to combine the beauty of the vocation of the Missionaries of Charity with the resources of the ministerial priesthood. By 2007 the Missionaries of Charity numbered approximately 450 brothers and 5,000 nuns worldwide, operating 600 missions, schools and shelters in 120 countries. 
Following Mother Teresa's death in 1997, the Holy See began the process of beatification, the second step towards possible canonization. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints This process requires the documentation of a miracle performed from the intercession of Mother Teresa. A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation Distinguish from "inter-session" ie "between Sessions " Intercession, in both Christianity and Islam, In 2002, the Vatican recognized as a miracle the healing of a tumor in the abdomen of an Indian woman, Monica Besra, following the application of a locket containing Mother Teresa's picture. See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic Monica Besra said that a beam of light emanated from the picture, curing the cancerous tumor. Some of Besra's medical staff and, initially, Besra's husband insist that conventional medical treatment eradicated the tumor. 
Christopher Hitchens, an author and journalist, was the only witness called by the Vatican to give evidence against Mother Teresa's beatification and canonization process, as the Vatican had abolished the traditional "devil's advocate" role that fulfilled a similar purpose. Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British Author, Journalist, Literary critic and American The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints In common Parlance, a devil's advocate is someone who takes a position sometimes one he or she disagrees with for the sake of argument.  Hitchens has written that Mother Teresa's own words on poverty proved that "her intention was not to help people", and he alleged that she lied to donors about the use of their contributions. “It was by talking to her that I discovered, and she assured me, that she wasn't working to alleviate poverty,” says Hitchens. “She was working to expand the number of Catholics. She said, ‘I'm not a social worker. Social work is a discipline involving the application of Social theory and research methods to study and improve the lives of people groups and societies I don't do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church. ’" In the process of examining Teresa's suitability for beatification and canonization, the Roman Curia (the Vatican) pored over a great deal of documentation of published and unpublished criticisms against her life and work. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope Vatican officials say Hitchens' allegations have been investigated by the agency charged with such matters, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, and they found no obstacle to Mother Teresa's beatification. The Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints ( Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process Due to the attacks she has received, some Catholic writers have called her a sign of contradiction. Sign of contradiction is a term in Catholic Theology which refers to certain persons who upon manifesting holiness are subject to extreme opposition  The beatification of Mother Teresa took place on October 19, 2003, thereby bestowing on her the title "Blessed. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. " Unless dispensed by the Pope, a second miracle is required for her to proceed to canonization. A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints
Mother Teresa inspired a variety of commemorations. Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta has been memorialized throughout the world in honor of her selflessness and unswerving devotion to the poor She has been memorialized through museums, been named patroness of various churches, and had various structures and roads named after her.
On September 5, 2007, Mother Teresa's feast day, Calcutta's Archbishop Lucas Sirkar said Mass for thousands of devotees to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the death of Mother Teresa (attended by nuns and volunteers at Mother House, the headquarters of the Missionaries of Charity). Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4500 Nuns 
|Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Christian Blessed, international humanitarian, Nobel Laureate, Roman Catholic nun|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 27, 1910|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Skopje, Republic of Macedonia|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 5, 1997 (age 87)|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Kolkata, India|
Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4500 Nuns Sister Nirmala (born 1934) succeeded Mother Teresa as Superior General of the Missionaries of Charity in March 1997 Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Skopje (Скопје; Shkup or Shkupi is the Capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population The Republic of Macedonia (Република Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country