(Црногорци - Crnogorci)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Serbian language, Montenegrin (considered commonly as the Ijekavian dialect of the Serbian language)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Slavic peoples; South Slavs, especially Serbs|
Montenegrins (Serbian: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people, historically self-determined as Serbs, mostly associated to Montenegro. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Republic of Macedonia (Република Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Montenegrin language ( Cyrillic script: Црногорски језик, Latin: Crnogorski jezik) is the name given to the Ijekavian- Shtokavian Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski is the main dialect of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian languages The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! In both English and Serbian, the term denotes both the nation (the citizens of Montenegro) and the ethnic group with a slightly different meaning, as well as being a regional designation. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered
In Montenegro, ethnic Montenegrins and Serbs are divided largely on the basis of ethnic self-identification. The issue of Montenegrin ethnicity is debated, especially since the late 20th century, as more and more Montenegrins ceased to opt for Serbian ethnic affiliation as the primary one. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, The split has deepened further since the movement for full Montenegrin independence from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia began to gain ground in the mid-1990s, and ultimately narrowly succeeded in the referendum of May 2006 (having been rejected in 1992). The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The Montenegrin independence referendum was a refe­rendum on the independence of the Republic of Montenegro from the State Union of Serbia The Montenegrin independence referendum of 1992 was the first independence Referendum for Montenegrin independence The Montenegro Serbs though, do not consider themselves separate from the Montenegrin nation but instead believe all Montenegrins are in fact at least to some degree Serb. The sense of being Montenegrins in a regional-geographic and a historical sense and to have had the same origin as the Serbs is accepted by all of the country's Serbs and Montenegrins. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia,
In the 2003 census, over 270,000 or 43% of the population of Montenegro identified themselves as ethnic Montenegrins, while around 200,000 or 32% identified themselves as Serbs. The Culture of present-day Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its history and geographical position would suggest Montenegrin literature is literature written in South Slavic country of Montenegro in Montenegrin language. The music of Montenegro represents a mix of the country's unique musical tradition and Western musical influences Montenegro has been the site of many domestic films Theatre Notable theatres include the Montenegrin National Theatre in Podgorica, the Theatre Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's geographic position and its long history. Montenegrins form an ethnic minority in Albania. There is an estimated 1000 - 2000 Montenegrins living in Albania Montenegrin Australians ( Serbian / Montenegrin: Crnogorski Australijanci) are a National minority in Australia. Montenegrins form an Argentine ethnic minority During the early 1900s Montenegrins from the Kingdom of Montenegro began emigrating to the country and According to the 1991 census there were 10071 ethnic Montenegrins in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Montenegrins of Croatia are a National minority in the republic The Montenegrins of Serbia are a National minority in the republic Montenegrins are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. Montenegrins are the sixth largest ethnic community in the Vojvodina province of Serbia. Montenegrin Americans are Citizens of the United States who are of Montenegrin ancestry Montenegro is a multireligious country Although Orthodox Christianity is the dominant religion there are also numerous adherents of Islam and Catholic The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Leader MOC is led by the Archbishop of Cetinje and Montenegro Metropolitan Mihailo. The Catholic Church in Montenegro is a part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Curia in Rome Islam in Montenegro is the largest minority religion Montenegro's 110000 Muslims make up 17 Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Montenegrin language ( Cyrillic script: Црногорски језик, Latin: Crnogorski jezik) is the name given to the Ijekavian- Shtokavian Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski is the main dialect of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian languages The History of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. Rulers of Duklja (c900-1186 The First Rulers of Duklja |- | style="width 35% background#efefef" align=center | Name| style="width 20% background#efefef" This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through Census results and official documents which mention demographic composition The number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates wildly from census to census, not due to real changes in the populace, but due to changes in how people experience their identity. According to the latest poll from early 2008, 44. 8% citizens of Montenegro considersed themselves Montenegrinses and 33. 6% Serbs. According to the 2002 census, there are around 70,000 ethnic Montenegrins in Serbia, accounting for 0. Demographics of Serbia Serbia is populated mostly by Serbs. Significant minorities include Albanians (who are a majority in Kosovo Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country 92% of the Republic's population. The number of Montenegrin citizens in Serbia runs to several hundreds of thousands (nearly 300,000 est. ), but most of them identify as Serbs. In addition, a significant number of Serbs in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina are of Montenegrin ancestry, but exact numbers are difficult to assess - the inhabitants of Montenegro contributed greatly to the repopulation of a depopulated Serbia after two rebellions against the Ottoman Empire in the early 19th century, with a half of the population of Sumadija and the surroundings being populated by people originally from Montenegro, and several prominent individuals of the Serbian 19th & early 20th century intelligentsia and entrepreneurs being descendents of people originally from Montenegro. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan
On 19 October 2007, a new Constitution was adopted that proclaimed the Montenegrin language official along with Serbian, and attributed Montenegrin statehood and sovereignty primarily to the Montenegrin People. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Montenegrin language ( Cyrillic script: Црногорски језик, Latin: Crnogorski jezik) is the name given to the Ijekavian- Shtokavian Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language,
During medieval times, Montenegrin territories often shifted possession, but the medieval principalities of Doclea and Zeta under local rulers were fairly long-lived and have paved the path for what will ultimately become the modern Montenegro. The History of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through Census results and official documents which mention demographic composition Doclea can refer to Doclea (city, ancient Illyrian and Roman city Duklja, medieval Slavic principality Zeta (Serbian Cyrillic Зета, Latin Zenta) was a principality whose territory was mostly Serbian territories that approximately encompass present-day In 1496, Zeta fell under Ottoman rule, but the Turkish influence was fairly limited to cities while Montenegrins tribes, although disunited, had control over the surrounding hills. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The following is an overview of Serb clans, a general term referring to what are known as plemena (племена and bratstva (братства in Serbian They formed a loosely governed theocracy of "prince-bishops", starting with Archbishop Vavil in 1516. Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Vavila was a vladika (prince-bishop of Montenegro. Vavila was the vladika of Montenegro from 1493 - 1520.
During the 12th century, the area became known as the Principality of Zeta. Zeta (Serbian Cyrillic Зета, Latin Zenta) was a principality whose territory was mostly Serbian territories that approximately encompass present-day Between 1276 and 1309, Zeta was ruled by the Queen Jelena, widow of the Serbian King Uroš I. Stefan Uroš I ( Стефан Урош I) (d May 1 1277) was king of Serbia from 1243 to 1276 succeeding his brother Stefan She secured autonomy for Zeta within Nemanjić's Serbia and built and restored around 50 monasteries, most notably Saints Sergius and Bacchus (Srđ and Vakh) on the Bojana River under Shkodër/Skadar. The House of Nemanjić ( Serbian: Немањићи Nemanjići; Anglicised: Nemanyid; German: Nemanjiden) was a medieval This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. Shkodër (Shkodër or Shkodra is a city located on Lake Shkodër in northwestern Albania in the District The name Montenegro (Crna Gora) is mentioned for the first time in the charter of St. Nicholas' monastery in Vranjina, dating to 1296 during Jelena's reign. Under King Milutin (Uroš II) Nemanjić, at the beginning of the 14th century, the Archdiocese in Bar was the biggest feudal lord in Zeta.
Throughout the 14th century, the Houses of Balšić and Crnojević contested for control over the Montenegrin territories until the Crnojevićs attained supremacy in the 14th century. The House of Balšić was a medieval Serbian dynasty that ruled Zeta. The House of Crnojević was a dynasty ruling in the Medieval Serbian state of Zeta, first struggling with House of Balša for control over Zeta Under the Crnojevićs, the Serbian Church reached its peak. The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the In 1496, the Ottomans conquered part, but not all, of Montenegro.
The Serb clans of Montenegro have created a unique tribal organization under Ottoman rule since the 16th century, and achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century. The following is an overview of Serb clans, a general term referring to what are known as plemena (племена and bratstva (братства in Serbian The Montenegrins were gathered around the Metropolitans of the Cetinje Metropolitanate, which further led to national awakening of the Montenegrins, the creation of a theocratic state and its advancement into a secular and independent country.
The rule of the House of Petrović in the 18th and 19th century unified the Montenegrins and established strong ties with Russia and later Serbia, with occasional help from Austro-Hungarian Empire. The House of Petrović -Njegoš ( ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петровић-Његош is a Royal House of Montenegro. That period was marked by several clashes with Turkish conquerors as well as by a firmer establishment of a self-governed principality.
In 1878, the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world. See also Berlin Conference (1884-85 re Africa and Berlin Conference of 1954 (Cold War Montenegro participated in the Balkan Wars of 1911-1912, as well as in World War I on the side of allies. The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912–1913 in the course of which the Balkan League ( Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Montenegro unconditionally joined Serbia in November 26, 1918 in a controversial decision of the Podgorica Assembly, and soon afterwards became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed to Yugoslavia. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Podgorica Assembly ( Serbian: Подгоричка скупштина / Podgorička skupština) in full name known as the Great National Assembly of the Serb The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian A number of Montenegrin chieftains, disappointed by the effective disappearance of Montenegro, which they perceived to have resulted from political manipulation, rose up in arms during January 1919 in an uprising known as the Christmas Rebellion, which was crushed in a severe, comprehensive military campaign in 1922-23. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Christmas Uprising or Christmas Rebellion ( Serbian: Божићна побуна or Božićna pobuna) refers to events organized by the Montenegrin emigration In 1929 the newly renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia was reorganised into provinces (banovine) one of which, Zeta Banovina, encompassed the old Kingdom of Montenegro and had Cetinje as its administrative centre. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The Zeta Banovina or Zeta Banate ( Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian: Зетска бановина/ Zetska banovina) was a province (
Between two world wars, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia opposed the Yugoslav monarchy and its unification policy, and supported Montenegrin autonomy, gaining considerable support in Montenegro. League of Communists of Yugoslavia ( Savez komunista Jugoslavije) before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia ( Komunistička partija Jugoslavije) was During World War II, many Montenegrins joined the Yugoslav partisan forces, although the portion joining the chetniks was also significant. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani The Chetnik movement or the Chetniks ( Serbian: Četnici, Cyrillic script: Четници were a Serbian -nationalist/ royalist One third of all officers in the partisan army were Montenegrins. They also gave a disproportional number of highest ranked party officials and generals. During WWII Italy occupied Montenegro (in 1941) and annexed to the Kingdom of Italy the area of Kotor, where there was a small Roman community (descendants from the populations of the renaissance Albania Veneta). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom Albania Veneta ( English: Venetian Albania) was the name for the possessions of the Republic of Venice in southern Dalmatia that existed from 1420 The Independent State of Montenegro was created under fascist control (the Queen of Italy, Elena of Montenegro, was daughter of the former king of Montenegro) when Krsto Zrnov Popović returned from exile in Rome in 1941 to attempt to lead the Zelenaši ("Green" party), who supported the reinstatement of the independent Montenegrin monarchy. Montenegro existed as a puppet Protectorate of Fascist Italy, as a component of the Italian Empire ( 1941 - 1943. Helen of Montenegro (born Princess Jelena Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro) ( 8 January 1873 - 28 November 1952) was the daughter Captain Krsto Todorov-Zrnov Popović was one of the leaders of 1919 Christmas Uprising in Montenegro against Serbian dynasty Karađorđević, Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The zelenaši ( Montenegrin: Зеленаши meaning Тhe Greens) were a group of Montenegrin dissidents most notable for instigating the 1919 Christmas These forces were called the Lovćen Brigade. right|Old Flag of the Lovcen Brigade The Lovćen Brigade was an armed force in World War II - Montenegro led by Krsto Zrnov Popović and the Montenegro was ravaged by a terrible guerrilla war, mainly after Nazi Germany replaced the defeated Italians in September 1943.
When the second Yugoslavia was formed in 1945, the Communists who led the Partisans during the war formed the new régime. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar They recognized, sanctioned and fostered a national identity of Montenegrins as a people distinct from the Serbs and other south Slavs. The number of people who were registered as Montenegrins in Montenegro was at 90% in 1948, it has been dropping since, to 62% in 1991. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. With the rise of Serbian and Montenegrin nationalism in the late 80's the number of citizens who declared themselves Montenegrin dropped sharply from 61. 7%, in the 1991 census, to 43. 16% in 2003. For a detailed overview of these trends, see the Demographic history of Montenegro. This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through Census results and official documents which mention demographic composition
Initially, after the fall of Communism in the early 1990s, the idea of a distinct Montenegrin identity has been taken over by independence-minded Montenegrins. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The ruling Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) (reformed communists), led by the prime minister Milo Đukanović and the president Momir Bulatović, was firmly allied with Slobodan Milošević throughout this period and opposed such movements. The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro ( Montenegrin: Демократска Партија Социјалиста Црне Горе/ Demokratska Partija Socijalista Milo Đukanović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић (born 15 February, 1962) is the Prime Minister of Montenegro. Momir Bulatović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Момир Булатовић (born September 21, 1956 in Belgrade, Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia
During recent Bosnian War and Croatian War (1991-1995) Montenegro participated with its police and paramilitary forces in the attacks on Dubrovnik and Bosnian towns along with Serbian troops. The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 The Croatian War of Independence was a War in Croatia from 1991 to 1995 Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; It conducted persecutions against Bosniak refugees who were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were executed. 
However, in 1997 a full-blown rift occurred within DPS, and Đukanović's faction won over Bulatović's, who formed a new Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP). For the short-lived minor Socialist People's Movement of Montenegro, see the People's Socialist Party of Montenegro article The The DPS distanced itself from Milošević and gradually took over the independence idea from Liberal Alliance of Montenegro and SDP, and has won all elections since. The Liberal Alliance of Montenegro ( Serbian: Либерални Савез Црне Горе - ЛСЦГ Liberalni Savez Crne Gore - LSCG) was a
In the fall of 1999, shortly after the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the Đukanović-led Montenegrin leadership came out with a platform for the re-definition of relations within the federation that called for more Montenegrin involvement in the areas of defence and foreign policy, though the platform fell short of pushing for independence. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The North Atlantic Treaty After Milošević's overthrow on October 5, 2000, Đukanović for the first time came out in support of full independence and succeeded in his quest by winning a vote on independence on 21 May 2006.
Present Montenegro and Serbia were part of the great Serb Empire until the Ottoman conquering of the Balkans, which resulted in separation of the two that lasted for 3 centuries, however the Montenegrins considered themselves (and by others) to be Serbs. In the 19th century national romanticism among the South Slavs fuelled the desire for unification, particularly between Serb people of Montenegro and Serbia. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives The Orthodox Slavs in Montenegro (Montenegrins) and Serbia (Serbs) were considered as two parts of the Serb nation/ethnic group.
The closeness of the Montenegrin ethnic identity with that of the Serbs is evidenced by a number of cultural and political factors during this period:
On the other hand, it is undeniable that the uniqueness of the Montenegrin identity is based on centuries-long distinct traditions, statehood, and dialectal and cultural particularities, formed under the rule of the Ottomans and Italians. The exact roots of the idea of a distinct Montenegrin ethnic identity are difficult to trace, as the Serbian and Montenegrin identities were long considered compatible rather than opposing, although Montenegrins were documented as a nation since the 1900's.
Perhaps the turning point came with the Podgorica Assembly, where the pro-independence group called zelenaši (" the greens"), which promoted "nationalism, localism, and chauvinism" lost to the pro-unionist bjelaši ("the whites"), which promoted "national nihilism" under debatable conditions.  The repercussions of that unfortunate split last to this day. The proponents of Montenegrin uniqueness are sometimes pejoratively referred to as "zelenaši" by the pro-unionists, while the proponents of Montenegrin-Serb dual identity are sometimes called pejoratively "bjelaši" by the Montenegrin independentists. The split into communist partisans and royalist chetniks during World War II, although chiefly ideological, was not without consequences to the national identity issue. The Chetnik movement or the Chetniks ( Serbian: Četnici, Cyrillic script: Четници were a Serbian -nationalist/ royalist The communists, who won the war against the Chetniks, actively promoted Montenegrin ethnicity and nationhood since 1945. As witnessed by the censuses 1948-1991, the introduction of Montenegrin ethnicity was embraced by many. This article presents the demographic history of Montenegro through Census results and official documents which mention demographic composition Proponents of pro-unionist ideas in Montenegro maintain that this was due either because it was not actively confronted by a Serbian identity, or because it was imposed by propaganda and force (which is characteristic to communist regimes in general). However, during the latest national census that was conducted in a free and democratic manner (as Montenegrin authorities claim), majority of Montenegrins still declared themselves as having a Montenegrin ethnicity - without opting for the optional Serbian identity.
The political rift in late 1990s caused the Serb/Montenegrin ethnic issue to resurface.
The population of Montenegro is presently roughly divided on ethnic and political issues between the group composed of the ethnic Montenegrins, ethnic Bosniaks, ethnic Muslims, ethnic Croats and Albanians on one side, and the group composed of the ethnic Serbs on the other. The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia" Muslims by nationality ( Muslimani, Муслимани was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an official designation of nationality of Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, The former group forms a majority over the latter and has repeatedly won national elections.
Various notable people in Montenegro supported Montenegrin independence and acknowledge the right of citizens in Montenegro to declare themselves as ethnic Montenegrins. Noted supporters of independence include famous statesman Milo Đukanović and the Speaker of Montenegro's Parliament Ranko Krivokapić. Milo Đukanović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић (born 15 February, 1962) is the Prime Minister of Montenegro. Ranko Krivokapić ( Serbian Cyrillic: Ранко Кривокапић is the current Speaker of the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro and the Of the minorities, these include the historical scientist Šerbo Rastoder (a Bosniak from Berane), don Branko Sbutega (a Roman Catholic priest from Kotor, declared as a Croat, who died April 27 2006), and journalist Esad Kočan (a Bosniak). Prof Dr Šerbo Rastoder ( Serbian Cyrillic: Шербо Растодер born 13 August 1956 in Radmanci Berane, Sandžak region Berane ( Serbian Cyrillic: Беране is a town in north-eastern Montenegro. Kotor ( Cyrillic script: Котор Acruvium Greek Askrèvion, Ασκρηβιον; Italian Cattaro is a coastal town in Montenegro Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries
A number of notable ethnic Montenegrins include famous footballer Dejan Savićević, politician Slavko Perović, comedian Branko Babović, Sekula Drljević, popular singer Vlado Georgiev, actor Žarko Laušević, fashion model Marija Vujović, members of the rock group Perper, renowned musician Rambo Amadeus, Miraš Dedeić, Montenegrin ruler Ivan I Crnojević and former President of Serbia and Montenegro Svetozar Marović. Dejan Savićević ( Serbian Cyrillic: Дејан Савићевић (born September 15, 1966 in Titograd, Montenegro Slavko Perović ( Cyrillic: Славко Перовић born on 2 August 1954, was a co-founder and the leader of Liberal Alliance of Montenegro Branko Babović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Бранко Бабовић is a famous Montenegrin actor from Nikšić, Montenegro. Sekula, historically more notable as Sekule Drljević ( Montenegrin Cyrillic: Секулa or Секуле Дрљевић) (1884 – 1945 was Vlado Georgiev (Владо Георгиев born June 6, 1976 in Dubrovnik, Croatia, Yugoslavia) is a popular Montenegrian Žarko Laušević ( Serbian Cyrillic: Жарко Лаушевић (born 19 January 1960 in Cetinje, Montenegro, Yugoslavia Marija Vujović (Марија Вујовић born 19 May, 1984 in Titograd, Yugoslavia, now Podgorica, Montenegro) is Perper is a Montenegrin band from Cetinje The band was founded in December 1991 and today it's one of Montenegros most popular rock bands Rambo Amadeus ( Serbian Cyrillic: Рамбо Амадеус born June 14, 1963 in Kotor, Montenegro, former Yugoslavia Metropolitan Mihailo ( Montenegrin Cyrillic: Михаило born Мираш Дедеић Mihailo Miraš Dedeić)(b Ivan Crnojević - Ivo ( Serbian Cyrillic: Иван Црноjeвић - Иво Ivan the Black Giovanni Cernovichio Ivan-bey was the medieval ruler of Zeta The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Државна заједница Србија и Црна Гора / Državna zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, abbreviated Svetozar Marović ( Serbian: Светозар Маровић born March 31, 1955) is a Lawyer and a Montenegrin Politician
A number of Montenegrins living outside of Montenegro, primarily in Serbia, still maintain the Montenegrin lore, family ties and clan affiliation. Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence A clan is a group of People united by Kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor They remain nominally Montenegrins by these standards, yet at censa they declare themselves mostly as Serbs. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Some have risen to high cultural, economic and political positions and are widely known as Serbs while few know that they to be of Montenegrin roots. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions For example, even Slobodan Milošević was a Serb of Montenegrin descent, the first generation of his family to be born in Serbia. His daughter, Marija Milošević, and his brother, the former ambassador to Russia Borislav Milošević, declare themselves an ethnic Montenegrins. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
Other prominent Serbs descending from partly or fully from Montenegro include linguist and major reformer of modern Serbian language Vuk Karadžić, revolutionary leader and founder of the Karađorđević dynasty Đorđe Petrović (most notably Aleksandar Karađorđević), first Serbian modern monarch and founder of the Obrenović dynasty Miloš Obrenović, notable Balkanologist and geographer Jovan Cvijić, Serbian monarchist politician and orchestrator of opposition against Milosevic's dictatorship in Serbia Vuk Drašković, the wartime leader of the Bosnian Serbs Radovan Karadžić, current democratic President of Serbia Boris Tadić, assassinated warlord Željko Ražnatović-Arkan who was only half-montenegrin, famous poet and writer Matija Bećković, editor-in-chief of high circulation Večernje novosti daily Manojlo Vukotić, former basketball star Žarko Paspalj, current BIA chief Rade Bulatović, Serbian Interior Minister Dragan Jočić, Serbian constitutional court president Slobodan Vučetić, and half-montenegrin actress Milla Jovovich. Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić ( Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић ( November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864 The House of Karađorđević (Карађорђевићи Serbian Latin Karađorđevići House of Karageorgevich was a Serbian ruling Dynasty descended from Karađorđe Petrović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Карађорђе Петровић Anglicised: Karageorge Petrovitch) ( November 3, 1768 Alexander Karađorđević may refer to several different people from the Karađorđević royal family of Serbia Alexander Karađorđević Prince of Serbia The House of Obrenović ( Serbian: Обреновићи / Obrenovići, often spelled in English as Obrenovich or Obrenovitch ruled Serbia from Miloš Obrenović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обреновић Anglicised: Milosh Obrenovich; also known as Miloš Teodorović) ( Jovan Cvijić ( Serbian Cyrillic Јован Цвијић (1865 - 1927 was a Serbian Geographer, president of the Vuk Drašković (Вук Драшковић (b November 29 1946, Međa, Žitište, Serbia, former FPR Yugoslavia) leader The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић râdovaːn kâraʤiʨ born in Petnjica, SR Montenegro, SFR Yugoslavia) is a former Bosnian The President of Serbia is the Head of state of the Republic of Serbia. Boris Tadić (Борис Тадић born January 15, 1958) is a Serbian politician and the current President of Serbia. Željko Ražnatović (ˈʑěʎko raˈʑnâtovitɕ Serbian cyrillic: Жељко Ражнатовић widely known as Arkan (Аркан (April 17 1952 Matija Bećković (Матија Бећковић (born November 29, 1939, Senta, Danube Banate, Kingdom Žarko Paspalj ( Жарко Паспаљ; born March 27 1966) is a retired Serbian Montenegrin and Yugoslavian professional Dragan Jočić ( Serbian: Драган Јочић is the former Serbian Minister of Interior in the cabinet of Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica Milla Jovovich (ˈjɔvɔvitɕ Serbian: Milica Jovović / Милица Јововић; Милла Йовович; Ukrainian: Мiлла 
Montenegrins speak the Ijekavian variant of the Shtokavian dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language, considered Serbian by 75% of Montenegrin nationals. Montenegrin language ( Cyrillic script: Црногорски језик, Latin: Crnogorski jezik) is the name given to the Ijekavian- Shtokavian Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski is the main dialect of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian languages The Serbo-Croatian language or Croato-Serbian language (cрпскохрватски језик srpskohrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic Diasystem Neo-shtokavian Eastern-Herzegovinian sub-dialect is spoken in the North-West (largest city Niksic), and old shtokavian Zeta subdialect is spoken in the rest of Montenegro, including capitals Podgorica and Cetinje, and eastern Sanjak. Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants sinjaq sanjaq) are the most common English transcriptions of the Turkish word sancak The North-Western, Eastern-Herzegovinian is also base of Serbian standard language.
Zeta dialect features additional sounds: ɕ, ʑ (occurring in other jekavian dialects as well) and ʣ (shared with other old-štokavian dialects). The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet The voiced alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet The voiced alveolar affricate is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet Both subdialects are charactericized by highly specific accents (shared with other old-štokavian dialects) and several "hyper-ijekavisms" (i. e. nijesam, where the rest of shtokavian area uses nisam) and "hyper-iotations" (đevojka for djevojka, đeca for djeca etc) (these features, especially the hyper-iotation, are more prominent in Zeta subdialect), that are common in all Montenegrin vernaculars. Iotation is a form of Palatalization which occurs in Slavic languages. This puts them on the opposite side of Serbian, in the ekavijan-ijekavijan spectrum, Croatian and Bosnian being in the middle.
On sociolinguistic level, the language has been classified as a dialect of Serbian, being previously a dialect of Serbo-Croatian. Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of Society, including cultural norms expectations and context on the way Language is used Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, The Serbo-Croatian language or Croato-Serbian language (cрпскохрватски језик srpskohrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic Diasystem Montenegrin constitution currently defines Serbian as the official language. However, along with the campaign for independence, a movement for recognition of Montenegrin language as separate from Serbian has emerged, finding the basis for separate language identity mostly in above-mentioned dialectal specifics. Montenegrin language ( Cyrillic script: Црногорски језик, Latin: Crnogorski jezik) is the name given to the Ijekavian- Shtokavian The current pro-independence government did not particularly embrace the movement, but did not oppose it either; trying to overcome the situation, the language school classes were renamed from "Serbian language" to "mother language", with fierce opposition from pro-Serbian circles. In the 2003 census, 63. 49% of Montenegrin citizens stated that they speak the Serbian language, while 21. 53% stated that they speak Montenegrin.
The most important dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethic ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, roughly translated as "Humanity and Bravery". The Culture of present-day Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its history and geographical position would suggest Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Another result of its centuries long warrior history, is the unwritten code of Chivalry that Marko Miljanov, one of the most famous warriors in his time, tried to describe in his book Primjeri Čojstva i Junaštva (Examples of Humanity and Bravery) at the end of 19th century. According to the Random House Dictionary, the term warrior has two meanings Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. Marko Miljanov Popović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Марко Миљанов Поповић (born 25 April 1833 in Medun near Podgorica – Its main principles stipulate that to deserve a true respect of its people, a warrior has to show virtues of integrity, dignity, humility, self-sacrifice for the just cause if necessary, respect for others, and Rectitude along with the bravery. Integrity is Consistency of actions values methods measures and principles This brief article is about how the term dignity is used The article presents dignity as it is used by international organizations governments bioethicists academics and Humility, or being humble, is the defining characteristic of an unpretentious and modest person someone who does not think that he or she is better or more important Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred" Respect is esteem for or a sense of the worth or excellence of a person a personal quality or ability or something considered as a manifestation of a personal quality or ability Gallantry redirects here Or see Gallant for other meanings Courage, also known as bravery, will, intrepidity In the old days of battle, it resulted in Montenegrins fighting to the death, since being captured was considered the greatest shame. Shame is variously an affect emotion cognition state or condition
It is still very much engraved, to a greater or lesser extent, on every Montenegrin's ethical belief system and it is essential in order to truly understand them. Coming from non-warrior backgrounds, most other South-Slavic nations never fully grasped its meaning, resulting in reactions which ranged from totally ignoring it, in the best case, to mocking it and equating it with backwardness.
Most of extraordinary examples of Montenegrin conduct during its long history can be traced to the code. Its importance is also reflected in the generally very low level of religiousness in the Montenegrin population. It is probably fair to say that the ethical beliefs of Montenegrins more closely match those of Stoicism than those of Christianity. Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Montenegrins' long-standing history of fighting for independence is invariably linked with strong traditions of folk epic poetry. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation A prominent feature of Montenegrin culture is the gusle, a one-stringed instrument played by a story-teller who sings or recites stories of heroes and battles in decasyllabic verse. The gusle or gusla (гусле gusle, lahuta гусла is a single- stringed musical instrument used in the Balkans and in the Dinarides Decasyllable ( Italian: decasillabo, French: décasyllabe) is a poetic meter of ten Syllables used in poetic These traditions are stronger in the northern parts of the country and are also shared with people in eastern Herzegovina, western Serbia and central Dalmatia. Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian: Hercegovina, Serbian: Херцеговина) is a traditionally Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern
On the substratum of folk epic poetry, poets like Petar II Petrović Njegoš, the Montenegrin icon, have created their own expression. Petar II Petrović-Njegoš ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар II Петровић-Његош was a Serb Orthodox Prince-Bishop ( Serbian: Владика Njegoš's epic book Gorski Vijenac (The Mountain Wreath) presents the central point of Montenegrin culture. The Mountain Wreath ( Serbian: Горски вијенац or Gorski vijenac, in original orthography Горскıй вıенацъ Romanian: "Cununa
On the other hand, Adriatic cities like Herceg-Novi, Kotor and Budva had strong trade and maritime tradition, and presented an entry-point for Venetian, Ragusan and other Catholic influences. Herceg Novi ( Херцег Нови; Castelnuovo) is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the Kotor ( Cyrillic script: Котор Acruvium Greek Askrèvion, Ασκρηβιον; Italian Cattaro is a coastal town in Montenegro Budva ( Montenegrin language / Serbian language: Будва Budva Italian: Budua is a coastal town in Montenegro. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Possession of those cities often changed, but their population was basically a mixture of Orthodox and Catholic religions and traditions. These cities were incorporated into Montenegro only after the fall of Austria-Hungary. In those cities, stronger influences of medieval and renaissance architecture, painting, and lyric poetry can be found. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Lyric poetry refers to a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings which may or may not be set to music
Most Montenegrins are Eastern Orthodox Christians, belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church, which owns all religious Orthodox institutions in the country. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the In 1993 a group of dissidents of the regime founded a Montenegrin Orthodox Church that aims at seizing SOC's property and has managed to attract a small number of followers. Leader MOC is led by the Archbishop of Cetinje and Montenegro Metropolitan Mihailo.
Nearly 17% of the population is Muslim comprising of the Bosniaks, descendants of Slavs who converted to Islam in the 15th and 16th centuries, are Sunni Muslims. Ethnic Albanians are mostly Sunni Muslims, although there are also Orthodox Christian and Roman Catholic Albanians in Montenegro. 
0 Note: The majority of people originating from within Montenegro's present borders declare ethnic affiliation in censuses as Serb. Overview The NGS's historical mission is "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting the conservation of the world's cultural historical and natural Thus, it is difficult to establish the exact numbers; up to few million people in Serbia and BiH might have one or more ancestors from Montenegro.