|Anthem: "Монгол улсын төрийн дуулал"|
National anthem of Mongolia
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Sanjaagiin Bayar|
|-||National Foundation Day||1206|
|-||Bogd Khanate of Mongolia||December 29, 1911|
|-||Mongolian People's Republic||November 24, 1924|
|-||Democratic Mongolia||February 12, 1992|
|-||Total||1,564,116 km² (19th)|
603,909 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The current Flag of Mongolia was adopted on February 12, 1992. The official Coat of arms of Mongolia (Монгол улсын төрийн сүлд Mongol ulsyn töriin süld) was adopted in 1992 following the A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The National Anthem of Mongolia was created in 1950 The music is a composition by Bilegiin Damdinsüren (1919 - 1991 and Luvsanyamts Murdorj (1915 - 1996 the lyrics Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The President of Mongolia is the head of state of Mongolia. The Constitution of Mongolia implements a Semi-presidential system, so while much of the President's Nambaryn Enkhbayar (Намбарын Энхбаяр born June 1, 1958 in Ulan Bator) is the current President of Mongolia. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian government's executive arm and heads the Mongolian Cabinet. Sanjaagiin Bayar (Санжаагийн Баяр (born 1956 is a Mongolian politician and the current Prime Minister of Mongolia. The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various Nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Rouran, the Xianbei, the Gökturks Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Mongolian People's Republic ( Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU) was a Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 6|
|-||July 2007 estimate||2,951,786 (139th)|
|-||Density||1. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 7/km² (238th)|
4. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 4/sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$8. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 448 billion (143th)|
|-||Per capita||$2,900 (130th)|
|Gini (2002)||32. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 8 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 700 (medium) (114th)|
|Time zone||(UTC+7 to +8)|
Mongolia (pronounced /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/; Mongolian: ) is a , landlocked country in East-Central Asia. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The tögrög (төгрөг (MNT Tugrik, ₮ is the official currency of Mongolia. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south It borders Russia to the north and China to the south. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city, is home to about 38% of the population. Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic. A political system is a System of Politics and Government. It is usually compared to the Law system, Economic system, Cultural A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government
At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the nineteenth largest, and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world with a population of around 2. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 9 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by arid and unproductive steppes, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced The Gobi (Говь Govi or Gov', "gravel-covered plain" Chinese: zh-t 戈壁(沙漠 Gēbì (Shāmò) Approximately thirty percent of the country's 2. 9 million people are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The word million In standard English, the -lli- in million is pronounced with an l-sound followed by a Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state's citizens are of the Mongol ethnicity, though Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated Tuvans or Tuvinians ( Tuvan: Тывалар Tyvalar) are a group of Mongols or Turkic people.
Mongolia since prehistoric times has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to prominence. The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various Nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Rouran, the Xianbei, the Gökturks The first of these, the Xiongnu, were brought together to form a confederation by Modu Shanyu Mete Khan in 209 BC. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes Modun Shanyu (Chinese 冒頓單于 Baatur Bator Baghadur Bahadır(in modern Turkish Bahadır (born 234 BC) was the founder of the Asian Hun Empire ( Modun Shanyu (Chinese 冒頓單于 Baatur Bator Baghadur Bahadır(in modern Turkish Bahadır (born 234 BC) was the founder of the Asian Hun Empire ( Soon they emerged as the greatest threat of the Qin Dynasty forcing the latter to construct the Great Wall of China, itself being guarded by up to almost 300,000 soldiers during marshal's Meng Tian tenure, as a mean of defense against the destructive Xiongnu raids. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th Meng Tian (蒙恬 ( ?-210 BC was a general of the Qin Dynasty who distinguished himself against the Xiongnu and in the construction of the Great Wall of China After the decline of the Xiongnu, the Rouran, a close relative of the Mongols, came to power before being defeated by the Göktürks, who then dominated Mongolia for centuries. Rouran ( Wade-Giles: Jou-jan) Ruanruan/Ruru ( also known as Tan Tan ( was the name of a confederation of Nomadic tribes on Göktürks ( Turkish: Gök Türkler) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. During the seventh and eighth centuries, they were succeeded by Uyghurs and then by the Khitans and Jurchens. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. The Khitan (or Khitai,) were a Nomadic people, located in Mongolia and modern Manchuria (Northeast China from the 4th century dominating much of it The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu By the tenth century, the country was divided into numerous tribes linked through transient alliances and involved in the old patterns of internal strife. A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use
In the chaos of the late twelfth century, a chieftain named Temüjin finally succeeded in uniting the Mongol tribes between Manchuria and the Altai Mountains. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast The Altai Mountains (Алтай Altay; Алтай 阿尔泰山脉 are a Mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, In 1206, he took the title Genghis Khan, and waged a series of military campaigns - renowned for their brutality and ferocity till today - sweeping through much of Asia, and forming the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Under his successors it stretched from present-day Poland in the west to Korea in the east, and from Siberia in the north to the Gulf of Oman and Vietnam in the south, covering some 33,000,000 km² (12,741,000 sq mi), (22% of Earth's total land area) and having a population of over 100 million people. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving The Gulf of Oman or Gulf of Makran ( Arabic: الخليج عمان transliterated: khalīj ʿumān( Urdu / Persian: خليج مکران Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially
After Genghis Khan's death, the empire had been subdivided into four kingdoms or Khanates which eventually split-up after Möngke's death in 1259. Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Khanate or Chanat is a Turkic origined word used to describe a political entity ruled by a Khan. Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан also transliterated as Mongke Mongka Möngka Mangu or Mangku ( c One of the khanates, the "Great Khanate", consisting of the Mongol homeland and China, became the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it He set up his capital in present day Beijing but after more than a century of power, the Yuan was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368, with the Mongol court fleeing to the north. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led As the Ming armies pursued the Mongols into their homeland, they successfully sacked and destroyed the Mongol capital Karakorum among other cities, wiping out the cultural progress that was achieved during the imperial period and thus throwing Mongolia back to anarchy.
The next centuries were marked by violent power struggles between various factions, notably the Genghisids and the non-Genghisid Oirads and numerous Chinese invasions (like the five expeditions led by the Yongle Emperor). Altan Khan (1507-1582 Mongolian Алтан хан whose given name was Anda, was the ruler of the Tumed Mongols and de facto ruler of the Right Wing or western Hohhot ( Mongolian:, Kökeqota; lit "Blue Town") occasionally spelled Huhehot or Huhhot, is a city in North-central China and the This article deals with the Oirat ethnic group For the obsolete term for the Turkic Altays see Altay people. The Yongle Emperor ( Wade-Giles: Yung-lo May 2, 1360 &ndash August 12, 1424) born Zhu Di ( Chu Ti In the early 15th century, the Oirads under Esen Tayisi gained the upper hand, and even raided China in 1449 in a conflict over Esen's right to pay tribute, capturing the Chinese emperor in the process. Esen Tayishi (d 1455 Chinese也先台吉 was a leader of the Oirad Choros tribe in the 15th century The Tumu Crisis (土木之變 Pinyin: Tŭmù zhī bìan) also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變 or Battle of Tumu (土木之役 was a frontier conflict First Reign Zhu Qizhen was the son of the Xuande Emperor Zhu Zhanji and his Empress Sun However, Esen was murdered in 1454, and the Genghisids recovered. In the mid-16th century, Altan Khan of the Tümed, a grandson of Batumöngke - but no legitimate Khan himself - became powerful. Altan Khan (1507-1582 Mongolian Алтан хан whose given name was Anda, was the ruler of the Tumed Mongols and de facto ruler of the Right Wing or western Batumöngke Dayan Khan (Батмөнх Даян Хаан (given name Batumöngke; 1464-1543 was a Mongol Khan who reconstructed the Mongol Empire He founded Hohhot in 1557 and his meeting with the Dalai Lama in 1578 sparked the second introduction of Tibetan Buddhism to Mongolia. Hohhot ( Mongolian:, Kökeqota; lit "Blue Town") occasionally spelled Huhehot or Huhhot, is a city in North-central China and the The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people according to Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Abtai Khan of the Khalkha converted to buddhism in 1585 and founded the Erdene Zuu monastery in 1586. The Khalkha, or Halh (Classical Mongolian qalq-a, Khalkha Mongolian mn Халх) are a subgroup of the Mongols. The Erdene Zuu monastery (Эрдэнэ Зуу is probably the most ancient Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. His grandson Zanabazar became the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu in 1640. Zanabazar, also known as Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar (Өндөр гэгээн Занабазар 1635-1723 was the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, the spiritual head The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutuktu (Жавзандамба хутагт Javzandamba Khutagt; Tibetan: རྗེ་བཙུན་དམ་པ་ Jetsun Dampa
The last Mongol Khan was Ligden Khan in the early 17th century. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Ligdan qutuɣtu qan, also Ligden or Lindan (ruled 1604-1634 was the last in the Borjigin clan of Mongol Khans who ruled from Čaqar He got into conflicts with the Manchu over the looting of Chinese cities, and managed to alienate most Mongol tribes. The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in He died in 1634 on his way to Tibet, in an attempt to evade the Manchu and destroy the Yellow Church. The Gelug or Gelug-pa, also known as the Yellow Hat sect, is a school of Buddhism founded by Tsongkhapa (1357–1419 a Philosopher By 1636, most Inner Mongolian tribes had submitted to the Manchu. Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in The Khalkha eventually submitted to the Qing in 1691, thus bringing all but the west of today's Mongolia under Beijing's rule. The Khalkha, or Halh (Classical Mongolian qalq-a, Khalkha Mongolian mn Халх) are a subgroup of the Mongols. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China After several wars, the Dzungars were virtually annihilated in 1757. Dzungar (also Jungar or Zungar; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) is the collective identity of several Oirat tribes that Until 1911, the Manchu maintained control of Mongolia with a series of alliances and intermarriages, as well as military and economic measures. Ambans, Manchu "high officials", were installed in Khüree, Uliastai, and Khovd, and the country was subdivided into ever more feudal and ecclesiastical fiefdoms. Amban ( pl: ambasa is a Manchu word meaning "high official" which corresponds to a number of different official titles in the Qing Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. Uliastai (Улиастай is a city in Mongolia. It is located in the western part of the country 1115 kilometers from the capital Ulan Bator. Khovd (Ховд in older sources also Kobdo) can refer to Khovd Gol, a river in the west of Mongolia Khovd Province, an Over the course of the 19th century, the feudal lords attached more importance to representation and less importance to the responsibilities towards their subjects. In addition the usurous practices of the Chinese traders, along with the collection of imperial taxes in silver instead of animals, resulted in poverty becoming rampant. Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest"
With the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Mongolia declared independence in 1911. The Bogd Khan ( Mongolian mn Богд хаан 1869-1924 was enthroned as the Emperor ( Khan) of Mongolia on 29 December 1911 when the country declared The new country's territory was approximately that of the former Outer Mongolia. To no avail the 49 hoshuns of Inner Mongolia as well as the Mongolians of the Alashan and Qinghai regions expressed their willingness to join the nascent state. In 1919, after the October Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops led by Xu Shuzheng occupied the capital but their dominance was short-lived. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Xu Shuzheng ( (1880 &ndash 29 December 1925) was a Chinese Warlord in Republican China. The notorious Russian adventurer "Bloody" Baron Ungern who had fought with the "Whites" against the Red Army in Siberia, led his troops into Mongolia, triumphing over Chinese in Niislel Khüree. Baron Roman Nickolai Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (adopted Russian name Роман Фёдорович Унгерн фон Штернберг, which The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. He ruled briefly, under the blessing of religious leader Bogd Khan before he was captured and executed by the Red Army assisted by Mongolian units led by Damdin Sükhbaatar. The Bogd Khan ( Mongolian mn Богд хаан 1869-1924 was enthroned as the Emperor ( Khan) of Mongolia on 29 December 1911 when the country declared The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Damdin Sükhbaatar (Дамдин Сүхбаатар ( February 2, 1893 - February 20, 1923) was a Mongolian Military leader These events led to abolition of the feudal system and ensured the country's political alignment with Bolshevik Russia. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction
In 1924, after the death of the religious leader and king Bogd Khan, a Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed with support from the Soviets. The Mongolian People's Republic ( Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU) was a The Mongolian People's Republic ( Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU) was a
In 1928, Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power. Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан February 8 1895 &ndash January 26, 1952) was the Communist leader He instituted collectivisation of livestock, the destruction of Buddhist monasteries and the Mongolia's enemies of the people persecution resulting in the murder of monks and other people. Collective farming is an organization of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective The Stalinist purges beginning in 1937, affected the Republic as it left more than 30,000 people dead. Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution Japanese imperialism became even more alarming after the invasion of neighboring Manchuria in 1931. The invasion of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan, beginning on September 19, 1931, immediately followed During the Soviet-Japanese Border War of 1939, the USSR successfully defended Mongolia against Japanese expansionism. The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (бои на реке Халхин-Гол Халхын голын байлдаан Japanese ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken --i The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. In August 1945 Mongolian forces also took part in the Soviet offensive in Inner Mongolia . The Soviet threat of seizing parts of Inner Mongolia induced the Republic of China to recognize Outer Mongolia's independence, provided that a referendum was held. Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The referendum took place on October 20, 1945, with (according to official numbers) 100% of the electorate voting for independence. Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, both countries recognized each other again on October 6, 1949. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In January 26, 1952, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal took power. Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (Юмжаагийн Цэдэнбал September 17, 1916 - April 20, 1991) was one of the leaders of Mongolia In 1956 and again in 1962, Choibalsan's personality cult was condemned. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise Mongolia continued to align itself closely with the Soviet Union, especially after the Sino-Soviet split of the late 1950s. The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR While Tsedenbal was visiting Moscow in August 1984, his severe illness prompted the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with Jambyn Batmönkh. Jambyn Batmönkh (Жамбын Батмөнх 10 March 1926 - May 14, 1997) was a Mongolian communist political leader
The introduction of perestroika and glasnost in the USSR by Mikhail Gorbachev strongly influenced Mongolian politics leading to the peaceful Democratic Revolution of 1990. The 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia was a democratic revolution that started with Hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually (Перестройка) is the Russian term (now used in English for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician The 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia was a democratic revolution that started with Hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually This, in turn, allowed the country to begin engaging in economic and diplomatic relations with the Western world. The nation finished its transition from a communist state to a multi-party capitalist democracy with the ratification of a new constitution in 1992. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity
Mongolia is a parliamentary republic. Politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, and of a Multi-party system. Sükhbaatar Square ( Mongolian: Сүхбаатарын талбай pronounced Sükhbaatariin Talbai) is a Public square in Ulaanbaatar, A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The parliament is elected by the people and in turn elects the government. The president is elected directly. Mongolia's constitution guarantees full freedom of expression, religion, and others. The current Constitution of Mongolia was adopted on January 13 Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Mongolia has a number of political parties, the biggest ones being the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and the Democratic Party (DP). The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам Mongol Ardyn Khuvisgalt Nam) is an ex-communist Political party in The Democratic Party (DP Mongolian mn Ардчилсан нам Ardchilsan Nam) is a liberal, and Social democratic, Political party
The MPRP formed the government of the country from 1921 to 1996 (until 1990 in a one-party system) and from 2000 to 2004. From 2004 to 2006, it was part of a coalition with the DP and two other parties, and since 2006 it has been the dominant party in two other coalitions. Both changes of government after 2004 were initiated by the MPRP. The DP was the dominant force in the ruling coalition between 1996 and 2000, and also an approximately equal partner with the MPRP in the 2004-2006 coalition. The next parliamentary elections are set for June 2008.
Mongolia's president has a symbolic role, but can block the parliament's decisions, who can then overrule the veto by a 2/3 majority. The President of Mongolia is the head of state of Mongolia. The Constitution of Mongolia implements a Semi-presidential system, so while much of the President's The President of Mongolia is the head of state of Mongolia. The Constitution of Mongolia implements a Semi-presidential system, so while much of the President's Nambaryn Enkhbayar (Намбарын Энхбаяр born June 1, 1958 in Ulan Bator) is the current President of Mongolia. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Mongolia's Constitution provides three requirements for taking office as President: the individual must be a native-born Mongolian, be at least 45 years of age, and have resided in Mongolia for five years prior to taking office. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The current President is Nambaryn Enkhbayar. Nambaryn Enkhbayar (Намбарын Энхбаяр born June 1, 1958 in Ulan Bator) is the current President of Mongolia.
Mongolia uses a unicameral parliamentary system in which the president has a symbolic role and the government chosen by the legislature exercises executive power. The State Great Khural (Улсын Их Хурал Ulsyn Ikh Khural; also State Great Hural. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The legislative arm, the State Great Khural, has one chamber with 76 seats and is chaired by the speaker of the house. It elects its members every four years by general elections. The State Great Khural is powerful in the Mongolian government with the president being largely symbolic and the prime minister being confirmed from the parliament.
The Prime Minister of Mongolia is elected by the State Great Khural. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian government's executive arm and heads the Mongolian Cabinet. The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian government's executive arm and heads the Mongolian Cabinet. The current prime minister is Sanjaagiin Bayar, who was elected by sixty-seven votes to two on November 22, 2007. Sanjaagiin Bayar (Санжаагийн Баяр (born 1956 is a Mongolian politician and the current Prime Minister of Mongolia. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The deputy prime minister is Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (since December 5, 2007). Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (Миеэгомбын Энхболд born 1964 is a Mongolian politician Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. There are ministers of each department (finance, defense, labor, agriculture, etc. ) and those offices constitute the prime minister's cabinet.
The cabinet is nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Khural. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. The State Great Khural (Улсын Их Хурал Ulsyn Ikh Khural; also State Great Hural.
Mongolia maintains positive relations and has diplomatic missions with many countries such as the United States, Russia, North and South Korea, Japan, and the People's Republic of China. In the wake of the former Soviet Union 's economic collapse Mongolia began to pursue an independent and nonaligned Foreign policy. The military of Mongolia has three branches general purpose forces border defense forces and internal security forces The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The government has focused a great deal on encouraging foreign investments and trade. Mongolia supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and has sent several successive contingents of 103 to 180 troops each to Iraq. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Smaller contingents were also sent to Afghanistan. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, 200 Mongolian troops are serving in Sierra Leone on a UN mandate to protect the UN's special court set up there. Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to "try those who bear greatest responsibility" for the War crimes and Crimes against From 2005 to 2006, about 40 troops were deployed with the Belgian and Luxembourgish contingent in Kosovo. On November 21, 2005, George W. Bush became the first-ever sitting U. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. S. President to visit Mongolia.  In 2004, under the Bulgarian chairmanship, The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), invited Mongolia as its newest Asian Partner.
Mongolia has embassies in Almaty, Ankara, Bangkok, Berlin, Beijing, Brussels, Budapest, Cairo, Warsaw, Washington, D.C., Vienna, Vientiane, Havana, Delhi, London, Moscow, Ottawa, Paris, Prague, Pyongyang, Seoul, Sofia, Tokyo, Hanoi, and Singapore, a consulate in Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude, and a diplomatic mission to the United Nations in New York City and to the European Union in Geneva. Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos Havana ( IPA: aˈβana officially Ciudad de La Habana, is the Capital city, major port and leading Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Pyongyang (pʰjʌŋjaŋ is the Capital and largest City of North Korea, located on the Taedong River, at. Seoul ( soʊl is the Capital and largest City of South Korea. Sofia (София ˈsɔfija is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1395568 in the Capital Municipality officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam Singapore Irkutsk (Ирку́тск Эрхүү Erkhüü; Эрхүү Erkhüü) is one of the largest cities in Siberia and the administrative center of Ulan-Ude (Ула́н-Удэ́ Улаан-Үдэ Ulaan-Üde) is the capital city of the Buryat Republic, Russia, is located about 100 km The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The City of New York The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking 
At 1,564,116 km² (603,909 mi²), Mongolia is the world's nineteenth-largest country (after Iran). Mongolia is a landlocked country in Northern Asia, strategically located between China and Russia. The Gobi (Говь Govi or Gov', "gravel-covered plain" Chinese: zh-t 戈壁(沙漠 Gēbì (Shāmò) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peru. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.
The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Mongolia consists of relatively flat steppes. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced The highest point in Mongolia is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif in the far west at 4,374 m (14,350 ft). Khüiten Peak (Хүйтний оргил cold peak; also Frendship Peak, Найрамдал оргил Nairamdal orgil; 友誼峰 Youyi Feng The basin of the lake Uvs Nuur, shared with Tuva Republic in Russia, is a natural World Heritage Site. Uvs Nuur or Lake Uvs (Увс Нуур Uvs Nuur; Успа-Холь Uspa-Khol; Убсу-Нур Ubsu-Nur Tyva Republic (Респу́блика Тыва́ Respublika Tyva, rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva Тыва Республика Tyva Respublika) or Tuva Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with January averages dropping as low as -30°C (-22°F).  The country is also subject to occasional harsh climatic conditions known as zud. A Zud (Зуд is a Mongolian term for the extreme conditions which exist after a hot summer is followed by a cold winter it can include Dust storms as well as Ulan Bator has the lowest average temperature of any national capital in the world. Mongolia is high, cold, and windy. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most of its annual precipitation falls. The country averages 257 cloudless days a year, and it is usually at the center of a region of high atmospheric pressure. Precipitation is highest in the north (average of 20 to 35 centimeters per year) and lowest in the south, which receives 10 to 20 centimeters annually. The extreme south is the Gobi, some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years.
The name "Gobi" is a Mongol term for a desert steppe, which usually refers to a category of arid rangeland with insufficient vegetation to support marmots but with enough to support camels. Marmots are members of the Genus Marmota, in the Rodent family Sciuridae (squirrels Mongols distinguish Gobi from desert proper, although the distinction is not always apparent to outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian landscape. Gobi rangelands are fragile and are easily destroyed by overgrazing, which results in expansion of the true desert, a stony waste where not even Bactrian camels can survive. The Bactrian Camel ( Camelus bactrianus) is a large Even-toed ungulate native to the Steppes of north eastern Asia.
Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags (provinces), which are in turn divided into 315 sums (districts). The 21 Aimags are the top-level administrative divisions (provinces of Mongolia. A sum (сум arrow) is a second level administrative subdivision (district of Mongolia Aimag (Аймаг is a Mongolian and Turkic word for a tribe It is also used as a term for Country subdivisions in Mongolia and China A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. The capital Ulan Bator is administrated separately as a khot (municipality) with provincial status. Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The aimags are:
Mongolia's economy is centered on agriculture and mining. Arkhangai (Архангай Northern Khangai) is one of the 21 Aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Bayan-Ölgii (Баян-Өлгий Баян Өлгей (Alternately spelled Olgiy Ulgii etc Bayankhongor (Баянхонгор is one of the 21 aimags of Mongolia. Bulgan (Булган is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in northern Mongolia. Darkhan-Uul (Дархан-Уул is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Dornod (Дорнод East) is the easternmost of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Dornogovi (Дорноговь East Gobi) is one of the 21 Aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Dundgovi (Дундговь Middle Gobi) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Govi-Altai (Говь-Алтай Gobi - Altai) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Govisümber (Говьсүмбэр is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Khentii (Хэнтий is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the east of the country Khovd (Ховд is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the west of the country Khövsgöl (Хөвсгөл is the northernmost of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Ömnögovi (Өмнөговь South Gobi) is an aimag (province of Mongolia, located in the south of the country in the Gobi Desert. Orkhon Aimag (Орхон аймаг is one of the 21 Aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the north of the country Övörkhangai (Өвөрхангай southern Khangai) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the south of the country Selenge (Сэлэнгэ is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the north of the country Sükhbaatar (Сүхбаатар is one of the 21 aimags of Mongolia, located in the east of the country Töv (Төв Center) is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Uvs (Увс аймаг is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia. Zavkhan (Завхан is one of the 21 aimags (provinces of Mongolia, located in the west of the country Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock The tögrög (төгрөг (MNT Tugrik, ₮ is the official currency of Mongolia. Agriculture in Mongolia constitutes 206% of Mongolia's annual Gross domestic product and employs 42% of the labor force Mongolia has rich mineral resources, and copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Tungsten (ˈtʌŋstən also known as wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/ is a Chemical element that has the symbol W and Atomic number 74 Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79
There are currently over 30,000 independent businesses in Mongolia, chiefly centered around the capital city. The majority of the population outside urban areas participate in subsistence herding; livestock typically consists of sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and Bactrian camels. Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group ( Herd) maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place&mdashor any combination of The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. The Bactrian Camel ( Camelus bactrianus) is a large Even-toed ungulate native to the Steppes of north eastern Asia. Agricultural crops include wheat, barley, potato, vegetables, tomato, watermelon, sea-buckthorn and fodder crops. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb) Matsum & Nakai family Cucurbitaceae) refers to both Fruit and Plant of a vine-like (climber The sea-buckthorns ( Hippophae L are Deciduous Shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. GDP per capita in 2006 was $2,100.  Although GDP has risen steadily since 2002 at the rate of 7. 5% in an official 2006 estimate, the state is still working to overcome a sizable trade deficit. A massive ($11 billion) foreign debt to Russia was settled by the Mongolian government in 2004 with a $250 million payment. Despite growth, the proportion of the population below the poverty line is estimated to be 35. 6% in 1998, 36. 1% in 2002-2003, 32. 2% in 2006, and both the unemployment rate and inflation rate are relatively high at 3. 2% and 6. 0%, respectively (in 2006)
The Mongolian Stock Exchange, established in 1991 in Ulan Bator, is the world's smallest stock exchange by market capitalisation. The Mongolian Stock Exchange ( Mongolian: Монголын Хөрөнгийн Бирж/ Mongolyn Khöröngiin Birj) located in Ulan Bator, is Mongolia A stock exchange, share market or bourse is a Corporation or Mutual organization which provides "trading" facilities for Stock Market capitalization/capitalisation (aka market cap, mkt cap or capitalized/capitalised value) is a measurement of Corporate or Economic 
Industry currently accounts for 21. 4% of GDP, approximately equal to the weight of the agriculture sector (20. 4%). These industries include construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold), oil, food and beverages, processing of animal products, and cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. The industrial production growth rate is estimated to be 4. 1% in 2002. Mining is continuing to rise as a major industry of Mongolia as evidenced by number of Chinese, Russian and Canadian firms opening and starting mining business in Mongolia.  Domestic food production, especially packaged food production has been increasingly coming up with speed with investments from foreign companies.
Some technology companies from nearby countries, such as South Korea and the People's Republic of China, have started to open offices in Mongolia. Those companies have tended to focus on software development rather than hardware production. A number of telecommunications companies and internet service providers have been established resulting in greater competition in the internet and phone market, especially in cell phones. An Internet service provider ( ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a company which primarily offers their customers access to the Internet
After the transition shocks of the early 1990s, Mongolian domestic production has picked up again. According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2003, the service sector accounted for 58% of the GDP, with 29% of the labor force of 1. 488 million involved.
Foreign investment from other countries (including China, Japan, South Korea, Germany and Russia) has helped to add more paved roads. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The most important is a 1000 km north-south road leading from the Russian border at Sükhbaatar to the Chinese border at Zamyn-Üüd. Sükhbaatar (Сүхбаатар Сухэ-Батор is the capital of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia, on the Orkhon river Zamyn-Üüd (Замын-Үүд road's gate) is a sum (district of Dornogovi Province in southeastern Mongolia. There are several air transport companies in Mongolia, including MIAT, Aero Mongolia, and Eznis Airways. MIAT Mongolian Airlines (Монголын Иргэний Агаарын Тээвэр Mongolyn Irgenii Agaaryn Teever, Mongolian Civil Air Transport is Mongolia Aero Mongolia was an Airline based in Ulan Bator, Mongolia. It operated domestic services to six destinations and international scheduled services Eznis Airways LLC (Изинис Эйрвэйз ХХК is a regional Airline based in Ulan Bator, Mongolia.
Petroleum products are mainly (80%) imported from Russia, which makes Mongolia vulnerable to supply side shocks. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit This is one strong example of the influence of Mongolia's neighbors on its economy.
Mongolia's total population as of July 2007 is estimated by U.S. Census Bureau at 2,951,786 people ranking at around 138th in the world in terms of population. Life in sparsely populated Mongolia has become more urbanized The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census But the U.S. Department of State Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs instead of the U.S. Census Bureau estimations uses the U.N. estimations . In the United States Government the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (originally the Office of Chinese Affairs) is part of the U The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division estimates Mongolia's total population (mid. The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to the major United Nations 2007) as 2,629,000 (11% less then U.S. Census Bureau). The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census But UN estimations are very close to those made by Mongolian National Statistical Office - 2,612,900 (end of June 2007).
It has a very small population relative to its two border neighbors, China and Russia. Though the majority of Mongolian citizens are of Mongol descent there are small populations of Kazakh, Tuvan, and Tungus peoples. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated Tuvans or Tuvinians ( Tuvan: Тывалар Tyvalar) are a group of Mongols or Turkic people. Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1. 2% (2007 est. ).  About 59% of the total population is under age 30, 27% of whom are under 14. This relatively young and growing population has, as in many developing countries, placed strains on Mongolia's economy.
Since the end of socialism, Mongolia has experienced a decline of total fertility rate (children per woman) that is steeper than in any other country in the world, according to recent UN estimations: in 1970-1975, fertility was estimated to be 7. The total fertility rate ( TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR or total The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 33 children per woman, but 2005-2010 prospects are 1. 87 (4 times less).
Mongolia has become more urbanized. A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia. About 40 percent of the population live in Ulaanbaatar alone, and in 2002 a further 23% lived in Darkhan, Erdenet, the aimag centers and sum-level permanent settlements. Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. Erdenet (Эрдэнэт is the second-largest city in Mongolia and the capital of the aimag (province of Orkhon. The 21 Aimags are the top-level administrative divisions (provinces of Mongolia. A sum (сум arrow) is a second level administrative subdivision (district of Mongolia Another share of the population lives in the sum centers. In 2002, about 30 percent of all households in Mongolia lived from breeding lifestock. Most herders in Mongolia follow a pattern of nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralism. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of Agriculture concerned with the raising of Livestock.
Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongol language. The Khalkha make up 90% of the ethnic Mongol population. The Khalkha, or Halh (Classical Mongolian qalq-a, Khalkha Mongolian mn Халх) are a subgroup of the Mongols. The remaining 10% include Buryats, Durbet Mongols and others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east. Turkic peoples (Kazakhs, Tuvans, and Chantuu (Uzbek) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population, and the rest are Tungusic peoples, Chinese, and Russians. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар qɑzɑqtɑr Russian: Казахи the English name is transliterated Tuvans or Tuvinians ( Tuvan: Тывалар Tyvalar) are a group of Mongols or Turkic people. The Uzbeks (Self designation sg O‘zbek, pl O‘zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. Ethnic Chinese in Mongolia can be subdivided into three groups Mongolian citizens of ethnic Chinese background temporary residents with Chinese citizenship and permanent residents with The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Most, but not all, Russians left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet, and is spoken by 90% of the population. The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of The Cyrillic alphabet (səˈrɪlɪk also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters is actually a family of Alphabets, subsets of which are used by A variety of different dialects are spoken across the country. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of In the west the Kazakh and Tuvan languages, among others, are also spoken. Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants natively kk Qazaq tili, kk Қазақ тілі; pronounced tˈlə is a Turkic language closely related to Tuvan (Tuvan Тыва дыл Tyva dyl) also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. The Russian language is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia, followed by English, though English has been gradually replacing Russian as the second language. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Korean has gained a popularity as tens of thousands of Mongolians work in South Korea. This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language See Hangul for details on the native Korean writing system Mongolians in South Korea form one of the world's largest populations of emigrants from Mongolia.  Interest in Chinese, as the language of the second neighbouring power, has been growing. Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used in mainland China and Taiwan Japanese is also popular among the younger people. is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities A number of older educated Mongolians speak some German, as they studied in the former East Germany, while a few speak other languages from the former Eastern Bloc. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were Besides that, many younger Mongolians are fluent in the Western European languages as they study or work in foreign countries including Germany, France and Italy. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Mongolian is one of the Mongolic languages. The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. Mongolic is frequently included in the Altaic languages, a group of languages named after the Altay Mountains that also includes the Turkic and Tungusic languages. Altaic, according to its proponents is a language family that includes 66 Languages ref> Altaic languages spoken by about 348 million people mostly in and around List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family The Altai Mountains (Алтай Altay; Алтай 阿尔泰山脉 are a Mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, The Turkic languages constitute a Language family of some thirty languages spoken by Turkic peoples across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus Tungus are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria.
According to the CIA World Factbook; 50% of Mongolia's population follow the Tibetan Buddhism, 40% is listed as having no religion, 6% is Shamanist and Christian, and 4% is Muslim. Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Various forms of tengriism and shamanism have been widely practiced throughout the history of what is now modern day Mongolia, as such beliefs were common among nomadic people in Asian history. Tengriism ( Tengerism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols and Turkic peoples before Such beliefs gradually gave way to Tibetan Buddhism, but shamanism has left a mark on Mongolian religious culture. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including Indeed, some shamanistic practices and traditions, such as the use of ovoo as religious sites, are still practiced. An ovoo (овоо heap) is a type of shamanistic Cairn found in Mongolia, usually made from rocks or from wood
Throughout much of the twentieth century, the communist government ensured that the religious practices of the Mongolian people were largely repressed. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Khorloogiin Choibalsan complied with the orders of Joseph Stalin, destroying almost all of Mongolia's over 700 Buddhist monasteries and killing thousands of monks. Khorloogiin Choibalsan (Хорлоогийн Чойбалсан February 8 1895 &ndash January 26, 1952) was the Communist leader Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party
The fall of communism in 1991 restored the legality of public religious practice, and Tibetan Buddhism, which had been the predominant religion in the region before the rise of Communism, again rose to become the most widely practiced religion in Mongolia. Lama ( is a title for a Tibetan teacher The end of religious repression in the 1990s also allowed for other religions, such as Islam and Christianity, to spread in the country. According to the Barnabas Fund, the number of Christians grew from just 4 in 1989 to around 40,000 as of 2008. The Barnabas Fund is an evangelical Protestant Christian missionary organisation that serves Christians in many countries who face discrimination or persecution and makes
During the state socialist period, education was one of the areas of significant achievement in Mongolia. Buddhism in Mongolia is essentially Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelugpa school Islam in Mongolia is mainly practised by the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ölgii (88 Illiteracy was virtually eliminated, in part through the use of seasonal boarding schools for children of nomadic families. Funding to these boarding schools was cut in the 1990s, contributing to slightly increased illiteracy.
Primary and secondary education formerly lasted ten years, but has been expanded to eleven years recently and is set to be expanded further to twelve years.
Mongolian national universities are all spin-offs from the National University of Mongolia and the Mongolian University of Science and Technology . The National University of Mongolia (short NUM Mongolian mn Монгол Улсын Их Сургууль Mongol Ulsyn Ikh Surguul) is the oldest University in
The broad liberalization of the 1990s led to a boom in private institutions of higher education, although many of these establishments have difficulty living up to their name of "college" or "university".
Health care in Mongolia is rapidly improving, leading to a higher life expectancy and a drop in infant and child mortality. Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births Child mortality refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five
Average childbirth (fertility rate) is around 2. The total fertility rate ( TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR or total 25 - 1. 87 per woman (2007) and average life expectancy is 67-68 years. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age Infant mortality is at 1. 9%-4% and child mortality is at 4. 3%. 
The health sector comprises 17 specialized hospitals and centers, 4 regional diagnostic and treatment centers, 9 district and 21 aimag general hospitals, 323 soum hospitals, 18 feldsher posts, 233 family group practices, and 536 private hospitals and 57 drug supply companies/pharmacies. In 2002 the total number of health workers was 33273, of which 6823 were doctors, 788 pharmacists, 7802-nurses and 14091 mid-level personnel. At present, there are 27. 7 physicians and 75. 7 hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants.
The main festival is Naadam, which has been organised for centuries, consists of three Mongolian traditional sports, archery, horse-racing (over long stretches of open country, not the short racing around a track practiced in the West), and wrestling. Naadam (Наадам Classical Mongolian: Naɤadum games) is a traditional type of festival in Mongolia. Archery is the practice of using a bow or Crossbow to shoot Arrows Archery has historically been used in Hunting and Combat and has Nowadays it is held on July 11 to July 13 in the honour of the anniversaries of the National Democratic Revolution and foundation of the Great Mongol State. Another very popular activity called Shagaa is the "flicking" of sheep ankle bones at a target several feet away, using a flicking motion of the finger to send the small bone flying at targets and trying to knock the target bones off the platform. This contest at Naadam is very popular and develops a serious audience among older Mongolians. In Mongolia, the khoomii, or throat singing, style of music is popular, particularly in parts of Western Mongolia. Overtone singing, also known as throat singing, overtone chanting, or harmonic singing, is a type of singing in which the Singer manipulates
The ornate symbol in the leftmost bar of the national flag is a Buddhist icon called soyombo. It represents the sun, moon, stars, and heavens per standard cosmological symbology abstracted from that seen in traditional thangka paintings.
Mongolia's Naadam festival takes place over three days in the summer and includes horse racing, archery, and Mongolian wrestling. Naadam (Наадам Classical Mongolian: Naɤadum games) is a traditional type of festival in Mongolia. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. Archery is the practice of using a bow or Crossbow to shoot Arrows Archery has historically been used in Hunting and Combat and has Mongolian wrestling (бөх bökh) is a traditional sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries These three sports, traditionally recognized as the three primary masculine activities, are the most widely watched and practiced sports throughout the country.
Horse riding is especially central to Mongolian culture. Mongolian wrestling (бөх bökh) is a traditional sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар is the Capital and largest city of Mongolia. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description The long-distance races that are showcased during Naadam festivals are one aspect of this, as is the popularity of trick riding. One example of trick riding is the legend that the Mongolian military hero Damdin Sükhbaatar scattered coins on the ground and then picked them up while riding a horse at full gallop. Damdin Sükhbaatar (Дамдин Сүхбаатар ( February 2, 1893 - February 20, 1923) was a Mongolian Military leader
Other sports such as table tennis, basketball, and soccer are increasingly getting popular. More Mongolian table tennis players are competing internationally.
Wrestling is the most popular of all Mongol sports. It is the highlight of the Three Manly Games of Naadam. Historians claim that Mongol-style wrestling originated some seven thousand years ago. Hundreds of wrestlers from different cities and aimags around the country take part in the national wrestling competition.
There are no weight categories or age limits. Each wrestler has his own attendant herald. The aim of the sport is to knock one's opponent off balance and throw him down, making him touch the ground with his elbow and knee.
The winners are honored with ancient titles: the winner of the fifth round gets the honorary title of nachin (falcon), of the seventh and eighth rounds zaan (elephant), and of the tenth and eleventh rounds arslan (lion). The wrestler who becomes the absolute champion is awarded the title of avarga (Titan). Every subsequent victory at the national Naadam-festival will add an epithet to the avarga title, like "Invincible Titan to be remembered by all".
Beginning in 2003, the Mongolian parliament adopted a new law on Naadam, making amendments to some of the wrestling titles. The titles of iarudi and Khartsaga (Hawk) were added to the existing above-mentioned rules.
The traditional wrestling costume includes an open-fronted jacket, tied around the waist with a string. This is said to have come into use after the champion of a wrestling competition many years ago was discovered to be a woman. The jacket was introduced to ensure that only men could compete.
Mongolia's traditional wrestlers have made the transition to Japanese sumo wrestling with great success. is a competitive Contact sport where two Wrestlers ( rikishi) attempt to force one another out of a circular ring ( Dohyo) or to touch the ground Asashōryū Akinori was the first Mongolian to be promoted to the top sumo rank of yokozuna in 2003 and was followed by his countryman Hakuhō Shō in 2007. is a Sumo wrestler ( rikishi) from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. He is the 68th yokozuna in the history of the sport in Japan or ( is the top division of professional Sumo. Its size is fixed at 42 wrestlers ordered into five ranks according to their ability as defined by their performance in previous tournaments Hakuhō Shō (born March 11, 1985 as Mönkhbatyn Davaajargal, Мөнхбатын Даваажаргал is a professional Sumo wrestler
Football is also played in Mongolia. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Mongolia national football team began playing again in the 1990s; it has yet to qualify for a major tournament. The Mongolia national football team is the national team of Mongolia and is controlled by the Mongolian Football Federation, founded in 1959 but from 1960 to 1998 The Mongolia Premier League is the top domestic competition. Mongolia Premier League Clubs (2007 Erchim (Ulaanbaatar Power Plant team Khangarid (Erdenet town in northern mongolia
Several Mongolian women have excelled in pistol shooting: Munkhbayar Dorjsuren is a double world champion and Olympic bronze medal winner (now representing Germany), while Otryad Gundegmaa and Tsogbadrakh Munkhzul are, as of May 2007 ranked second and third in the world in the 25 m Pistol event. The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed using various types of Guns such as Firearms and Airguns Munkhbayar Dorjsuren (Доржсүрэнгийн Мөнхбаяр Dorjsürengiin Mönkhbayar; born July 29, 1969 in Ulan Bator) is a sport Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. 
The traditional Mongolian dwelling is known as a yurt (Mongolian: ger). A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia. According to Mongolian artist and art critic N. Chultem, yurts and tents were the basis for development of the traditional Mongolian architecture. In the 16th ad 17th centuries, lamaseries were built throughout the country. Many of them started as yurt-temples. When they needed to be enlarged to accommodate the growing number of worshippers, the Mongolian architects used structures with 6 and 12 angles with pyramidal roofs to approximate to the round shape of a yurt. Further enlargement led to a quadratic shape of the temples. The roofs were made in the shape of marquees.  The trellis walls, roof poles and layers of felt were replaced by stone, brick, beams and planks, and became permanent. 
Chultem distinguished three styles in traditional Mongolian architecture: Mongolian, Tibetan and Chinese as well as combinations of the three. A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia. The Gurvansaikhan Mountains (Гурбансайхан three beauties) are a Mountain range in the Ömnögovi Province of southern Mongolia. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Among the first quadratic temples was Batu-Tsagaan (1654) designed by Zanabazar. Zanabazar, also known as Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar (Өндөр гэгээн Занабазар 1635-1723 was the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, the spiritual head An example of the yurt-style architecture is the lamasery Dashi-Choiling in Ulan Bator. The temple Lavrin (XVIII century) in the Erdene Zuu lamasery was built in the Tibetan tradition. The Erdene Zuu monastery (Эрдэнэ Зуу is probably the most ancient Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. An example of a temple built in the Chinese tradition is the lamasery Choijing Lamiin Sume (1904), which is a museum today. The quadratic temple Tsogchin in lamasery Gandan in Ulan Bator is a combination of the Mongolian and Chinese tradition. The temple of Maitreya (disassembled in 1938) is an example of the Tibeto-Mongolian architecture.  Dashi-Choiling monastery has commenced a project to restore the temple and the 80 feet (24 m) sculpture of Maitreya.
The music of Mongolia is strongly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and nomadism. Music is an integral part of Mongolian culture. Among the unique contributions of Mongolia to the world's musical culture are the Long songs one of The natives dance the "tsam" to keep away evil spirits and it was seen the reminiscences of shamaning. The traditional music includes a variety of instruments and songs, including the song "koomi": delicately trained male voices, from the most serious tone to the highest, which are combined in full harmony.
The first rock band of Mongolia was Soyol-Erdene, founded in the 1960s. Their Beatles-like manner was severely criticised by the Communist censorship. It was followed by Mungunhurhree, Ineemseglel, Urgoo, etc. , carving out the path for the genre in the harsh environment of Communist ideology. Mungunhurhree and Haranga were to become the pioneers in the Mongolia's heavy rock music. Haranga approached its zenith in the late 1980s and 1990s.
The leader of Haranga, famous guitarist Enh-Manlai, generously helped the growth of their following generations of rockers. Among the followers of Haranga was the band Hurd. In the early 1990s group Har-Chono put the beginning for Mongolia's folk-rock merging the elements of the Mongolian tenuto song (poorly described as "long" song) into the genre.
By that time, the environment for development of artistic thought had become largely liberal thanks to the new democratic society in the country. The 1990s saw development of rap, techno, hip-hop and also boy bands and girl bands flourish at the turn of the millennium.