|Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
|Heir apparent:||Charles, Prince of Wales|
|First monarch:||open to interpretation|
|Formation:||1 May 1707|
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The monarchy of the United Kingdom (commonly referred to as the British monarchy) is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories; the terms British monarch and British monarchy may also mean different things in different contexts beyond the United Kingdom. The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official Coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Majesty is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin Maiestas, meaning Greatness. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1707 ( MDCCVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a Constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is Head Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Academic titles --> James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951 is The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all Economic and Financial Alistair Maclean Darling (born 28 November 1953 is a British Politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since 28 June 2007 The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a member of the United Kingdom Government heading the David Wright Miliband The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office Jacqueline Jill "Jacqui" Smith (born 3 November 1962 is a British Politician for the Labour Party. See also Lord Chancellor The Secretary of State for Justice is a United Kingdom cabinet position John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of the Parliament This article discusses types of Acts and the process of law-making in Parliament The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The Lord Speaker is the speaker of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Helene Valerie Hayman Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949 in Wolverhampton) is Lord Speaker of the House of Lords The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945 is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons Harriet Ruth Harman Prime Minister's Questions ( PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition, in the United Kingdom is led by the Leader of the Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition (sometimes known as the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons) in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966 is a British Politician and the current leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of Her Majesty's In British parliamentary practice the Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (usually known simply as 'The Shadow Cabinet' is a group of members from Her Majesty's Loyal The United Kingdom does not have a single unified Judicial system, but separate judicial systems serving England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in England The courts of Northern Ireland are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in Northern Ireland: The civil, criminal and heraldic Courts of Scotland are responsible for the administration of Justice. The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles under which the United Kingdom is governed The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of avowed respect for its subjects' Human rights. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping Political history Pre-Union politics See also Parliament of England The English Parliament traces its origins to the Anglo-Saxon " Regional Assembly " is the name which has been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies The Greater London Authority ( GLA) is the city-wide governing body for London, England. Current situation The largest party is the Scottish National Party, which campaigns for Scottish independence. The Scottish Government (SG ( Scottish Gaelic: Riaghaltas na h-Alba) is the executive arm of the government of Scotland. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral The emergence of a Welsh polity During the latter part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century the notion of a distinctive Welsh polity gained credence The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG (Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. General demographics Population 1685267 The population of Northern Ireland has increased annually since 1978 The Northern Ireland Executive is the executive arm of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved Legislature for Northern Ireland The Northern Ireland Assembly ( Irish: Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann Semmlie) is the devolved For other meanings see Reserved powers disambiguation page In the United Kingdom reserved matters, also referred to as reserved The United Kingdom has five distinct types of Elections UK general elections elections to national/regional parliaments and assemblies elections to the European Parliament This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. Brief history and overview Prior to the mid-19th century Politics in the United Kingdom Results Overview For events leading up to the date of the election see article Pre-election day events of the United Kingdom general Leadership of the main parties David Cameron became Conservative leader in December 2005 replacing Michael Howard. The United Kingdom (UK is a key player in international politics with interests throughout the world The European Union is a unique entity possessing elements of Intergovernmentalism, Supranationalism and a Multi-party Parliamentary democracy Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom
The present monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Queen, the current heir apparent – Elizabeth's eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales (known as Duke of Rothesay in Scotland) – the Queen's consort, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and the remainder of the Royal Family, undertake various public duties in accordance with their positions; since the Magna Carta, and through the English Civil War and the Restoration, the political powers of the monarch have gradually decreased. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. A prince consort, generally speaking is a common term for the husband of a Queen regnant, unless he himself also is a king in his own right The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Today, the monarch's role is constitutional, and limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours. Despite this, the ultimate executive authority over the government of the United Kingdom is still, by and through, the monarch's royal prerogative. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy Such powers include the dissolution of parliament, and the making of the rules for the government and regulation of the civil service and the armed forces. In Parliamentary systems a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a Legislature at the call of an Election. But these powers are only used according to the policies and procedures set down by laws enacted in Parliament and; where the laws be silent, within the constraints of convention and precedent. The monarch has a variety of official and private royal residences, and the Crown Estate, with assets worth over £7 billion, is one of the largest property owners in the world. In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a Property portfolio associated with the monarchy.
Following the declaration of Indian independence, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth. The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Queen Elizabeth II is the second person to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth (which currently has 53 members Besides reigning in the UK, Queen Elizabeth II also serves as head of state for 15 other Commonwealth countries, putting the United Kingdom in a personal union relationship with those other countries. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct This developed from the former colonial relationship of these countries to Britain, but these countries are now independent and the monarchy of each is legally distinct.
The British monarchy can trace its institutional lineage back to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Angles were the dominant Germanic tribe in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, and gave their name to the English. The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe  By the year 1000, the petty kingdoms of early medieval Britain had resolved into the kingdoms of England and Scotland. The Kingdom of England was a State (927-1707 located in Western Europe dating from the ninth or tenth century to the early eighteenth century when it was legally The Kingdom of Scotland ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba, Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a State in northwest Europe The last Anglo-Saxon monarch (Harold II) was defeated and killed in the Norman invasion of 1066 and the English monarchy passed to the Norman conquerors. Harold Godwinson, (c 1022 &ndash 14 October 1066 also known as Harold II, is widely regarded as the last Anglo-Saxon King of England before the From 1603, when the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both kingdoms were ruled by a single monarch. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England that followed the War of the Three Kingdoms. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland The Wars of the Three Kingdoms (sometimes known as the Wars of the Three Nations) formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, In 1707 the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain and, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland became joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Most of Ireland seceded from the Union in 1922 as the Irish Free State, but in law the Monarch remained sovereign there until 1949. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by
The terms British monarch and British monarchy can refer, respectively, to the monarch of the United Kingdom and the royal institution he or she heads in that country. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located However, despite the splitting, in 1931, of the unitary British monarchy throughout its empire into legally distinct crowns for each of the Commonwealth realms, the two terms are still frequently applied in non-British legal fields to the extranational person and the institution shared amongst all 16 of those countries. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch  Similarly, for reasons historical, political, and of convenience, the terms are also commonly used beyond the UK, including in the non-UK Commonwealth realms, to refer to the monarch and crown in non-British contexts, at variance with the official national titles and terms for each of those jurisdictions. Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government This is a list of awards decorations honours orders and titles belonging to Queen Elizabeth II. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch
Fifteen states within the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; former territories of the British Empire are in a personal union with the United Kingdom. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct  These 16 countries are known as the Commonwealth realms, each of which is sovereign and independent of the others. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch 
Prior to 1926 the British Crown reigned over the British Empire collectively, the Dominions and Crown colonies being subordinate to the United Kingdom. A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities under sovereign authority within the British Empire and The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom The Balfour Declaration of 1926 gave the Dominions the right to be considered equal to Britain, effectively creating a system whereby a single monarch operated independently in each Commonwealth realm. The Balfour Declaration of 1926, named after the British Lord President of the Council Arthur Balfour, Earl of Balfour was the name given to a report resulting A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it is often still referred to as "British" for legal and historical reasons and for convenience.
The first indication of this shift in constitutional law was the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927, and the concept was solidified by the Statute of Westminster, 1931. Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic Laws of nation states and other political organizations Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 ( 17 Geo 5 c The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (22 & 23 Geo According to the latter, which has been likened to a treaty amongst the Commonwealth realms, the personal union relationship is such that any change to the laws governing succession to the throne in any realm requires the unanimous consent of all the realms. Thus, neither the United Kingdom nor any other realm can unilaterally change the rules of succession, unless they explicitly remove themselves from the shared monarch relationship.
On all matters pertaining to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland the monarch is advised solely by her British Ministers of the Crown. Minister of the Crown is the formal constitutional term used in the Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign
Succession is governed by several enactments, the most important being the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701. The Bill of Rights (or Declaration of Rights) is an act of the Parliament of England, with the Long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties The Act of Settlement is an act of the Parliament of England, originally filed in 1700 and passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English throne The rules of succession may be changed by an Act of Parliament. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament.
Succession is according to the rules of male-preference cognatic primogeniture, under which sons inherit before daughters, and elder children inherit before younger ones of the same sex. Primogeniture is the Common law right of the Firstborn son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings The Act of Settlement, however, restricts the succession to the natural (i. e. not adopted) legitimate descendants of Sophia of Hanover (1630–1714), a granddaughter of James I. Adoption is the act of legally placing a child with a Parent or parents other than those to whom they were born Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James
The Bill of Rights and Act of Settlement include religious restrictions, which were imposed because of the English and Scots' distrust of Roman Catholicism during the late 17th century. Most importantly, only individuals who are Protestants at the time of the succession may inherit the Crown. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. A person who has at any time professed Roman Catholicism, or has ever married a Roman Catholic, is also prohibited from succeeding. An individual who is thus disabled from inheriting the Crown is deemed "naturally dead" for succession purposes, and the disqualification does not extend to the individual's descendants.  In recent years there have been efforts to remove the religious restrictions (especially the specific rules relating to Roman Catholicism), but the provisions remain in effect. 
Upon a "demise in the Crown" (the death of a sovereign) his or her heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony (hence the phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!"). The King is dead Long live the King! (French Le Roi est mort vive le Roi ! is a traditional proclamation made following the Accession of a new Monarch in various Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the sovereign to be publicly proclaimed by an Accession Council that meets at St. James's Palace. In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council is a ceremonial body which assembles on the death of a Monarch to proclaim his or her successor king or queen and to receive St James's Palace is one of London's oldest Palaces It is situated on Pall Mall in London, just north of St  After an appropriate period of mourning has passed, the monarch is crowned in Westminster Abbey, normally by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Coronation of the British Monarch is a Ceremony (specifically Initiation rite) in which the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the A coronation is not necessary for a sovereign to reign; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned because he abdicated before the ceremony.
After an individual ascends the throne, he or she reigns until death. There is no provision for a monarch to abdicate; the only monarch to do so, Edward VIII (1936), was authorised by a special Act of Parliament, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936. His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 c 3 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII Numerous reigns have ended due to irregular or extralegal procedures; several monarchs have been killed, deposed, or forced to abdicate, chiefly during the 14th and 15th centuries. The last monarch involuntarily removed from power was James VII and II, who fled the realm in 1688 during the Glorious Revolution; the English Parliament deemed him to have abdicated, while the Scottish Parliament declared him to have forfeited the throne. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union
The current Government has announced that it intends to bring forward legislation to change the law of succession to give equal rights to males and females, and to remove the exclusion of those marrying Roman Catholics. 
Under the Regency Act, 1937, and Regency Act 1953, the powers of a monarch who has not reached the age of 18 or who is physically or mentally incapacitated must be exercised by a regent. The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various times to provide a Regent if the British monarch were to be incapacitated In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the Monarch presently Elizabeth II, delegates certain The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various times to provide a Regent if the British monarch were to be incapacitated A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor A physical or mental incapacity must be certified by at least three of the following persons: the sovereign's spouse, the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, and the Master of the Rolls. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales was historically the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor. The Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls, is the third most senior judge of England and The declaration of three of the same people is necessary to terminate the regency and to allow the monarch to resume power. 
When a regency is necessary, the next qualified individual in the line of succession automatically becomes regent. The regent must be at least 21-years old (18 years for the heir apparent or heir presumptive), be a British subject and be domiciled in the United Kingdom. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne peerage or other hereditary honor but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir apparent Special provisions were made for Queen Elizabeth II by the Regency Act, 1953, which states that the Duke of Edinburgh (the Queen's husband) may act as regent in certain circumstances. The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various times to provide a Regent if the British monarch were to be incapacitated  The only individual to have acted as regent was the future George IV, who took over while his father, George III, was considered insane (1811–1820). George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places 
During a temporary physical infirmity or an absence from the kingdom, the sovereign may temporarily delegate his or her functions to Counsellors of State, the monarch's spouse and the first four qualified people in the line of succession. In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the Monarch presently Elizabeth II, delegates certain The qualifications for Counsellors of State are the same as those for regents. The present Counsellors of State are: The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince of Wales, Prince William of Wales, Prince Henry of Wales and The Duke of York. For actual Princes of Wales called Henry see Henry Prince of Wales.
Parliament meets much of the sovereign's official expenditure from public funds. In the past the UK 's Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the sovereign under normal circumstances the monies in this The Civil List covers most expenses, including those for staffing, state visits, public engagements, and official entertainment. A civil list is a list of individuals to whom Money is paid by the Government.  The size of the Civil List is fixed by parliament every 10 years; any money saved may be carried forward to the next 10-year period. The Civil List expenditure in 2003 was approximately £9. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency 9 million. In addition, the sovereign receives an annual Property Services Grant-in-Aid (£15. 3 million for FY 2003–2004) to pay for the upkeep of the royal residences, and an annual Royal Travel Grant-in-Aid (£5. A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly" Financial statements in Businesses 9 million for FY 2003–2004). A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly" Financial statements in Businesses The Civil List and the Grants-in-Aid are paid from public funds.
Until 1760 the monarch met all official expenses from hereditary revenues, including the profits of the Crown Estate. Crown land is a designated area belonging to The Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the Monarchy and could not be King George III agreed to surrender the hereditary revenues of the Crown in return for the Civil List, and this arrangement persists. George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places In modern times, the profits surrendered from the Crown Estate have by far exceeded the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid provided to the monarch. For example, the Crown Estate produced over £170 million for the Treasury in the financial year 2003–2004, whereas parliamentary funding for the monarch was less than £40 million during the same period. The monarch continues to own the Crown Estate, but cannot sell it; the estate passes from one sovereign to the next.
The sovereign also owns the Duchy of Lancaster as private inherited property. The Duchy of Lancaster is one of the two Royal Duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Cornwall, and is the personal (inherited property of the Like the Crown Estate the Duchy is held in trust, and cannot be sold. The revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster need not be surrendered to the Treasury; they form part of the Privy Purse, and are used for expenses not borne by the Civil List. In the past the UK 's Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the sovereign under normal circumstances the monies in this The Duchy of Cornwall is a similar estate held in trust to meet the expenses of the monarch's eldest son. The Duchy of Cornwall is with the Duchy of Lancaster, one of the two Royal duchies in England.
The sovereign is subject to indirect taxes such as the value added tax (VAT), but is exempt from income tax and capital gains tax. Value added tax ( VAT) or goods and services tax ( GST) is a consumption Tax levied on value added. A capital gains tax (abbreviated CGT) is a Tax charged on Capital gains the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory Asset that was purchased Since 1993 the Queen has paid taxes on personal income. As the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid are used solely for official expenditure, they are not taken into account when calculating taxes.
The Crown Estate (the royal property portfolio) is one of the largest property owners in the United Kingdom, with a portfolio worth over £7 billion (US$14. In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a Property portfolio associated with the monarchy. 35 billion) in 2007. 
In 1999 Eurobusiness magazine listed the Windsors' assets as:
The Royal Collection is not the personal property of the Windsors but is administered by the Royal Collection Trust, a registered charity. The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family. 
In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom political power is ultimately exercised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, of which the Sovereign is a non-partisan component. The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles under which the United Kingdom is governed The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories Political power is exercised by the House of Lords and the House of Commons, and by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister The monarchy is a constitutional one; the Sovereign's role is limited to non-partisan functions such as granting honours. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; in The English Constitution (1867) Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government.  The sovereign is the Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, although spiritual leadership of the Church is the responsibility of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British Monarchs which signifies their titular leadership over the Church of England. An established church is a church officially sanctioned and supported by the government of a country e The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the 
Whenever necessary, the Sovereign is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister (with an option to appoint none at all, which, politically, is extremely unlikely); the appointment is formalised at a ceremony known as Kissing Hands. The Bill of Rights (or Declaration of Rights) is an act of the Parliament of England, with the Long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties  In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the Sovereign must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Commons, usually the leader of the party that has a majority in that House. If no party has a majority (an unusual occurrence, given the United Kingdom's First Past the Post electoral system), two or more groups may form a coalition, whose agreed leader is then appointed Prime Minister. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member  In a "hung parliament", in which no party or coalition holds a majority, the monarch has an increased degree of latitude in his or her choice of Prime Minister, but the individual most likely to command the support of the Commons, usually the leader of the largest party, must be appointed. In Parliamentary systems a hung parliament is one in which no one Political party has an outright majority and means it is most commonly equally balanced For example, following the February 1974 general election, after failed negotiations between Edward Heath and Liberal leader Jeremy Thorpe, Heath resigned and Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister although his Labour Party did not have a majority. Results |} Total votes 31321982 All parties are shown The seats won by the Ulster Unionists are compared with those won by Unionist MPs in the 1970 election Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 &ndash 17 July 2005 often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party John Jeremy Thorpe (born April 29, 1929) is a British Politician, who was leader of the Liberal Party from 1967 to 1976 James Harold Wilson Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 &ndash 24 May 1995 was one of the most prominent British politicians According to Lascelles Principles, if a minority government tried to dissolve Parliament to call an election early to strengthen its position, the monarch could refuse and allow opposition parties to form a coalition government. The Lascelles Principles are a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom describing the circumstances under which a monarch may refuse a request from a Harold Wilson's February 1974 minority government called an early election in October 1974, which gave it a small majority. Results |} Total number of votes 29189104 All parties shown Votes summary Seats summary 
The Sovereign appoints and dismisses Cabinet and other ministers, on the Prime Minister's advice — in practice, the Prime Minister, and not the Sovereign, exercises control over the composition of the Cabinet. The monarch may in theory unilaterally dismiss a Prime Minister, but convention and precedent tightly restrict such an action. The last monarch to remove a Prime Minister was William IV, who dismissed Lord Melbourne in 1834. William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS (15 March 1779 &ndash 24 November 1848 was a British Whig Statesman who  In practice, a Prime Minister's term comes to an end only with death, resignation or electoral defeat.
The monarch holds a weekly audience with the Prime Minister and regular audiences with other members of the Cabinet. The monarch may express his or her views, but, as a constitutional ruler, must ultimately accept the Prime Minister's and Cabinet's decisions (subject to the Crown's authority to appoint a new Prime Minister and ministers, itself limited by convention). Walter Bagehot, the 19th-century constitutional writer, summarised this concept: "the Sovereign has, under a constitutional monarchy . . . three rights — the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, the right to warn. "
Any member of the Cabinet who wishes to be absent from the United Kingdom for any reason, except for official visits to European Union or NATO member countries, must seek both the Prime Minister's and the Queen's approval to leave the country, and must at the same time inform "Her Majesty . The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The North Atlantic Treaty . . of the arrangements made for the administration of the Minister's Department during his or her absence". 
The monarch has a similar relationship with the devolved governments of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The Sovereign appoints the First Minister of Scotland on the nomination of the Scottish Parliament. The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba First Meinister o Scotland is the head of the devolved Scottish The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral  The First Minister of Wales is nominated by the National Assembly for Wales and appointed upon approval by the Sovereign. The First Minister ( Prif Weinidog) is the leader of the Welsh Assembly Government, Wales ' devolved administration which was established in 1999 The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales.  In Scottish matters, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the Scottish Government. The Scottish Government (SG ( Scottish Gaelic: Riaghaltas na h-Alba) is the executive arm of the government of Scotland. However, as devolution is more limited in Wales, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom in Welsh matters. The Sovereign can strike out any Northern Ireland law, although voted by the Assembly, if deemed unconstitutional by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. 
The Sovereign is the Head of State in the United Kingdom. Oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen, not to Parliament or to the nation. An oath of allegiance is an Oath whereby a subject or Citizen acknowledges his/her duty of Allegiance and swears loyalty to his Monarch  Moreover, God Save the Queen (or God Save the King) is the British national anthem. "God Save the Queen", or "God Save the King", is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms It is the National A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's  The monarch's visage appears on postage stamps, on coins, and on banknotes issued by the Bank of England. A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is a state-owned institution and the Central bank of the United Kingdom  Banknotes issued by other British banks, such as the Bank of Scotland and the Ulster Bank, do not depict the Sovereign. The Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and Clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Ulster Bank ( Irish: Banc Uladh) is a large commercial Bank, one of the Big Four in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of
The executive authority of the government is theoretically and nominally vested in the Sovereign, collectively known as the Royal Prerogative. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy The Royal Prerogative includes many powers, such as the powers to dissolve Parliament, regulate the civil service, issue passports, make treaties or send ambassadors, and duties such as the duties to defend the realm and to maintain the Queen's peace. The Queen's peace (or during the reign of a male monarch King's peace) is the term used in the Commonwealth realms to describe the protection the monarch in right  As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch acts within the constraints of convention and precedent, exercising the Royal Prerogative on the advice of ministers.  Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise of the Royal Prerogative; the Consent of the Crown must be obtained before either House may even debate a bill affecting the Sovereign's prerogatives or interests. Although the Royal Prerogative is extensive, it is not unlimited. For example, the monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect new taxes; such an action requires the authorisation of an Act of Parliament.
According to a parliamentary report, "The Crown cannot invent new prerogative powers", many Crown prerogatives have been permanently transferred to Parliament, and more may be in the future.
The Sovereign is one of the three components of Parliament; the others are the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It is the prerogative of the monarch to summon, prorogue and dissolve Parliament. A parliamentary session is a period of time where the Legislature in a Parliamentary government is sitting In Parliamentary systems a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a Legislature at the call of an Election. Each parliamentary session begins with the monarch's summons. The new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which the Sovereign reads the Speech from the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of the Parliament  Prorogation usually occurs about one year after a session begins, and formally concludes the session.  Dissolution ends a parliamentary term (which lasts a maximum of five years), and is followed by general elections for all seats in the House of Commons. These powers, however, are always exercised on the Prime Minister's advice. The timing of a dissolution is affected by a variety of factors; the Prime Minister normally chooses the most politically opportune moment for his or her party. Per the Lascelles Principles, the Sovereign may theoretically refuse a dissolution, but the circumstances under which such an action would be warranted are unclear. The Lascelles Principles are a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom describing the circumstances under which a monarch may refuse a request from a  No parliamentary term may last more than five years; at the end of this period, a dissolution is automatic under the Parliament Act 1911. The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949 that form part of the Constitution of the United 
All laws are enacted in the monarch's name. The words "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows", known as the enacting formula, form a part of each Act of Parliament. An enacting formula, or enacting clause, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a Law enacted by some Legislatures It usually Before a bill can become law, the Royal Assent (the monarch's approval) is required. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an  The Sovereign may, in theory, either "grant" the Royal Assent (make the bill law) or "withhold" the Royal Assent (veto the bill). In practice the Royal Assent is almost always granted; the last monarch to withhold Assent was Anne, who rejected a Scots militia bill in 1708.  There is no provision for Parliamentary override of a veto (lack of Royal Assent) comparable to a U. S. Congressional (legislative) override of a President's veto. 
The Royal Prerogative with respect to domestic affairs is extensive. The Crown is responsible for the appointment and dismissal of ministers, Privy Counsellors, members of various executive agencies and other officials. Effectively, however, the appointees are chosen by the Prime Minister, or, for less important offices, by other ministers. In addition, the monarch is the head or commander in chief of the Armed Forces (the Royal Navy, the British Army, and the Royal Air Force). A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. It is the Sovereign's prerogative to declare war, make peace and direct the actions of the military, although the Prime Minister holds de facto decision-making power over the British armed forces. Many of the Sovereign's prerogative powers are exercised through the Privy Council. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign.
The Royal Prerogative extends to foreign affairs. The Sovereign may negotiate and ratify treaties, alliances, and international agreements; no parliamentary approval is required. A treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of the United Kingdom; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The Sovereign accredits British High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment British passports are issued in the monarch's name. A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder
The Sovereign is deemed the "fount of justice", and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects. The Sovereign does not personally rule in judicial cases, but judicial functions are performed in his or her name. For instance, prosecutions are brought on the monarch's behalf, and courts derive their authority from the Crown. The common law holds that the Sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted for criminal offences. The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 allows civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the government), but not lawsuits against the monarch personally. The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 (1947 c 44 is an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed for the first time Civil The Sovereign exercises the "prerogative of mercy", and may pardon offences against the Crown before, during, or after a trial. A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it 
The monarch is the "fount of honour", the source of all honours and dignities in the United Kingdom. The fount of honour ( Latin: fons honorum) refers to a nation's Head of state, who by virtue of his or her official position has the exclusive right of The Crown creates all peerages, appoints members of the orders of chivalry, grants knighthoods and awards other honours. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages.  In practice, peerages and most other honours are granted on the advice of the Prime Minister. Some honours are within the personal gift of the Sovereign, and are not granted on ministerial advice — the monarch alone appoints members of the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the Royal Victorian Order and the Order of Merit. The Most Noble Order of the Garter is an Order of chivalry, or Knighthood, originating in Medieval England, and presently bestowed on recipients The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an Order of chivalry associated with Scotland. The Royal Victorian Order (RVO is a Dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry in the Commonwealth realms Created by Queen Victoria The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. 
The Sovereign is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the officially established church in England, with the power to appoint archbishops and bishops. The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British Monarchs which signifies their titular leadership over the Church of England. An established church is a church officially sanctioned and supported by the government of a country e The Prime Minister, however, chooses the appointee from a list of nominees prepared by the Crown Nominations Commission. The Crown's role in the Church of England is titular; the most senior clergyman, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is the spiritual leader of the Church and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches The monarch is only an ordinary member, of the Church of Scotland, but he or she holds the power to appoint the Lord High Commissioner to the Church's General Assembly. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. Lord High Commissioner is the style of High Commissioners ie direct representatives of the Monarch, in three cases in the Kingdom of Scotland and the The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest Court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body The Sovereign plays no formal role in the Church in Wales and the Church of Ireland, neither of which is an established church. The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six Dioceses in Wales. The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland.
The Great Seal of the Realm authenticates important official documents, including letters patent, proclamations and writs of election. The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (prior to the Union the Great Seal of England, then Great Seal of Great Britain Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right A proclamation (Lat proclamare, to make public by announcement is an official declaration A writ of election is a Writ issued by the Government ordering the holding of a special Election for a governmental Office. It is in the custody of the Lord Chancellor. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. For matters relating exclusively to Scotland or Northern Ireland, the Great Seal of Scotland or the Great Seal of Northern Ireland are used. The Great Seal of Scotland ( Seala Mòr na h-Alba in Gaelic) allows the monarch to authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually The Great Seal of Northern Ireland is the seal used for Northern Ireland.
The monarch has the power to claim any sturgeons, porpoises, whales or dolphins that are either washed ashore or captured within 3 miles (4. Sturgeon is the Common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Porpoises are Small Cetaceans of the Family Phocoenidae; they are related to Whales and Dolphins They are distinct from dolphins Whales are marine mammals which are neither Dolphins (ie members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidae) nor Porpoises Orcas Dolphins are Marine mammals that are closely related to Whales and Porpoises There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera. 8 km) of the British coast. This power comes from a statute from King Edward II in 1324. For the play see Edward II (play. For the film see Edward II (film. One who purchases these fish, abiding by the statute, has the honour of being loyal to the crown. 
Following the Viking raids and settlement of the ninth century, the kingdom of Wessex emerged as the dominant English kingdom. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. Alfred the Great secured Wessex and achieved dominance over western Mercia, and assumed the title "King of the English". Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. His grandson Athelstan was the first king to rule over a unitary kingdom roughly corresponding to the present borders of England, but even by the reign of Edgar the Peaceful England was not beyond fracturing into its constituent parts. Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c 7 August 943&ndash8 July 975 1 The 11th century saw England become more stable, despite a number of wars with the Danes, which resulted in a Danish monarchy for some years. When William, Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066 he became monarch of a kingdom with probably the strongest royal authority in Europe. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages The Norman Conquest was crucial in British history, in terms of both political and social change. The new monarch continued the centralization of power begun in the Anglo-Saxon period, while the Feudal System continued to develop. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed
William I was succeeded by two of his sons: William II, then Henry I. William II (c 1056 &ndash 2 August 1100) the third son of William I of England (William the Conqueror was King of England from 1087 Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Henry made a controversial decision to name his daughter Matilda (his only surviving child) as his heir. Matilda of England (sometimes Maud or Maude; 7 February 1102 &ndash 10 September 1167 was the daughter and dispossessed Heir of Henry I of England Following Henry's death in 1135, one of William I's grandsons, Stephen, laid claim to the Throne, and took power with the support of most of the barons. Stephen often referred to in history as Stephen of Blois (c 1096 &ndash 25 October, 1154) was the last Norman King of England Stephen's weak rule allowed Matilda to challenge his reign; as a result England descended into a period of disorder known as The Anarchy. The Anarchy or The Nineteen Year Winter refers to a period of English history during the reign ( 1135 &ndash 1154) of the Norman King Stephen maintained a precarious hold on power for the rest of his life, but he agreed to a compromise under which he would be succeeded by Matilda's son Henry, who accordingly became the first monarch of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, dynasty as Henry II in 1154. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied The House of Plantagenet (planˈtadʒɪnɪt also called the House of Anjou, or the First Angevin dynasty, was originally a noble
The reigns of most of the Angevin monarchs were marred by civil strife and conflicts between the monarch and the nobility. Henry II faced rebellions from his own sons, the future monarchs Richard I and John. Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Nevertheless, Henry managed to expand his kingdom, most notably with the conquest of Ireland, which had previously consisted of a multitude of rival kingdoms. Henry granted Ireland to his younger son John, who ruled as "Lord of Ireland".
Upon Henry's death, his elder son Richard succeeded to the throne; he was absent from England for most of his reign, as he was fighting the Crusades in the Near East. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century When he died, John succeeded him, thereby uniting England and Ireland under a single monarch. John's reign was marked by conflict with the barons, particularly over the limits of royal power. In 1215. the barons coerced the king into issuing the Magna Carta (Latin for "Great Charter") to guarantee the rights and liberties of the nobility. Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Soon afterwards John repealed the charter, plunging England into a civil war known as the First Barons' War. The First Barons' War ( 1215 &ndash 1217) was a combination of a Civil war in the Kingdom of England between on the one hand the forces of The war came to an abrupt end after John died in 1216, leaving the Crown to his nine-year-old son Henry III. Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 The barons, led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, rebelled again later in Henry's reign, beginning the Second Barons' War. Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the Baronial opposition to King Henry III of England The Second Barons' War ( 1264 &ndash 1267) was a Civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious Barons led by The war ended in a clear royalist victory, and in the execution of many rebels, but not before the king had agreed to summon a parliament in 1265.
The next monarch, Edward I, was far more successful in maintaining royal power, and was responsible for the conquest of Wales and the attempt to establish English domination in Scotland. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307 popularly known as Longshanks, was a King of England who achieved historical fame by conquering large parts of Wales and almost However, gains in Scotland were reversed during the reign of his successor, Edward II, who was also occupied with a disastrous conflict with the nobility. For the play see Edward II (play. For the film see Edward II (film. Edward II was, in 1311, forced to relinquish many of his powers to a committee of baronial "ordainers"; however, military victories helped him regain control in 1322. Nevertheless, in 1327, Edward was deposed (and later murdered) by his wife Isabella and by his son, who became Edward III. Isabella of France (c 1295 &ndash August 22, 1358) known as the She-Wolf of France, was the Queen consort of Edward II of Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. The new monarch soon also claimed the French Crown, setting off the Hundred Years' War between England and France. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Edward III's campaigns were largely successful, and culminated in the conquest of much French territory. Edward's reign was also marked by the further development of Parliament, which came to be divided into two Houses for the first time. In 1377, Edward III died, leaving the Crown to his 10-year-old grandson Richard II. Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 The new monarch, like many of his predecessors, conflicted with the nobles, especially by attempting to concentrate power in his own hands. In 1399, while he was away in Ireland, his cousin Henry Bolingbroke seized power. Henry IV (3 April 1367 &ndash 20 March 1413 was King of England and Lord of Ireland (1399&ndash1413 Richard was then forced to abdicate and was murdered.
Henry IV was the grandson of Edward III and the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; hence, his dynasty was known as the House of Lancaster. John of Gaunt 1st Duke of Lancaster (second creation 1st Duke of Aquitaine (6 March 1340 &ndash 3 February 1399 was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. For most of his reign, Henry IV was forced to fight off plots and rebellions; his success was partly due to the military skill of his son, the future Henry V. Henry V (16 September 1386 &ndash 31 August 1422 was one of the most significant English warrior kings of the 15th century Henry V's own reign, which began in 1413, was largely free from domestic strife, leaving the king free to pursue the Hundred Years' War in France. Henry V was victorious in his conquest; however, his sudden death in 1422 left his infant son Henry VI on the Throne, and gave the French an opportunity to overthrow English rule. Henry VI (6 December 1421 &ndash 21 May 1471 was King of England 1422–1461 (though with a Regent until 1437 and then 1470–1471 and a claimant to the kingdom The unpopularity of Henry's regents, and afterwards, Henry's own ineffectual leadership, led to the weakening of the House of Lancaster. The Lancastrians faced a challenge from the House of York, so called because its head, a descendant of Edward III, was Richard, Duke of York. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York ( 21 September 1411 &ndash 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family who served in senior Although the Duke of York died in battle in 1460, his eldest son Edward led the Yorkists to victory in 1461. Edward IV ( 28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 until 2 October The Wars of the Roses, nevertheless, continued intermittently during the reigns of the Yorkists Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485 were a series of dynastic Civil wars fought in England between supporters of the Houses of Lancaster and York Edward V ( 4 November 1470 &ndash 1483? was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later Richard III ( 2 October 1452 &ndash 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death Ultimately, the conflict culminated in success for the Lancastrian branch, led by Henry Tudor (Henry VII), in 1485, when Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field. The Battle of Bosworth or Bosworth Field ( 22 August, 1485) was Lancastrian Henry Tudor's defeat of Yorkist Richard
The end of the Wars of the Roses formed a major turning point in the history of the monarchy. Much of the nobility was either decimated on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, and many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown. Moreover, feudalism was dying, and the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Hence, the Tudor monarchs easily re-established absolute supremacy in the realm, and the conflicts with the nobility that had plagued previous monarchs came to an end. The power of the Crown reached its zenith during the reign of the second Tudor king, Henry VIII. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Henry VIII's reign was one of great political change; England was transformed from a weak kingdom into one of the powers of Europe. Religious upheaval also occurred, as disputes with the Pope led the monarch to break away from the Roman Catholic Church and to establish the Church of England (the Anglican Church). History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Another important result of Henry VIII's reign was the annexation of Wales (which had been conquered centuries earlier, but had remained a separate dominion) to England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 (Y Deddfau Uno 1535 a 1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and
Henry VIII's son and successor, the young Edward VI, continued with further religious reforms. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Edward VI died in 1553, precipitating a succession crisis. He was wary of allowing his Catholic elder half-sister Mary to succeed to the Throne, and therefore drew up a will designating Lady Jane Grey as his heiress, even though no woman had ever reigned over England. Mary I (18 February 1516 &ndash 17 November 1558 was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant Jane's reign however lasted only nine days; with tremendous popular support, Mary deposed her, revoked her proclamation as Queen, and declared herself the lawful Sovereign. Mary I attempted to return England to Roman Catholicism, in the process burning numerous Protestants at the stake as heretics. Mary I died in 1558, and was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I, who returned England to Protestantism.
In Scotland, as in England, monarchies emerged after the withdrawal of Rome in the early fifth century. The monarch of Scotland was the Head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. The three groups that lived in Scotland at this time were the Picts (who inhabited the kingdom of Pictavia), the Britons (who lived in several kingdoms in southern Scotland, including the Kingdom of Strathclyde), and the Gaels, or Scotti (who would later give their name to Scotland), of the Irish province of Dál Riata. The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century Strathclyde ( Gaelic: Srath Chluaidh) (lit "Valley of the Clyde" originally Brythonic Ystrad Clud, was one of the kingdoms Scoti or Scotti ( Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to the Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland with some territory on the northern Kenneth MacAlpin is traditionally viewed as the founder of united Scotland (or kingdom of Alba). Cináed mac Ailpín ( Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein) commonly Anglicised as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as The Kingdom of Alba ( Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba) pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II (Domnall mac Causantin The expansion of Scottish dominions continued over the next two centuries, as other territories such as Strathclyde were conquered.
Early Scottish monarchs did not inherit the Crown directly; instead the custom of alternating segments was followed, as in Ireland and previously among the Picts. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The monarchy alternated between two, sometimes three, branches of the House of Alpin. The House of Alpin is the name given to the kin-group which ruled in Pictland and then the Kingdom As a result, however, the rival dynastic lines clashed, often violently. The problems relating to succession were especially illustrated by the period from 942 to 1005, during which seven consecutive monarchs were either murdered or killed in battle. The rotation of the monarchy between different lines was abandoned after Malcolm II of Scotland ascended the throne in 1005 having killed many rivals. Máel Coluim mac Cináeda ( Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich) known in modern Anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II (c Thus, when Duncan I of Scotland succeeded Malcolm II in 1034, he did so with no recorded opposition. Donnchad mac Crínáin ( Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Crìonain) anglicised as Duncan I, and nicknamed An t-Ilgarach, "the Diseased"
In 1040, Duncan suffered defeat in battle at the hands of Macbeth, the subject of William Shakespeare's play The Tragedy of Macbeth. Mac Bethad mac Findlaích ( Modern Gaelic: MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh) anglicised as Macbeth, and nicknamed Rí Deircc, "the Red King" William Shakespeare ( baptised Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between Later, in 1057, Donnchad's son Malcolm III of Scotland avenged his father's death by defeating and killing Macbeth. Máel Coluim mac Donnchada ( Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh) called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries The following year, after the murder of Macbeth's stepson Lulach on 17 March 1058, Malcolm ascended the throne as Malcolm III, becoming the first monarch of the House of Dunkeld. Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin ( Modern Gaelic: Lughlagh mac Gille Chomghain, known in English simply as Lulach, and nicknamed Tairbith, "the Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger The so-called House of Dunkeld, in Scottish Gaelic Dùn Chailleann (meaning Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians) is a historiographical and genealogical
From 1107 Scotland was briefly partitioned under the will of Edgar, who divided his dominions between his eldest surviving brother Alexander I (who ruled northern Scotland as a king) and his younger brother David (who ruled southern Scotland as an earl). Edgar (Mediaeval Gaelic Étgar mac Maíl Choluim; Modern Gaelic Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim; Mediaeval English Eadgar Margotsson) nicknamed Probus Alexander I ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim, Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim) (c David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim ( Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; b After Alexander's death in 1124, David inherited his dominions, and Scotland became unified once more. David was succeeded by the ineffective Malcolm IV, and then by William the Lion, the longest-reigning King of Scots before the Union of the Crowns. Malcolm IV ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig) nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" ( William I ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic Uilleam mac Eanraig) known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough" The Union of the Crowns was the Accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the throne of England in March 1603 thus uniting Scotland and England William participated in a rebellion against King Henry II of England; however, the rebellion failed, and William was captured by the English. In exchange for his release, William was forced to acknowledge Henry as his feudal overlord. The English King Richard I agreed to terminate the arrangement in 1189, in return for a large sum of money needed for the Crusades. William died in 1214, and was succeeded by his son Alexander II. Alexander II ( Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic Alasdair mac Uilleim) (24 August 1198 &ndash 6 July 1249 King of Scots Alexander II, as well as his successor Alexander III, attempted to take over the Western Isles, which were still under the overlordship of Norway. Alexander III ( Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286 King of Scots During the reign of Alexander III, Norway launched an unsuccessful invasion of Scotland; the ensuing Treaty of Perth recognised Scottish control of the Western Isles and other disputed areas. The Treaty of Perth, 1266 ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the
Alexander III's death in 1286 brought his three-year-old Norwegian granddaughter Margaret to the throne. Margaret ( Gaelic: Mairead or Maighread) (early 1283&ndashSeptember/October 1290 usually known as the Maid of Norway (Jomfruen av Norge literally On her way to Scotland in 1290, however, Margaret died at sea, precipitating a major succession crisis, during which there were 13 rival claimants. With the death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 without a male heir the throne of Scotland had become the possession of the three-year old Margaret Maid Several Scottish leaders appealed to King Edward I of England to settle the dispute. A court was set up with the Balliol and Bruce "factions" each nominating "assessors". Contrary to popular opinion, Edward did not choose John Balliol to be king. Balliol won the overwhelming support of the majority of assessors. However, Edward proceeded to treat Balliol as a vassal, and tried to exert considerable influence over Scottish affairs. In 1295, when Balliol renounced his allegiance to England, Edward I invaded and conquered Scotland. During the first ten years of the ensuing Wars of Scottish Independence, Scotland had no monarch present; however, it was informally led by William Wallace. The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th Sir William Wallace ( Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; c 1272 – 23 August 1305 was a Scottish Knight, Landowner, and Patriot After Wallace's execution in 1305, Robert the Bruce took over and declared himself king. Robert I King of Scots ( 11 July, 1274 &ndash 7 June, 1329) usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce ( Robert's efforts culminated in success, and Scottish independence was acknowledged in 1328. However, only one year later, Robert died, and the English again invaded under the pretext of restoring John Balliol's rightful heir, Edward Balliol, to the throne. Edward de Balliol (c 1282&ndash1364 was the short-lived King of Scotland during the simultaneous reign of King David II. Nonetheless, during further military campaigns, Scotland once again won its independence under Robert the Bruce's son David II. Daibhidh a Briuis ( Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis) anglicised as David II ( 5 March 1324 &ndash 22 February
In 1371, David II was succeeded by Robert II, the first Scottish monarch from the House of Stewart (later Stuart). Marriages and issue His first wife was Elizabeth Mure, by her he had at least ten children King Robert III of Scotland The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of The reigns of both Robert II and his successor, Robert III, were marked by a general decline in royal power. Robert III redirects here Robert Curthose of Normandy is also sometimes known as Robert III or Robert II When Robert III died in 1406, regents had to rule the country; the monarch, Robert III's son James I, had been taken captive by the English. James I ( December 10, 1394 &ndash February 21, 1437) was nominal King of Scots from April 4, 1406, and Having paid a large ransom, James returned to Scotland in 1424; in order to restore his authority, he used ruthless measures, including the execution of several of his enemies. James II continued his father's policies by subduing influential noblemen. James II of Scotland ( October 16 1430, at Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh &ndash August 3 1460) reigned as King of Scots At the same time, however, the Estates of Scotland (the Scottish Parliament) became increasingly powerful, often openly defying the King. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral Parliamentary power reached its zenith during the reign of the ineffective King James III. James III (c 1451/1452 &ndash 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488 As a result, James IV and his successors tended to avoid calling parliamentary sessions, thereby checking the power of the Estates. James IV ( 17 March 1473 &ndash 9 September 1513) was King of Scots from 11 June 1488 to his death
In 1513, James IV launched an invasion of England, attempting to take advantage of the absence of the English King Henry VIII. His forces met with disaster at Flodden Field; the King, many senior noblemen, and over 10,000 soldiers were killed. The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field was fought in the county of Northumberland, in northern England on September 9, 1513, As James IV's son and successor, James V, was an infant, the government was taken over by regents. James V (10 April 1512 &ndash 14 December 1542 was King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death After he reached adulthood, James ruled successfully until another disastrous war with the English in 1542. James's death in the same year left the Crown in the hands of his six-day-old daughter, Mary; once again, a regency was established. Mary, a Roman Catholic, reigned during a period of great religious upheaval in Scotland. Due to the efforts of reformers such as John Knox, a Protestant ascendancy was established. John Knox (c 1510 – 24 November 1572 was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Mary caused considerable alarm by marrying a fellow Catholic, Lord Darnley, in 1565. Henry Stuart 1st Duke of Albany ( 7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567) commonly known as Lord Darnley, was a King Consort After Lord Darnley's assassination in 1567, Mary contracted an even more unpopular marriage with the Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of Darnley's murder. James Hepburn 1st Duke of Orkney (c 1534 – 14 April 1578) better known by his inherited title as 4th Earl of Bothwell, was Hereditary Lord High The nobility rebelled against the Queen, forcing her to abdicate and to flee to England (where she was imprisoned and later executed by Elizabeth I). The Crown went to her infant son James VI, who was brought up as a Protestant. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James James VI would later become King of England upon the death of Queen Elizabeth I.
Elizabeth's death in 1603 brought about the end of the rule of the House of Tudor in England. She had no children, and was succeeded by the Scottish monarch James VI, whose maternal great-grandmother was Henry VIII's older sister. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of James VI ruled in England as James I after what was known as the "Union of the Crowns". The Union of the Crowns was the Accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the throne of England in March 1603 thus uniting Scotland and England Although England and Scotland were in personal union under one monarch — James I became the first monarch to style himself "King of Great Britain", in 1604 — they remained separate kingdoms. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct James belonged to the House of Stuart, a royal house whose monarchs experienced frequent conflicts with the English Parliament. The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of The disputes frequently related to the issue of royal and parliamentary powers, especially the power to impose taxes. The conflict was especially pronounced during the reign of James I's successor Charles I, who provoked opposition by ruling without Parliament from 1629 to 1640 (the "Eleven Years' Tyranny"), unilaterally levying taxes, and adopting controversial religious policies (many of which were offensive to the Scottish Presbyterians and the English Puritans). Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, In about 1642, the conflict between King and Parliament reached its climax as the English Civil War began. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The war culminated in the execution of the king, the overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment of a republic known as the Commonwealth of England. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland In 1653 Oliver Cromwell, the most prominent military and political leader in the nation, seized power and declared himself Lord Protector (effectively becoming a military dictator). Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history Cromwell ruled until his death in 1658, when he was succeeded by his son Richard. Richard Cromwell ( 4 October 1626 &ndash 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector The new Lord Protector had little interest in governing; he soon abdicated, allowing the brief re-establishment of the Commonwealth. The lack of clear leadership led to civil and military unrest, and for a popular desire to restore the monarchy. The Restoration came about in 1660, when Charles I's son Charles II was declared king. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The establishment of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was deemed illegal; Charles II was declared to have been the de jure king since his father's death in 1649.
Charles II's reign was marked by the development of the first modern political parties in England. Charles had no legitimate children, and was due to be succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James There arose a parliamentary effort to exclude James from the line of succession; the "Abhorrers", who opposed it, became the Tory Party, whereas the "Petitioners", who supported it, became the Whig Party. The Exclusion Bill, however, failed; on several occasions, Charles II dissolved Parliament because he feared that the bill might pass. After the dissolution of the Parliament of 1681, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch until his death in 1685. The Catholic James II accordingly succeeded Charles (who himself converted to Catholicism on his deathbed). James pursued a policy of offering religious tolerance to Roman Catholics, thereby drawing the ire of many of his Protestant subjects. Many opposed James's decisions to maintain a large standing army, to appoint Roman Catholics to high political and military offices, and to imprison Church of England clerics who challenged his policies (see Seven Bishops). The Seven Bishops were seven bishops of the Church of England. As a result, a group of Protestant nobles and other notable citizens known as the Immortal Seven invited James II's daughter Mary II and her husband William of Orange to depose the king. The Invitation to William was a letter sent by seven notable Englishmen later named the Immortal Seven, to William III Prince of Orange, received by him Mary II (30 April 1662 &ndash 28 December 1694 reigned as Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until her death William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" William obliged, arriving in England on 5 November 1688 to great public support. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Faced with the defection of many of his Protestant officials, James fled the realm on 23 December of the same year. Events 962 - Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city On 12 February 1689, the Convention Parliament declared that James's flight constituted an abdication, and that William III and Mary II (not James II's Catholic son James Francis Edward Stuart) were joint Sovereigns of England and Ireland. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments of 1399 1660 and 1689 Prince James Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart " The Old Pretender " or " The Old Chevalier " 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766 was the The Scottish Estates soon followed suit.
James's overthrow is normally known as the Glorious Revolution, and was one of the most important events in the long evolution of parliamentary power. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union The Bill of Rights 1689 affirmed parliamentary supremacy, and declared that the English people held certain rights, including the freedom from taxes imposed without parliamentary consent. The Bill of Rights (or Declaration of Rights) is an act of the Parliament of England, with the Long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties The Bill of Rights also required future monarchs to be Protestants, and provided that, after any children of William and Mary, Mary's sister Anne would inherit the Crown. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of Mary died childless in 1694, leaving William as the sole monarch. By 1700, a political crisis arose, as all of the Princess Anne's children had died, leaving Anne as the only individual left in the line of succession. Parliament, afraid that the former James II or his Roman Catholic relatives might attempt to reclaim the Throne, passed the Act of Settlement 1701, which placed William's distant Protestant cousin Sophia, Electress of Hanover, in the line of succession. The Act of Settlement is an act of the Parliament of England, originally filed in 1700 and passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English throne Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter Soon after the passage of the Act, William III died, leaving the Crown to his sister-in-law Anne.
After Anne's accession, the succession issue quickly re-emerged. The Scottish Estates, infuriated that the English Parliament did not consult them on the choice of Sophia of Hanover, passed the Act of Security, threatening to end the personal union between England and Scotland. The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of England The Parliament of England retaliated with the Alien Act 1705, threatening to devastate the Scottish economy by restricting trade. The Alien Act was a law passed by the Parliament of England, in 1705, as a response to the Parliament of Scotland 's Act of Security of 1704 The Scottish and English parliaments negotiated the Act of Union 1707, under which England and Scotland were united into a single Kingdom of Great Britain, with succession under the rules prescribed by the Act of Settlement. The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into
In 1714 Queen Anne was succeeded by the son of the deceased Sophia of Hanover, George I, who consolidated his position by defeating Jacobite rebellions in 1715 and 1719. George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places George I (George Louis German Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 For the first year of his life George was the only heir to his father's and three childless Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland  The new monarch grew less active in government than many of his British predecessors, though retaining control over the affairs of his German kingdoms.  Instead, much of George's power shifted to his ministers, especially to Sir Robert Walpole, who is often considered the first (unofficial) Prime Minister of Great Britain. Robert Walpole 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 &ndash 18 March 1745 known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom  The decline of the influence of the monarch and the rise of the power of the Prime Minister and Cabinet continued during the reign of the next monarch, George II, but was slowed during that of George III. In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ( George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places George III resisted attempts by his ministers to assume more power for themselves, and acted to keep the Tories (who favoured royal control in government more than the Whigs) in power whenever possible. George III's reign also marked the union of Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom under the Act of Union 1800. The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Acht an Aontais 1800 is used to describe two complementary Acts whose official United Kingdom titles are At the same time, George III dropped the claim to the French Throne, which had been nominally made by all English monarchs since Edward III. Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. 
From 1811 to 1820 George III suffered a severe bout of what is now believed to be porphyria, an illness rendering him incapable of ruling, forcing his son, the future George IV, to rule in his stead as Prince Regent. Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain Enzymes in the Heme biosynthetic pathway (also called Porphyrin pathway For the station on the Docklands Light Railway, see Prince Regent DLR station. During the Regency and his own reign, the power of the monarchy declined further and by the time of his successor, William IV, the monarch was no longer able to effectively interfere with parliamentary power. William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until In 1834, William dismissed the Whig Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, and appointed a Tory, Sir Robert Peel. William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS (15 March 1779 &ndash 24 November 1848 was a British Whig Statesman who Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 &ndash 2 July 1850 was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April In the ensuing elections, however, the Whigs maintained a large majority in the House of Commons; they forced Peel to resign by blocking most of his legislation, thus leaving the King with no choice but to recall Lord Melbourne. Since 1834, no monarch has appointed or dismissed a Prime Minister contrary to the will of the House of Commons. William IV's reign was also marked by the passage of the Great Reform Act, which reformed parliamentary representation and abolished many rotten boroughs. The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system The term "rotten" or "decayed" borough referred to a parliamentary borough or Constituency in Great Britain and Ireland Together with others passed later in the century that act led to an expansion of the electoral franchise, and the rise of the House of Commons as the most important branch of Parliament.
The final transition to a constitutional monarchy was made during the long reign of William IV's successor, Victoria. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland As a woman, Victoria could not rule Hanover, so the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover came to an end. Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen The Victorian Era was an historic one for the United Kingdom, and was marked by great cultural change, technological progress, and the establishment of the United Kingdom as one of the world's foremost powers. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities In recognition of British rule over India, Victoria was declared Empress of India in 1876. Emperor/Empress of India ( Badishah -e-Hind in Hindustani) was used as a Title by the last Mughal emperor Bahadur However, the reign was also marked by increased support for the republican movement, due in part to Victoria's permanent mourning and lengthy period of seclusion following the death of her husband in 1861. Republicanism, in the United Kingdom, is the movement which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a Republic that has a non-
Victoria's son, Edward VII, became the first monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1901. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in In 1917 the next monarch, George V, replaced "Saxe-Coburg-Gotha" with "Windsor" due to the anti-German sympathies aroused by the First World War. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All George V's reign was marked by the separation of Ireland into Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom, and the Irish Free State, an independent nation, in 1922. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by
In the 12th century the only English pope, Adrian IV, gave a papal bull authorizing King Henry II of England to take possession of Ireland. There were 33 English / British Monarchs who were also monarchs of Ireland from 1177 to 1949 The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c 1100&ndash 1 September, 1159) born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope This was because Celtic Christianity at the time was not closely following the practices of the Roman Catholic Church, and was thereby accused of heretical beliefs. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval So the pope wanted the English monarch to annex Ireland and bring the Irish church into line with the Catholic Church. The pope granted Ireland to the king of England as a feudal territory nominally under papal overlordship. 
Around 1170 King Dermot MacMurrough of Leinster was deposed and his country taken by his arch-enemy King Rory O'Connor of Connaught. Early Life and Family Mac Murchadha was born in 1110 a son of Donnchadh, King of Leinster and Dublin he was a descendant of Brian Boru. Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of Rory O'Connor may refer to Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, (d 1198 king of Connacht and High King of Ireland Rory O'Connor (Irish republican Dermot escaped to England and asked Henry for help. Henry refused but agreed to allow him to use a group of Anglo-Norman aristocrats and adventurers, led by Richard de Clare, the earl of Pembroke, to help him regain his throne. Richard de Clare 2nd Earl of Pembroke Lord of Leinster Justiciar of Ireland (1130 &ndash 20 April 1176) known as Strongbow, was a Dermot and his Anglo-Norman allies succeeded and he became King of Leinster again. As a reward Dermot let de Clare marry his daughter. Because of this when Dermot died in 1171 de Clare inherited his throne and became King of Leinster.  This made Henry afraid that de Clare would make Ireland a rival Norman state or a place of refuge for Anglo-Saxons, so he took advantage of the papal bull giving him possession of Ireland and went to the island with his English armies and forced de Clare and the other Anglo-Norman aristocrats in Ireland and some of the Gaelic Irish chieftains to recognize him as their overlord. Henry was thus Lord of Ireland under nominal papal overlordship. The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 
This remained the status of Ireland until 1541. By then King Henry VIII of England had broken with the Catholic Church and made England Protestant. This made the pope's granting of Ireland to the English monarch invalid, so he summoned a meeting of the Irish Parliament that year to change his title of sovereignty over the island. There his title was changed from Lord of Ireland to King of Ireland, thus making the island a kingdom in personal union with the kingdom of England. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct 
Ireland continued to have this status until 1800, when the Act of Union merged the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Ireland continued to be an integral part of the United Kingdom until 1922, when what is now the Republic of Ireland won independence as the Irish Free State. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by  Ireland was a separate kingdom with the same monarch as Great Britain in a personal union from its independence in 1922 until 1949, when the Free State became a republic and severed all ties with the monarchy, while Northern Ireland remained within the Union, thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of 
Between the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 the unitary British Crown that operated over the entire empire was replaced by separate Crowns for each Dominion. The Balfour Declaration of 1926, named after the British Lord President of the Council Arthur Balfour, Earl of Balfour was the name given to a report resulting The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (22 & 23 Geo Thus, the institution of the monarchy ceased to be exclusively British, the particular British monarchy existing only within the Crown's British jurisdiction, the UK. Reflecting this, George VI was separately King of the United Kingdom, King of Australia, King of Canada, and so forth. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of This "division" was enhanced with the subsequent patriation of each Realm's constitution from the UK over the ensuing decades. 
Formerly every member of the British Commonwealth was a Commonwealth Realm. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch However, when India became a republic in 1950, it was decided that it should be permitted to remain in the Commonwealth, even though it would no longer share a common monarch with the other Commonwealth Realms. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  It was nevertheless decided that the British monarch would be acknowledged as "Head of the Commonwealth" in all Commonwealth member states, whether realms or not. Queen Elizabeth II is the second person to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth (which currently has 53 members The position is purely ceremonial. 
George V's death in 1936 was followed by the accession of Edward VIII, who caused a public scandal by announcing his desire to marry a divorced American woman, Wallis Simpson, even though the Church of England opposed the remarriage of divorcées. Wallis Duchess of Windsor (born Bessie Wallis Warfield, later Spencer, then Simpson; 19 June 1895 or 1896 &ndash 24 April 1986 was an American Accordingly, Edward announced his intention to abdicate; the Parliaments of the United Kingdom and of other Commonwealth realms granted his request. The Edward VIII abdication crisis occurred in the British Empire in 1936 when the desire of King-Emperor Edward VIII to marry his mistress Wallis Edward VIII and any children by his new wife were excluded from the line of succession, and the Crown went to his brother, George VI.  George served as a rallying figure for the British people during the Second World War, making morale-boosting visits to the troops as well as to munitions factories and to areas bombed by Nazi Germany. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers George VI was the last British monarch to hold the title "Emperor of India", a title relinquished when India became independent in 1947. 
George VI's death in 1952 was followed by the accession of the present monarch, Elizabeth II. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Like her recent predecessors, Elizabeth II continues to function as a constitutional monarch. During her reign, there has been some support for the republican movement, especially due to negative publicity associated with the Royal Family (for instance, following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales).  Nevertheless, a large majority of the British public supports the continuation of the monarchy. 
The Sovereign's primary official residence is Buckingham Palace in the City of Westminster. Buckingham Palace is the official London residence of the British monarch. The City of Westminster ( is a borough of London with city status. It is the site of most state banquets, investitures, royal christenings and other ceremonies. Visiting heads of state usually stay in Buckingham Palace. Another principal residence is Windsor Castle, the largest occupied castle in the world. Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of  It is used principally as a weekend retreat; the monarch also resides there during Royal Ascot, an annual race meeting that forms a major part of the social calendar. Ascot Racecourse is an English racecourse located in the village of Ascot, Berkshire used for Thoroughbred horse racing. The social season or Season has historically referred to the annual period when it is customary for members of the British social Elite of society to hold Debutante The Sovereign's principal official residence in Scotland is the Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly called Holyrood Palace, in Edinburgh. The Palace of Holyroodhouse, or informally Holyrood Palace, founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. The monarch stays at Holyrood Palace for at least one week each year, and when visiting Scotland on state occasions. 
There are other palaces not used as residences by the monarch. The Palace of Westminster was the Sovereign's primary residence until 1530; although it is still officially a royal palace, it is the home of both Houses of Parliament. Thereafter the Sovereign's principal London residence was the Palace of Whitehall, which was destroyed by fire in 1698, to be replaced by St James's Palace. The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 's 1622 St James's Palace is one of London's oldest Palaces It is situated on Pall Mall in London, just north of St Although replaced as the monarch's primary residence by Buckingham Palace in 1837, St James's is still used for various official functions. For example, foreign ambassadors are accredited to the Court of St James's, and the Palace is the site of the meeting of the Accession Council. The Court of St James's is the name of the Royal court of the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council is a ceremonial body which assembles on the death of a Monarch to proclaim his or her successor king or queen and to receive  It is not one of the Sovereign's official residences: it is used by other members of the Royal Family.  Other residences used by the Royal Family include Clarence House, the home of the heir-apparent, The Prince of Wales, and Kensington Palace. Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated on The Mall. Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England
The aforementioned residences belong to the Crown; they are held in trust for future rulers, and cannot be sold by the monarch.  The monarch also owns homes in a private capacity: Sandringham House in Norfolk, is typically used from Christmas to the end of January; during parts of August and September the monarch resides in Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire in Scotland. Sandringham House is a Country house on of land near the village of Sandringham in Norfolk, England, which is privately owned by the British Norfolk (ˈnɔrfək is a low-lying county in East Anglia, England, United Kingdom. Balmoral Castle is a large Estate house situated in the area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland known as Royal Deeside. Aberdeenshire or the County of Aberdeen ( Siorrachd Obar Dheathain in Gaelic) is a Registration county of Scotland.
The present Sovereign's full style and title is "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith". The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years  The title "Head of the Commonwealth" is held by the Queen personally, and is not vested in the British Crown. Queen Elizabeth II is the second person to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth (which currently has 53 members  Pope Leo X first granted the title "Defender of the Faith" to King Henry VIII in 1521, rewarding him for his support of the Papacy during the early years of the Protestant Reformation, particularly for his book the Defence of the Seven Sacraments. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death "Defender of the Faith" redirects here For the 1984 platinum album of British heavy metal group Judas Priest, see Defenders of the Faith The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book written by King Henry VIII of England in  Henry VIII later broke from the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England; Pope Paul III revoked the grant, but Parliament passed a law authorising its continued use. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman 
The Sovereign is known as "His Majesty" or "Her Majesty": in certain formal circumstances, "Most Gracious Majesty" or "Most Excellent Majesty" is used. The form "Britannic Majesty" appears in international treaties and on passports to differentiate the British monarch from foreign rulers. Queens Consort (wives of Kings) and Queens Dowager (widows of Kings) are entitled to the style "Majesty", but husbands of female monarchs are not. Thus the husband of the present Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, is styled "Royal Highness".
The monarch chooses his or her regnal name, not necessarily his or her first name — King George VI, King Edward VII and Queen Victoria did not use their first names. A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some Popes and Monarchs during their Reigns Since Medieval times monarchs Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The ordinal used for the monarch takes into account only monarchs since the Norman conquest of England. If only one monarch has used a particular name, no ordinal is used; for example, Queen Victoria is not known as "Victoria I". After the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, numbering was based on previous English monarchs, not Scottish ones. In 1953 Scottish nationalists challenged the right of the Queen to style herself "Elizabeth II", on the grounds that there had never before been an "Elizabeth I" in Scotland. In MacCormick v. Lord Advocate, the Scottish Court of Session ruled against the plaintiffs, finding that the Queen's title was a matter of her own choice and prerogative. MacCormick v Lord Advocate ( 1953 SC 396 was a Scottish legal action in which John MacCormick (the Rector of the University of Glasgow The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland. It is both a Court of first instance and a court of Appeal and sits exclusively Nevertheless, it was announced that future monarchs would use the higher of the English and Scottish ordinals. Retroactively applying this policy yields no change in numbering.
Traditionally, the signature of the monarch includes their regnal name but not ordinal, followed by the letter R, which stands for rex or regina (Latin for king and queen, respectively). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The present monarch's signature is "Elizabeth R". From 1877 until 1948 reigning monarchs also added the letter I to their signatures, standing for imperator or imperatrix (emperor or empress in Latin), due to their status as Emperor or Empress of India. Emperor/Empress of India ( Badishah -e-Hind in Hindustani) was used as a Title by the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Queen Victoria, for example, signed her name, "Victoria RI" from 1877 on.
The coat of arms used by the Sovereign, known as the Arms of Dominion, are "Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or [for England]; II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules [for Scotland]; III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent [for Ireland]". Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official Coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The supporters are the lion and the unicorn; the motto is "Dieu et mon droit" (French for "God and my Right", which had been the personal motto of Henry VIII and has been the Sovereign's motto since his reign). The Lion and the Unicorn are time-honoured symbols of the United Kingdom. Dieu et mon droit has generally been used as the Motto of English, and later British, monarchs since being adopted by Henry V (1413–1422 French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Ireland is represented somewhat controversially, as most of the island is the independent Republic of Ireland, not a part of the United Kingdom — only Northern Ireland, a sixth of the island, is part of the UK. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of
In Scotland the monarch uses an alternative form of the Arms of Dominion in which quarters I and IV represent Scotland, II England, and III Ireland. The motto is "Nemo me impune lacessit" (Latin for "No-one provokes me with impunity"); the supporters are the unicorn and lion. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
The monarch's official flag in the United Kingdom is the Royal Standard, and depicts the Arms of Dominion. (The Royal Standard used in Scotland depicts the Scottish version of the arms. ) This flag is flown only from buildings, vessels and vehicles in which the Sovereign is present; elsewhere, the Union Flag is flown. The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Royal Standard is never flown at half-mast because there is always a sovereign: when one dies, his or her successor becomes the sovereign instantly.