Monarchiens is a derogatory term used to describe one of the revolutionary parties in the early French Revolution. The Monarchiens were around for a brief moment during the French Revolution as they were criticized by many, including the left wing of the Assembly, the galleries and the patriotic press.
The Monarchien party was established in August 1789 amidst the time period of The French Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The Monarchiens were around for a very short period of time. As soon as their organization began it was quickly swept away by many spectators. Specifically, the brief movement developed when the Revolution was shifting away from the Ancien Regime during the Spring of 1789 and was defeated by the end of 1789.
Monarchiens were once viewed as contributors to the Third Estate. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages They were different from Sieyes and Mirabeau, as they did not “speak the language of democracy”. Instead, they formed their views from the influences of the years of the Enlightenment and The English Constitution. The English Constitution is a Book by Walter Bagehot. Written in 1867, it explores the Constitution of the United Kingdom They sought after fairness and pushed for a working constitution. The monarchien idea favored voting and common deliberations. It aimed to merge the rights of the royal authority with the rights of the common man. This idea was in fact part of the Monarchien’s downfall as the changes brought about by the Revolution were far more different than what the Monarchien’s viewed as change. Specifically, the Monarchien’s were unable to understand and reform to the importance of “Political legitimacy” when it came to discussing the constitutional process. In fact, they sought to establish a free government without substituting one power for another but rather redefining the existing powers of the monarchy.
Founder & Father
The group was founded and led by Jean-Joseph Mounier, who was born in 1758. Though Mounier was neither graceful nor eloquent in his speeches, he was able to influence many with his strength and consistency. Among his followers were liberal nobles T. -G. Lally-Tollendal, Clermont-Tonnerre, and P. Thomas Arthur comte de Lally baron de Tollendal (January 1702 - 1766 was a French general Clermont-Tonnerre is the name of a French family members of which played some part in the history of France especially in Dauphiné, from about 1100 to the -V. Malouet. On July 9th, Mounier’s views of the governments’ political position were outlined in a statement to the National Constituent Assembly. The Assembly ultimately voted against the introduced Monarchien views of Mounier on September 10th, 11th. The rejection led to the resignation of Mounier.
- A new party was formed by one of the original Monarchien members, Clermont – Tonnerre; “Amis de la Constitution Monarchique” in Dec 1789.
- The Monarchiens Party was established during the Authority of King Louis XVI. Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre
- The Monarchien movement was founded by Jean Joseph Mounier (1758-1806). Jean Joseph Mounier ( November 12, 1758 - 28 January, 1806) was a French Politician. Among the followers of the Monarchiens were liberal nobles including, T. –G. Lally – Tollendal, Clermont – Tonnerre, and P. -V. Malouet.
- The Monarchien’s were a conservative faction with the National Assembly. For the most part, and although briefly, the Monarchien party was well organized and took an active role in Constituent debates.
- Mounier supported another legislative Chamber & more royal authority.
- The Monarchiens, specifically Jean Joseph Mounier, “wanted a compromise between the old aristocracy and the new elite, based on an absolute veto for ordinary laws and a bicameral legislature”. Jean Joseph Mounier ( November 12, 1758 - 28 January, 1806) was a French Politician.
- Mounier’s views appeared in a pamphlet that was published titled, “Nouvelles observations sur les Etats – Generaux”, which introduced the Monarchien's ideas about Law & Government.
- Within the Monarchien Party are three distinct groups of members: The first is the Dauphinois delegation-including the archbishop of Vienne. Dauphinois is a dialect of the Arpitan language, which is spoken in Isère departement roughly formerly Bas-Dauphiné in France The Archbishopric of Vienne, named after its episcopal see Vienne in the Isère département of southern France was a metropolitan Roman Catholic archdiocese The second is the group of elite members of society-including bishop of Langres, Clermont-Tonnerre and Lally Tollendal. The third group was the deputies to the Third Estate-including Bergasse and Malouet. Nicolas Bergasse (1750 &ndash 1832 was a French Lawyer. He was born at Lyon.
- Bergasse published his monarchien view in pamphlets and called for the unity between the throne and Third Estates. Nicolas Bergasse (1750 &ndash 1832 was a French Lawyer. He was born at Lyon.
- Monarchien politics were more authoritarian and hierarchical.
- The Monarchien’s organized for elections. The elections carried out in September 1789 demonstrated the popularity of the Monarchien movement as the movement’s candidates received many of the votes.
- One of the laws passed which emphasized the Party’s political views was that in order for a royal veto to be overwritten, the same law needed to be passed by three straight legislatures.
- After Mounier’s resignation, the Monarchien dream continued to live out until the end of the Constituent Assembly. This was due to the efforts of Pierre-Victor Malouet, Clermont-Tonnerre, Virieu, and others.
- The clubs formed by these men after Mounier left the organization were “Club de Impartiaux” and “Club Monarchique”.
- Furet Francois, & Ozouf Mona. Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng Jacques Necker ( September 30, 1732 &ndash April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance The English Constitution is a Book by Walter Bagehot. Written in 1867, it explores the Constitution of the United Kingdom Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country Auvergne ( Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a Province of Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. "A Critical Dictionary Of The French Revolution". Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England. Harvard University Press, 1989
- Scott F. Samuel, & Rothaus Barry. “Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution 1789-1799”, V-2. Westport, Connecticut. Greenwood Press, 1985
- Katcs Gary. “The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New Controversies”. France. Routledge, 1998
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