|Regions with significant populations|
|Burma: 8 million|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Khmer and other Mon-Khmer groups|
The Mon (Burmese: ; IPA: [mùn lùmjóʊ]; Thai: มอญ) are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon, who live in Burma and Thailand. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation The Khmer people are the predominant Ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 14 The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous Language family of Southeast Asia. The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ myà̃mà bàθà MLCTS: myanma bhasa) is the official Language of Burma. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and They live in Mon State, historic lower Burma and the area around the southern Burmese-Thailand border. Mon State is an administrative division of Myanmar. It is sandwiched between Kayin State on the east the Andaman Sea on the west Bago Division Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj There are believed to be around 8 million people who claim Mon ancestry and retain their culture and language, but the majority of the Mon (possibly 4 million) use the modern Burmese language for daily business and are literate only in Burmese (not in their native language). As with many other ethnic minorities in Burma, they have been fighting against the Burmese Government for an independent state. The largest Mon refugee communities are currently in Thailand, with smaller communities in US, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and other countries around the world. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The majority of Mon live around the city of Bago or the site of their historic capital, Thaton and the port of Mawlamyaing. Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Burma (or Myanmar Thaton ( is a Town in Mon State, in southern Myanmar on the Tenasserim plains Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing ( mɔ̀ləmjàiN mjo̰ formerly Moulmein) is the third largest city of Burma (Myanmar situated 300 km south east of Yangon They also constitute a significant percentage of the population further south along the lowland coast to the city of Ye, Burma. Ye may refer to Ye Ayeyarwady Division Ye Mon State
The Mon were one of the earliest distinct groups to occupy Burma, moving into the area as early as 1500 BCE or possibly earlier. The Mon are primarily associated with the historical kingdoms of Dvaravati and Haripunchai. See Dvaraka for the Yadava capital of the Mahabharata. The Dvaravati kingdom of the early Thai existed from the 6th to Hariphunchai (or Haribhunjaya)(Pali Haripunjaya was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area Up until the 14th century, outposts of Mon culture continued to spread very far east, including modern Thailand and Isan plateau cities such as Lampang and Khon Kaen. Lampang ( Thai ลำปาง is one of the northern provinces ( changwat) of Thailand. Located at the heart of the Northeastern Thailand ( Isan) Khon Kaen is one of the major cities under the National Economic and Social Plan of the country along with As late as the 14th and 15th centuries, it is believed that the Mon were the ethnic majority in this vast region, but also intermarried freely with Khmer and Tai-Kadai populations. The Khmer people are the predominant Ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 14 Archaeological remains of Mon settlements have been found south of Vientiane, and may also have extended further to the north-west in the Haripunchai era. Vientiane (vjɛnˈtjɑːn Lao ວຽງຈັນ Viang-chan) is the Capital city of Laos Hariphunchai (or Haribhunjaya)(Pali Haripunjaya was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area
The Mon converted to Theravada Buddhism at a very early point in their history. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Unlike other ethnic groups in the region, they seem to have adopted Theravada orthodoxy before coming into contact with Mahayana tendencies, and it is generally believed that the Mon provided the link of transmission whereby both the Thais and Cambodians converted from Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism to Theravada Buddhism (increasingly from the 1400s). Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Although the precise date cannot be fixed, it seems that the Mon have been practicing Theravada Buddhism continuously for a longer period than any other extant religious community on earth, except for Sri Lanka, as the lineage was destroyed in India. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island
Like the Burmese and the Thais, some modern Mons have tried to identify their ethnicity with the semi-historical kingdom of Suwarnabhumi. Suvarṇabhumī or pali Suvaṇṇabhumī, is the name of a land mentioned in many ancient sources such as the Chronicle of Sri Lanka (" Mahavamsa " Today, this claim is contested by many different ethnicities in South-East Asia, and contradicted by scholars. Historical scholarship indicates that the early usage of the term (as found in the edicts of Ashoka) indicated a location in Southern India, and not in South-East Asia. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi However, from the time of the first translations of the Ashokan inscriptions in the 19th century, both the Burmese and the Thais have made concentrated efforts to identify place-names found in the edicts with their own territory or culture. Sometimes these claims have also relied upon the creative interpretation of place-names found in Chinese historical sources.
A Mon dynasty ruled Lower Burma after the fall of the Pagan dynasty from 1287 to 1539 with a brief revival during 1550–53. Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th the 13th to the 16th and again in the 18th centuries Lower Burma is a historical region referring to the part of Burma annexed by the British Empire after the Second Anglo-Burmese War, which took place in At first Martaban was the capital of this kingdom and then Pegu. Mottama, formerly known as Martaban, is a small town in the Thaton district of Mon State, in southern Burma. Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Burma (or Myanmar The Mon king Rajadhirat, who waged war with the northern Burman kingdom of Ava during the whole duration of his reign, unified and consolidated the Mon kingdom's domains in Lower Burma. Rajadhirat was a Mon king known for his military prowess Rajadhirat succeeded his father Binnya U as ruler of Pegu after a succession struggle
The most famous Mon monarchs during this period were Queen Baña Thau (Burmese: Shin Sawbu; reigned 1453–1472) followed by Dhammazedi (reigned 1472–92). Baña Thau, known as Shin Sawbu in Burmese, is the Mon name for the queen who ruled for seventeen peaceful years (1453-1470 or 72 over a Mon kingdom Queen Baña Thau personally chose Dhammazedi to succeed her. Dhammazedi had been a monk before he became king of Pegu. Under Dhammazedi, Pegu became a centre of commerce and Theravadan Buddhism. These two devout Buddhist monarchs initiated a long period of peace in Lower Burma.
Many foreign traders were attracted to the capital, which became well-known to the outside world as a centre of commerce. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. As such it is mentioned by the Russian merchant, Nitikin, who travelled in the East about 1470. Its fifteenth century rulers were, like those of old Pagan, chiefly interested in the development of religion. Missions were sent to Ceylon and on their return stimulated an important religious revival, which affected the whole of Burma. Its centre was the Kalyani thein near Pegu, so named because its original monks had been ordained on the banks of the Kalyani river in Ceylon. Kalyani ordination became the standard form for the whole country. The story of the reforms is told in the Kalyani inscriptions erected by King Dammazedi (1472-92). Dammazedi was the greatest of the rulers of Wareru’s line. His reign was a time of peace and he himself was a mild ruler, famous for his wisdom. A collection of his rulings, the Dammazedi pyatton, is still extant. He maintained friendly intercourse with Yunnan and revived the practice of sending missions to Buddhagaya. He was a Buddhist ruler of the best type, deeply solicitous for the purification of religion. Under him civilization flourished, and the condition of the Mon country stands out in sharp contrast with the disorder and savagery which characterized the Ava kingdom. When he died he was honoured as a saint and a pagoda was erected over his bones. The Mon kingdom possessed two great pagodas of especial sanctity, the Shwemawdaw at Pegu and the Shwe Dagon at the small stockaded fishing-town of Dagon, now Rangoon, the capital of modern Burma.  The last Mon kingdom was Hongsavatoi—they re-conquered much of their lost territory until the energetic Burman leader U Aungzeya forced them back and captured the kingdom by 1757, massacring a considerable part of the population. Year 1757 ( MDCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Mon religious leaders were forced to flee to Siam and the Mon have been harshly repressed from the 1750s to the present day. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj
Burma was conquered by the British in a series of wars. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located After the Second Anglo-Burmese War, the Mon territories were completely under the control of the British. The Second Anglo-Burmese War took place in 1852 and ended in 1853 The Mon aided the British to free themselves from the rule of the Burman monarchy. Under Burman rule, the Mon people had been massacred after they lost their kingdom and many sought asylum in the Thai Kingdom. The British conquest of Burma allowed the Mon people to survive in Southern Burma.
The Mon soon became anti-colonialists and following the grant of independence to Burma in 1948 they sought self-determination, U Nu refused them this and they rose in revolt to be crushed again. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. U Nu (ဦးနု ú nṵ otherwise known as Thakin Nu 25 May 1907 – 14 February 1995) was a leading Burmese Nationalist
They have remained a repressed and defiant group in the country since then. They have risen in revolt against the central Burmese government on a number of occasions, initially under the Mon People's Front and from 1962 through the New Mon State Party. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A partially autonomous Mon state, Monland, was created in 1974 covering Tenasserim, Pegu and Ayeyarwady River. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Tanintharyi Division, better known by the old name Tenasserim (Thaiตะนาวศรี is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Burma (or Myanmar The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River ( is a River that flows from north to south of Burma (Myanmar Resistance continued until 1995 when NMSP and SLORC agreed a cease-fire and in 1996 the Mon Unity League was founded. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The State Peace and Development Council or Arr Nar Yuu Myar A Phwet ( nàiNŋàNdɔ̀ éiʤáN θàja yéi n̥ḭN pʰṵNpʰyo yéi kaùNsì abbreviated SPDC) is the official Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar)
In 1947 Mon National Day was created to celebrate the ancient founding of Hanthawady, the last Mon Kingdom, which had its seat in Pegu. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Burma (or Myanmar (It follows the full moon on the 11th month of the Mon lunar calendar, except in Phrapadaeng, Thailand, where it is celebrated at Songkran. Phra Pradaeng (พระประแดง is a district ( Amphoe) of Samut Prakan Province in Thailand. The Thai New Year (สงกรานต์ Songkran, from Sanskrit sankrānti "astrological passage" is celebrated every year from April )
The Mon language is part of the Monic group of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austro-Asiatic family, closely related to the Nyah Kur language and more distantly related to Khmer. The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon, who live in Burma and Thailand. The Monic languages are a branch of the Austro-Asiatic Language family descended from the Old Monic language of the kingdom of Dvaravati in what is now The Mon-Khmer languages are the autochthonous Language family of Southeast Asia. The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large Language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. The Nyah Kur language is an Austroasiatic language spoken by a remnant of the Mon people of Dvaravati, the Nyah Kur people, who live in present-day Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. The writing system is Indic based. The Burmans adapted the Mon script for Burmese following their conquest of Mon territory.
Mon culture and traditional heritages includes spiritual dances, musical instruments such as crocodile xylophone, harp, and flat guitar. Mon dances are usually played in a formal theatre or sometimes in an informal district of any village. The dances are followed by background music using a circular set of tuned drums and claps, crocodile xylophone, gongs, flute, flat guitar, harp, etc. Mon in Burma wear clothes similar to the Bamars. The Bamar ( bəmà lùmjó also called Burman) are the dominant Ethnic group of Burma, constituting approximately 68% (30000000 of the population Those living in Thailand have adopted Thai style scarfs and skirts. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Thai (or Tai) are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries