Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova) was a Mediaeval principality in Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians and Dnister river. Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital This is an article about a commune in Romania there is also a Baia or Baiae near Naples and Baia in Tulcea County Siret is a town in Romania, Suceava County, 2 km close to the border with Ukraine, one of the main border passing points in the North of the country having Suceava (pronunciation in Romanian: /su'ʧava/ Suczawa Сучава שאַץ / Shats) is the capital city of the Suceava County, Bukovina Iaşi (pronunciation in Romanian: /jaʃʲ/ or Jassy, is a city and municipality in north-eastern Romania. Church Slavonic (also Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian) is the Liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862 when it united A voivode or waywode is a Slavic title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force Hospodar or gospodar is a term of Slavonic origin meaning "lord" or "master" Dragoş ( Drágfi of Béltek) was a Maramureş Voivode ruling over the lands of what was to become Moldavia (between 1351 and 1353 Alexander Joan Cuza (a common old English rendition of Alexandru Ioan Cuza; March 20, 1820 – May 15, 1873) was a Moldavian Mark from the Old English mearc and march (or various plural forms of these words derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary" Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince This is a detailed overview of the subdivisions of the Carpathian Mountains. The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it part of it was attached with Wallachia to create a new country Romania in 1878; another part, to the East of Prut continued its statal existence under different forms to become the Republic of Moldova today; at various times, the state included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak) and all of Bukovina. This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Prut, or Pruth, (Прут is a 953 km long river in Eastern Europe. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian Budjak or Budzhak is a historical region in the Odessa Oblast (province of Ukraine. Bukovina (Bucovina Буковина/ Bukovyna; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the The western part of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern part belongs to the independent state of Moldova which is the continuously inhereting state of Principality of Moldavia, while the northern and south-eastern parts are territories of Ukraine. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.
Historically, Moldavia extended between the Carpathian Mountains (the historical border with Transylvania) and the Dniester River; the Prut River flowed approximately through its middle from north to south. The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians (Carpaţi Czech, Polish and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian The Dniester (Дністер translit Dnister; Nistru is a river in Eastern Europe. Prut, or Pruth, (Прут is a 953 km long river in Eastern Europe. Lands in Pokuttya and other portions outside of the Carpathians-Dniester area (such as Cetatea de Baltă and Ciceu, both in Transylvania) were at times politically connected with the Moldavian state, but were never considered part of its territory. Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Покуття Pocuţia Pokucie is a historical area of Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers in Cetatea de Baltă (Hungarian Küküllővár; German Kokelburg) is a village in Alba County with a population of 3235 Ciceu or Csíkcsicsó (Ciceu Csíkcsicsó is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian
Of the early 15th century Moldavia, today Moldova controls 33%, while Romania 42%. This represents 90. 5%, respectively 19. 5% of the territory of those countries.
The relief of the region is mostly hilly, with a range of mountains in the west, and some plain areas in the south-east. Moldavia's most high altitude was Ineu peak (2279m), also the westernmost point of the principality. Ineu (also Inău is a peak in the Rodnei Mountains, Romania. Altitude 2279m
The original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. Bogdan of Cuhea (or Bogdan-Vodă; Bogdan I of Moldavia) is the second founding-figure of the Principality of Moldavia, its ruler between The names Moldavia and Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River, however the etymology is not known and there are several variants:
In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia (in the same way Wallachia may appear as Hungro-Wallachia). This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Iflak and Boğdan (and occasionally Kara-Boğdan - "Black Bogdania"). Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlıca or tr ''Osmanlı Türkçesi'' Ottoman Turkish ota-Latn ''lisân-ı Osmânî'' is the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the See also: Name in other languages. Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages
Moldavian 15'th Century battle flag
Coat of arms of the Prince of Moldavia, in the Wijsbergen arms book
Coat of arms of the principality of Moldavia, at the Cetăţuia Monastery in Iaşi
Coat of arms of the Prince of Moldavia, on the Suceava bell
In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic-Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory (towards 1216, the Brodniks are mentioned as in service of Suzdal). The flag and coat of arms of Moldavia, one of the two Danubian Principalities, together with Wallachia, which formed the basis for the Romanian The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a people speaking Romanian, a Romance language The Early Middle Ages in Romania (also known the Dark Ages) lasted from about the 5th century to the 10th century, between the Hunnic The Brodnici (or Brodniks) were a 13th-century people whose ethnicity is uncertain as various authors suggest they were Romanian, Slavic, mixed Vlachs is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, The Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia ( Ruthenian: sla Галицко-Волинскоє Королѣвство Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ or Galicia-Vladimir, was Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество On the border between Halych and the Brodniks, in the 11th century, a Viking by the name of Rodfos was killed in the area by Vlachs who supposedly betrayed him. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas  In 1164, the future Byzantine Emperor Andronicus I Comnenus, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus ( Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός Andronikos I Komninos; c
Later in the 13th century, King Charles I of Hungary attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, and ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende (1324). The King of Hungary (magyar király was the Head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001 to 1918 Charles I of Hungary (Károly Róbert Karlo Robert Karol Róbert (1288 Naples, Italy &ndash 16 July 1342, Visegrád, The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatars; the conflict was resolved by the death of Jani Beg, in 1357). Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups Jani Beg (? — 1357 was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1342-1357 succeeding his father Uzbeg Khan. The Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians (under the name Wallachians) as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Generally a chronicle (chronica from Greek (from) is a historical account of facts and events in chronological order Jan Długosz ( December 1 1415 - May 19, 1480) also known as Joannes Ioannes or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius Poland, or at least its nucleus was ruled at various times either by książęta (Dukes(ca Władysław the Short or Elbow-high (or Ladislaus I of Poland) ( Władysław I Łokietek) (1261 - March 2 1333 was a King of Poland. The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg was a major Principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 
In 1353, Dragoş, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureş, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces on the Siret River. Dragoş ( Drágfi of Béltek) was a Maramureş Voivode ruling over the lands of what was to become Moldavia (between 1351 and 1353 Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a Nobility rank Maramureş (in Romanian; Hungarian: Máramaros; Latin: Marmatia; Мармарощина / Marmaroshchyna, Мараморщина Louis I the Great (I (Nagy Lajos Ludwik Węgierski Serbian: Lajoš I/Лајош I Croatian: Ludovik I Czech: Ludvík I The Siret River ( Ukrainian: Серет, Russian: Сирет, Hungarian: Szeret) is a River that rises This expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia (Târgul Moldovei or Moldvabánya). This is an article about a commune in Romania there is also a Baia or Baiae near Naples and Baia in Tulcea County
Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureş who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, and succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control. Bogdan of Cuhea (or Bogdan-Vodă; Bogdan I of Moldavia) is the second founding-figure of the Principality of Moldavia, its ruler between A voivode or waywode is a Slavic title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by the Tatars. The Cheremosh River (Черемош Ceremuş Czeremosz is a river which flows along the borderline of Bukovina and Galicia.
After first residing in Baia, Bogdan moved Moldavia's seat to Siret (it was to remain there until Petru Muşat moved it to Suceava; it was finally moved to Iaşi under Alexandru Lăpuşneanu - in 1565). Siret is a town in Romania, Suceava County, 2 km close to the border with Ukraine, one of the main border passing points in the North of the country having Petru I Muşat was Voivode (prince of Moldavia from 1375 to 1391, the son of Costea Muşat, the first ruler from the dynastic Suceava (pronunciation in Romanian: /su'ʧava/ Suczawa Сучава שאַץ / Shats) is the capital city of the Suceava County, Bukovina Iaşi (pronunciation in Romanian: /jaʃʲ/ or Jassy, is a city and municipality in north-eastern Romania. Alexandru Lăpuşneanu was Prince of Moldavia between September 1552 and 18 November 1561 and then between October 1564 and 5 May 1568 The area around Suceava, roughly correspondent to Bukovina, formed one of the two administrative divisions of the new realm, under the name Ţara de Sus (the "Upper Land"), whereas the rest, on both sides of the Prut River, formed Ţara de Jos (the "Lower Land"). Bukovina (Bucovina Буковина/ Bukovyna; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the Prut, or Pruth, (Прут is a 953 km long river in Eastern Europe.
Disfavored by the brief union of Angevin Poland and Hungary (the latter was still the country's overlord), Bogdan's successor Laţcu accepted conversion to Roman Catholicism around 1370, but his gesture was to remain without consequences. In the first centuries of its existence the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European Laţcu was the Voivode of Moldavia between circa 1365 and 1373. Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity or a change from one religious identity to another Despite remaining officially Eastern Orthodox and culturally connected with the Byzantine Empire after 1382, princes of the Muşatin family entered a conflict with the Constantinople Patriarchy over control of appointments to the newly-founded Moldavian Metropolitan seat; Patriarch Anthony IV even cast an anathema over Moldavia after Roman I expelled his appointee back to Byzantium. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The House of Bogdan, commonly referred to as the House of Muşat, was the ruling family which established the Principality of Moldova with Bogdan I "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods later with evolving meanings it came to mean to be formally Roman I was Voivode of Moldavia from December 1391 to March 1394. The crisis was finally settled in favor of the Moldavian princes under Alexandru cel Bun. Alexander the Good ( Alexandru cel Bun; Alexandru I Muşat) was a Voivode ( Prince) of Moldavia between 1400 and 1432 son Nevertheless, religious policy remained complex: while conversions to faiths other than Orthodox were discouraged (and forbidden for princes), Moldavia included sizable Roman Catholic communities (Germans and Hungarians), as well as non-Chalcedonic Armenians; after 1460, the country welcomed Hussite refugees (founders of Ciuburciu and, probably, Huşi). The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan Armenians have been present in what is now Romania and Moldova for over a millennium and have been an important presence as traders since the 14th century The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus or John Huss (c "Husi" redirects here For other uses see Husi (disambiguation.
Petru I profited from the end of the Hungarian-Polish union, and moved the country closer to the Jagiellon realm, becoming a vassal of Władysław II on September 26, 1387. Context See also Romania in the Dark Ages The Dark Ages in what is now Romania ended around the 11th century, following Petru I Muşat was Voivode (prince of Moldavia from 1375 to 1391, the son of Costea Muşat, the first ruler from the dynastic The Jagiellon Era 1385&ndash1569 was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (b about 1362 d 1 June 1434 was Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a This gesture was to have unexpected consequences: Petru supplied the Polish ruler with funds needed in the war against the Teutonic Knights, and was granted control over Pokuttya until the debt was to be repaid; as this is not recorded to have been carried out, the region became disputed by the two states, until it was lost by Moldavia in the Battle of Obertyn (1531). The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Покуття Pocuţia Pokucie is a historical area of Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers in The Battle of Obertyn (September 22 1531) was fought between Moldavian Prince Petru Rareş and Polish King Zygmunt Stary, in the Prince Petru also expanded his rule southwards to the Danube Delta, and established a frontier with Wallachia; his son Roman I conquered the Hungarian-ruled Cetatea Albă in 1392, giving Moldavia an outlet to the Black Sea, before being toppled from the throne for supporting Theodor Koriatovich in his conflict with Vytautas the Great of Lithuania. The Danube Delta ( Romanian: Delta Dunării; Ukrainian: Дельта Дунаю Del'ta Dunaju) is the second largest delta This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania "Akkerman" redirects here For other uses see Akkerman (disambiguation. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Fyodor Koriatovych (Федур Коръятович Федір Коріятович died in 1414 was a Ruthenian prince of Lithuanian origins son of Karijotas Vytautas the Great ( Lithuanian:; Vitaŭt; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; Witold Ruthenian: Vitovt; c The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje Under Stephen I, growing Polish influence was challenged by Sigismund of Hungary, whose expedition was defeated at Ghindăoani in 1385; however, Stephen disappeared in mysterious circumstances, and the throne was soon occupied by Yury Koriatovich (Vytautas' favorite). For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund ( February 14, 1368 – December 9, Iuga Koriatovici (known also as Iurg or Iurie in modern Moldovan and Romanian literature Yury in Ruthenian, Jerzy
Alexandru cel Bun, although brought to the throne in 1400 by the Hungarians (with assistance from Mircea I of Wallachia), shifted his allegiances towards Poland (notably engaging Moldavian forces on the Polish side in the Battle of Grunwald and the Siege of Marienburg), and placed his own choice of rulers in Wallachia. Alexander the Good ( Alexandru cel Bun; Alexandru I Muşat) was a Voivode ( Prince) of Moldavia between 1400 and 1432 son Mircea the Elder ( cel Bătrân; reigned 1386 – 1418 was one of the most important rulers of Wallachia. The Battle of Grunwald (or 1st Battle of Tannenberg) took place on 15 July 1410 with the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful siege of the Teutonic Order headquarters the castle in Marienburg, by the joint Polish Lithuanian His reign was one of the most successful in Moldavia's history, but also saw the very first confrontation with the Ottoman Turks at Cetatea Albă in 1420, and later even a conflict with the Poles. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. A deep crisis was to follow Alexandru's long reign, with his successors battling each other in a succession of wars that divided the country until the murder of Bogdan II and the ascension of Petru Aron in 1451. Bogdan II ( 1409 - 1451) was the Prince of Moldavia between October 12, 1449 and October 17, 1451, when he Petru III Aron (died 1467 bastard son of Alexandru cel Bun, was a Voivode ( Prince) of Moldavia on three separate occasions October Nevertheless, Moldavia was subject to further Hungarian interventions after that moment, as Matthias Corvinus deposed Aron and backed Alexăndrel to the throne in Suceava. Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and Suceava (pronunciation in Romanian: /su'ʧava/ Suczawa Сучава שאַץ / Shats) is the capital city of the Suceava County, Bukovina Petru Aron's rule also signified the beginning of Moldavia's Ottoman Empire allegiance, as the ruler agreed to pay tribute to Sultan Mehmed II. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or as was often case in historical contexts of submission The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with
Under Stephen the Great, who took the throne and subsequently came to an agreement with Kazimierz IV of Poland in 1457, the state reached its most glorious period. Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen III (c 1433 - July 2, 1504) also known as Stephen the Great ( Romanian: Ştefan Casimir IV Jagiellon (Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis Kazimir Jahajłavič 30 November 1427 &ndash Stephen blocked Hungarian interventions in the Battle of Baia, invaded Wallachia in 1471, and dealt with Ottoman reprisals in a major victory (the 1475 Battle of Vaslui; after feeling threatened by Polish ambitions, he also attacked Galicia and resisted Polish reprisals in the Battle of the Cosmin Forest (1497). The Battle of Baia was fought on December 15 1467 between the Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great and Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on January 10 1475 between Stephen III of Moldavia Galicia (Галичина ( Halychyna) Galicja is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine, The Battle of the Cosmin Forest ( 1497) ( Romanian: bătălia de la Codrii Cosminului; Polish: bitwa pod Koźminem) was fought However, he had to surrender Chilia (Kiliya) and Cetatea Albă (Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi), the two main fortresses in the Bujak, to the Ottomans in 1484, and in 1498 he had to accept Ottoman suzereignty, when he was forced to agree to continue paying tribute to Sultan Bayezid II. "Akkerman" redirects here For other uses see Akkerman (disambiguation. Budjak or Budzhak is a historical region in the Odessa Oblast (province of Ukraine. Bayezid II (1447/48 May 26, 1512) ( Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i sānī, Turkish: II Following the taking of Khotyn and Pokuttya, Stephen's rule also brought a brief extension of Moldavian rule into Transylvania: Cetatea de Baltă and Ciceu became his fiefs in 1489. Khotyn (Хотин see other names) is a City in Chernivtsi Oblast ( province) of western Ukraine, and is the administrative Pokuttya or Pokuttia (Покуття Pocuţia Pokucie is a historical area of Central Europe, between upper Prut and Cheremosh rivers in Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Cetatea de Baltă (Hungarian Küküllővár; German Kokelburg) is a village in Alba County with a population of 3235 Ciceu or Csíkcsicsó (Ciceu Csíkcsicsó is a commune in Romania, located in Harghita County. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing
Under Bogdan III cel Orb, Ottoman overlordship was confirmed in the shape that would rapidly evolve into control over Moldavia's affairs. Petru Rareş, who reigned in the 1530s and 1540s, clashed with the Habsburg Monarchy over his ambitions in Transylvania (losing possessions in the region to George Martinuzzi), was defeated in Pokuttya by Poland, and failed in his attempt to extricate Moldavia from Ottoman rule – the country lost Bender to the Ottomans, who included it in their Silistra eyalet. Petru IV Rareş (ca 1487&ndash 3 September 1546) was twice voievod of Moldavia: 20 January 1527 to 18 September Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor George Martinuzzi or Georg Utiessenovicz-Martinuzzi (1482 &ndash December 16, 1551) was a Hungarian statesman a monk an archbishop of Bendery or Bender, also known as Tighina, is a city in Moldova. Silistra Province ( Turkish: Silistre Eyaleti) sometimes called Özi Province was an Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along The subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire were Administrative divisions of the State organisation of the Ottoman Empire based on military administration but
A period of profound crisis followed. Early Modern Romania is the portion of Romanian history that falls in the Early modern period, roughly from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century Moldavia stopped issuing its own coinage circa 1520, under Prince Ştefăniţă, when it was confronted with rapid depletion of funds and rising demands from the Porte. Ottoman Porte (also Sublime Porte, High Porte, or in Ottoman Turkish, Bab-ı Ali) used to refer to the Divan (court Such problems became endemic when the country, brought into the Great Turkish War, suffered the impact of the Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire; at one point, during the 1650s and 1660s, princes began relying on counterfeit coinage (usually copies of Swedish riksdalers, as was that issued by Eustratie Dabija). The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers then joined into a Holy League Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire ( 1683 - 1827) was a period after the territorial expansion of the Empire reached its maximum A counterfeit is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins The riksdaler was the name of a Swedish coin first minted in 1604 Eustratie (or Istrate) Dabija was Prince ( Voivode) of Moldavia between 1661 and his death in September 1665 The economic decline was accompanied by a failure to maintain state structures: the feudal-based Moldavian military forces were no longer convoked, and the few troops maintained by the rulers remained professional mercenaries such as the seimeni. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed This is an article about the military of the Moldavian Principality for the Army of Moldova, see Military of Moldova Moldavia A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by Seimeni is also a commune in Constanţa County, see Seimeni Constanţa.
However, Moldavia and the similarly-affected Wallachia remained both important sources of income for the Ottoman Empire and relatively prosperous agricultural economies (especially as suppliers of grain and cattle – the latter was especially relevant in Moldavia, which remained an under-populated country of pastures). Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. In time, much of the resources were tied to the Ottoman economy, either through monopolies on trade which were only lifted in 1829, after the Treaty of Adrianople (which did not affect all domains directly), or through the raise in direct taxes - the one demanded by the Ottomans from the princes, as well as the ones demanded by the princes from the country's population. Economic history of the Ottoman Empire covers the period 1299-1923 In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient The Peace Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War 1828-1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire Taxes were directly proportional with Ottoman requests, but also with the growing importance of Ottoman appointment and sanctioning of princes in front of election by the boyars and the boyar Council – Sfatul boieresc (drawing in a competition among pretenders, which also implied the intervention of creditors as suppliers of bribes). This article refers to the aristocratic title of boyar. For the Boyar caste of India, see Boyar (caste. The National Assembly is either a Legislature, or the Lower house of a Bicameral legislature in some countries Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person The fiscal system soon included taxes such as the văcărit (a tax on head of cattle), first introduced by Iancu Sasul in the 1580s. Iancu Sasul ( John the Saxon) or Ioan Vodă V ( Voivode John V; d
The economic opportunities offered brought about a significant influx of Greek and Levantine financiers and officials, who entered a stiff competition with the high boyars over appointments to the Court. There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the As the manor system suffered the blows of economic crises, and in the absence of salarisation (which implied that persons in office could decide their own income), obtaining princely appointment became the major focus a boyar's career. This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here A salary is a form of periodic payment from an Employer to an Employee, which may be specified in an Employment contract. Such changes also implied the decline of free peasantry and the rise of serfdom, as well as the rapid fall in the importance of low boyars (a traditional institution, the latter soon became marginal, and, in more successful instances, added to the population of towns); however, they also implied a rapid transition towards a monetary economy, based on exchanges in foreign currency. The monetary economy is that part of a society's Economic system where products and services are traded in exchange for money Serfdom was doubled by the much less numerous slave population, comprised of migrant Roma and captured Nogais. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The Roma ( Roma in Romany; Romi, Rromi or Ţigani in Romanian) constitute one of the major minorities in The Nogai people (also written as Nogay or Noghai, and sometimes called Caucasian Mongols) are a Turkic ethnic group in northern
The conflict between princes and boyars was to become exceptionally violent – the latter group, who frequently appealed to the Ottoman court in order to have princes comply with its demands, was persecuted by rulers such as Alexandru Lăpuşneanu and Ioan Vodă cel Cumplit. Alexandru Lăpuşneanu was Prince of Moldavia between September 1552 and 18 November 1561 and then between October 1564 and 5 May 1568 Ioan cel Cumplit (1521 &ndash 1574 was Voivode of Moldavia between February 1572 and June 1574 Ioan Vodă's revolt against the Ottomans ended in his execution (1574). The country descended into political chaos, with frequent Ottoman and Tatar incursions and pillages. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups The claims of Muşatins to the crown and the traditional system of succession were ended by scores of illegitimate reigns; one of the usurpers, Ioan Iacob Heraclid, was a Protestant Greek who encouraged the Renaissance and attempted to introduce Lutheranism to Moldavia. Ioan Iacob Heraclid or Ioan Iacob Eraclid (also known as Jacob Heraclides; 1511&mdash1563 was a Greek soldier and ruler of Moldavia Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther
In 1595, the rise of the Movileşti boyars to the throne with Ieremia Movilă coincided with the start of frequent anti-Ottoman and anti-Habsburg military expeditions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth into Moldavian territory (see Moldavian Magnate Wars), and rivalries between pretenders to the Moldavian throne encouraged by the three competing powers. The Movileşti (Mohyła were a family of Boyars in the Principality of Moldavia, which became related through marriage with the Muşatin family - the traditional Ieremia Movilă ( Jeremi Mohyła in Polish) was a Voivode ( Prince) of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600 and again between Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the Magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Wallachian prince Michael the Brave deposed Prince Ieremia in 1600, and managed to become the very first monarch to unite Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania under his rule; the episode ended in Polish conquests of lands down to Bucharest, soon ended by the outbreak of the Polish-Swedish War and the reestablishment of Ottoman rule. Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul Vitéz Mihály 1558 - 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601 of Transylvania Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Polish incursions were dealt a blow by the Ottomans during the 1620 Battle of Cecora, which also saw an end to the reign of Gaspar Graziani. The Battle of Ţuţora (also known as Battle of Cecora) was a battle between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (assisted by Moldavian troops and Gaspar (or Gaşpar) Graziani (also credited as Grazziani, Gratiani and Graţiani; Kasper Gratiani in Polish
The following period of relative peace saw the more prosperous and prestigious rule of Vasile Lupu, who took the throne as a boyar appointee in 1637, and began battling his rival Gheorghe Ştefan, as well as the Wallachian prince Matei Basarab – however, his invasion of Wallachia with the backing of Cossack Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky ended in disaster at the Battle of Finta (1653). Vasile Lupu (1595&mdash1661 was a Moldavian Voivode ( Prince) between 1634 and 1653 For the Romanian politician see Gheorghe Ştefan (politician Gheorghe Ştefan (seldom referred to as Burduja; d Matei Basarab (1588 Brâncoveni, Olt — April 9 1654, Bucharest) was a Wallachian Voivode ( Prince) The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern Hetman was the title used by commanders of the Ruthenian (Ukrainian Dnieper Cossacks from the end of the sixteenth century Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmel'nyts'kyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in The Battle of Finta (May 1653) was a confrontation between Matei Basarab 's Wallachian army and a combined Moldo - Cossack force under A few years later, Moldavia was occupied for two short intervals by the anti-Ottoman Wallachian prince Constantin Şerban, who clashed with the first ruler of the Ghica family, Gheorghe Ghica. Constantin Şerban was Prince of Wallachian between 1654 and 1658, bastard son to Radu Şerban (according to custom The Ghicas were a Noble family, ruling Wallachia and Moldavia for much of the period from the 17th century through the 19th century George Ghica ( Greek: Georgios Gikas; Romanian: Gheorghe Ghika or Ghica, Albanian: Gjergj Gjika) March 3 In the early 1680s, Moldavian troops under George Ducas intervened in Right-bank Ukraine and assisted Mehmed IV in the Battle of Vienna, only to suffer the effects of the Great Turkish War. Voivode George Ducas ( Greek: Γεώργιος Δούκας, Romanian: Gheorghe Duca) (d Right-bank Ukraine ( Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina a historical name of a part of Ukraine on the right (west Mehmed IV ( Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābi‘; also known as Avcı, "hunter" ( January 2, 1642 &ndash The Battle of Vienna ( German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Polish: Bitwa pod Wiedniem or Odsiecz Wiedeńska, Turkish: İkinci The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers then joined into a Holy League
During the late 17th century, Moldavia became the target of the Russian Empire's southwards expansion, inaugurated by Peter the Great during the Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711; Prince Dimitrie Cantemir's siding with Peter and open anti-Ottoman rebellion, ended in defeat at Stănileşti, provoked Sultan Ahmed III's reaction, and the official discarding of recognition of local choices for princes, imposing instead a system which relied solely on Ottoman approval – the Phanariote epoch, inaugurated by the reign of Nicholas Mavrocordatos. Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks ( Greek:Φαναριώτες Romanian: Fanarioţi, Bulgarian:Фанариоти The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the 16th 17th 18th 19th and 20th centuries The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War between Sweden and many of its neighbors Dimitrie Cantemir ( October 26 1673 &ndash August 21 1723) was twice Prince of Moldavia (in March-April 1693 and in 1710–1711 Stănileşti (formerly Stălineşti and Stălineştii) is a commune in Vaslui County, Romania. Ahmed III ( Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث Aḥmed-i sālis) ( December 30, 1673 &mdash July Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks ( Greek:Φαναριώτες Romanian: Fanarioţi, Bulgarian:Фанариоти Nicholas Mavrocordatos ( Greek: Νικόλαος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Nicolae Mavrocordat; May 3, 1670 &mdash Short and frequently ended through violence, Phanariote rules were usually marked by political corruption, intrigue, and high taxation, as well as by sporadic incursions of Habsburg and Russian armies deep into Moldavian territory; nonetheless, they also saw attempts at legislative and administrative modernization inspired by The Enlightenment (such as Constantine Mavrocordatos' decision to salirize public offices, to the outrage of boyars, and the abolition of serfdom in 1749, as well as Scarlat Callimachi's Code), and signified a decrease in Ottoman demands after the threat of Russian annexation became real and the prospects of a better life led to waves of peasant emigration to neighboring lands. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Constantine Mavrocordatos ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Μαυροκορδάτος, Romanian: Constantin Mavrocordat; February 27 Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, "the Red Prince" September 20, 1896 &mdash June 2, The effects of Ottoman control were also made less notable after the 1774 Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca allowed Russia to intervene in favor of Ottoman subjects of the Eastern Orthodox faith - leading to campaigns of petitioning by the Moldavian boyars against princely politics. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was signed on July 21, 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca Dobruja (today Kaynardzha A petition is a request to change some thing most commonly made to a government official or public entity
In 1712, Khotyn was taken over by the Ottomans, and became part of a defensive system that Moldavian princes were required to maintain, as well as an area for Islamic colonization (the Laz community). Khotyn (Хотин see other names) is a City in Chernivtsi Oblast ( province) of western Ukraine, and is the administrative For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area The Laz ( Lazi (ლაზი or Lazepe (ლაზეფე in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი or Moldavia also lost Bukovina, Suceava included, to the Habsburgs in 1772, which meant both an important territorial loss and a major blow to the cattle trade (as the region stood on the trade route to Central Europe). Bukovina (Bucovina Буковина/ Bukovyna; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the Suceava (pronunciation in Romanian: /su'ʧava/ Suczawa Сучава שאַץ / Shats) is the capital city of the Suceava County, Bukovina Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and The 1792 Treaty of Jassy forced the Ottoman Empire to cede all of its holdings in what is now Transnistria to Russia, which made Russian presence much more notable, given that the Empire acquired a common border with Moldavia. The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy ( Iaşi) in Moldavia (presently in Romania) was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria, and Pridnestrovie (full name Pridnestrovian The first effect of this was the cession of Bessarabia to the Russian Empire, in 1812 (through the Treaty of Bucharest). Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on May 28, 1812 in Bucharest at the end
Phanariote rules were officially ended after the 1821 occupation of the country by Alexander Ypsilantis' Filiki Eteria during the Greek War of Independence; the subsequent Ottoman retaliation brought the rule of Ioan Sturdza, considered as the first one of a new system – especially since, in 1826, the Ottomans and Russia agreed to allow for the election by locals of rulers over the two Danubian Principalities, and convened on their mandating for seven-year terms. During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were The Filiki Eteria (spelled also Philikí Etaireía, Greek alphabet: Φιλική Εταιρεία or Εταιρεία των Φιλικών) The Greek War of Independence (1821–1829 also commonly known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi; Ottoman Ioan Sturdza ( Ioan Sandu Sturdza or Ioniţă Sandu Sturdza; his first name may be given as John) was a Prince of Moldavia ( June Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the In practice, a new fundament to reigns in Moldavia was created by the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, and a period of Russian domination over the two countries which ended only in 1856: begun as a military occupation under the command of Pavel Kiselyov, Russian domination gave Wallachia and Moldavia, which were not removed from nominal Ottoman control, the modernizing Organic Statute (the first document resembling a constitution, as well as the first one to regard both principalities). The Russo–Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence. Count Pavel Dmitrievich Kiselyov (Павел Дмитриевич Киселёв also spelled Kiseleff ( 8 January, 1788, Moscow — 14 Regulamentul Organic ( Romanian name translated as Organic Statute or Organic Regulation; French: Règlement Organique, A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity After 1829, the country also became an important destination for immigration of Ashkenazi Jews from the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and areas of Russia (see History of the Jews in Romania and Sudiţi). Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim ( Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, ˌaʃkəˈnazim sing Galicia (Галичина ( Halychyna) Galicja is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine, The history of Jews in Romania concerns the Jews of Romania and of Romanian origins from their first mention on what is nowadays Romanian territory Sudiţi is also a commune in Ialomiţa County. The Sudiţi (plural of Sudit - Romanian language, from
The first Moldavian rule established under the Statute, that of Mihail Sturdza, was nonetheless ambivalent: eager to reduce abuse of office. Mihail Sturdza (1795 Iaşi - 1884 was a prince of Moldavia from 1834 to 1849 Sturdza introduced reforms (the abolition of slavery, secularization, economic rebuilding), but he was widely seen as enforcing his own power over that of the newly-instituted consultative Assembly. Secularization or secularisation generally refers to the process of transformation by which a Society migrates from close identification with religious institutions A supporter of the union of his country with Wallachia and of Romanian Romantic nationalism, he obtained the establishment of a customs union between the two countries (1847) and showed support for radical projects favored by low boyars; nevertheless, he clamped down with noted violence the Moldavian revolutionary attempt in the last days of March 1848. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives A customs union is a Free trade area with a Common external tariff. For opposition to all forms of government social hierarchy or authority see Anarchism. The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising in the principality of Wallachia. Grigore Alexandru Ghica allowed the exiled revolutionaries to return to Moldavia cca. Grigore Alexandru Ghica or Ghika (1803 or 1807 – August 24 1857 was a Prince of Moldavia between October 14, 1849 and June 1853, which led to the creation of Partida Naţională (the “National Party”), a trans-boundary group of radical union supporters which campaigned for a single state under a foreign dynasty. The Partida Naţională ( English: National Party was a liberal Romanian Political party active between 1856 and 1859.
Russian domination ended abruptly after the Crimean War, when the Treaty of Paris passed the two principalities under the tutelage of Great European Powers (together with Russia and the Ottoman overlord, power-sharing included the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Austrian Empire, the French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and Prussia). The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, France A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Due to Austrian and Ottoman opposition and British reserves, the union program as demanded by radical campaigners was debated intensely. In September 1857, given that Caimacam Nicolae Vogoride had perpetrated fraud in elections in Moldavia in July, the Powers allowed the two states to convene Ad-hoc divans, which were to decide a new constitutional framework; the result showed overwhelming support for the union, as the creation of a liberal and neutral state. A kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam) is the title used for the Governor of a provincial District in the Republic of Prince ( Knyaz or Bey) Nicolae Vogoride (- Romanian version Bulgarian: Никола or Николай Богориди Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties After further meetings among leaders of tutor states, an agreement was reached (the Paris Convention), whereby a limited union was to be enforced – separate governments and thrones, with only two bodies (a Court of Cassation and a Central Commission residing in Focşani; it also stipulated that an end to all privilege was to be passed into law, and awarded back to Moldavia the areas around Bolhrad, Cahul, and Izmail. The High Court of Cassation and Justice (Înalta Curte de Casaţie şi Justiţie is Romania 's Supreme court. Focşani (/fok'ʃanʲ/ Fokschan Foksány is the capital city of Vrancea County in Romania on the shores the Milcov river. A privilege &mdashetymologically "private law" or law relating to a specific individual&mdashis a special Entitlement or immunity granted by a government Bolhrad or Bolgrad (Болґрад Bolhrad; Bulgarian and Болград Bolgrad; Bolgrad is a small City in Odessa Oblast Cahul ( Russian: Kagul/Кагул) (population 35481 is a city and an administrative region in the south of Moldova. For the class of Russian warships see Izmail class battlecruiser.
However, the Convention failed to note whether the two thrones could not be occupied by the same person, allowing Partida Naţională to introduce the candidacy of Alexander John Cuza in both countries. Alexander Joan Cuza (a common old English rendition of Alexandru Ioan Cuza; March 20, 1820 – May 15, 1873) was a Moldavian On January 17 (January 5, 1859 Old Style), he was elected prince of Moldavia by the respective electoral body. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year After street pressure over the much more conservative body in Bucharest, Cuza was elected in Wallachia as well (February 5/January 24). Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Exactly three years later, after diplomatic missions that helped remove opposition to the action, the formal union created Romania and instituted Cuza as Domnitor (all legal matters were clarified after the replacement of the prince with Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in April 1866, and the creation of an independent Kingdom of Romania in 1881) - this officially ending the existence of the Principality of Moldavia. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Domnitor (pl domnitori) was the official title of the ruler of the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia between 1859 and Carol I of Romania, original name Prince Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, later simply of Hohenzollern (April 20th 1839 - See also Kings of Romania The Kingdom of Roumania (or ' Romania ' in post-1969 and also current spelling was the old Romanian state based on a form of