Molds (or moulds, see spelling differences) include all species of microscopic fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments, called hyphae. American and British English spelling differences are one aspect of American and British English differences. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Multicellular organisms are Organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having Differentiated cells that perform specialized functions A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long branching filamentous cell of a Fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria.  In contrast, microscopic fungi that grow as single cells are called yeasts. Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has multiple, genetically identical nuclei and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony or in more technical terms a mycelium. In Cell biology, the nucleus (pl nuclei; from Latin la ''nucleus'' or la ''nuculeus'' "little nut" or kernel is a membrane-enclosed In Biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual Organisms of the same Species living closely together usually Mycelium (plural mycelia) is the vegetative part of a Fungus, consisting of a mass of branching thread-like Hyphae The mass of hyphae is sometimes called
Molds do not form a specific taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping, but can be found in the divisions Zygomycota, Deuteromycota and Ascomycota. Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification The word comes from the Greek, taxis (meaning 'order' 'arrangement' and, nomos Zygomycota, or zygote fungi are a Phylum of fungi. The name of the phylum comes from zygosporangia, where resistant spherical spores are formed during Ascomycota is a Division / Phylum of Fungi, and subkingdom Dikarya, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi. Although some molds cause disease or food spoilage, others are useful for their role in biodegradation or in the production of various foods, beverages, antibiotics and enzymes. Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by the enzymes produced by living organisms In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins
There are thousands of known species of molds, which include opportunistic pathogens, saprotrophs, aquatic species and thermophiles. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by Pathogens that usually do not cause disease in a healthy Immune system. A thermophile is an organism &mdash a type of Extremophile &mdash which thrives at relatively high temperatures between 45 and 80 °C (113 and 176 °F  Like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live. Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins These enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae. Biopolymers are a class of Polymers produced by living organisms Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Lignin or lignen is a complex Chemical compound most commonly derived from Wood and an integral part of the secondary Cell walls of Plants In this way, molds play a major role in causing decomposition of organic material, enabling the recycling of nutrients throughout ecosystems. Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Many molds also secrete mycotoxins which, together with hydrolytic enzymes, inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. Mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης (mykes mukos "fungus" is a Toxin produced by an organism of the Fungus kingdom which includes Mushrooms A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually
Molds reproduce through small spores, which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate. In Biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions In Cell biology, the nucleus (pl nuclei; from Latin la ''nucleus'' or la ''nuculeus'' "little nut" or kernel is a membrane-enclosed Mold spores can be asexual (the products of mitosis) or sexual (the products of meiosis); many species can produce both types. Mitosis is the process in which a Eukaryotic cell separates the Chromosomes in its Cell nucleus, into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei In Biology or life science meiosis (pronounced my-oh-sis is a process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half Some can remain airbourne indefinitely, and many are able to survive extremes of temperature and pressure.
Although molds grow on dead organic matter everywhere in nature, their presence is only visible to the unaided eye when mold colonies grow. In Biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual Organisms of the same Species living closely together usually A mold colony does not comprise discrete organisms, but an interconnected network of hyphae called a mycelium. Mycelium (plural mycelia) is the vegetative part of a Fungus, consisting of a mass of branching thread-like Hyphae The mass of hyphae is sometimes called Nutrients and in some cases organelles may be transported throughout the mycelium. In artificial environments like buildings, humidity and temperature are often stable enough to foster the growth of mold colonies, commonly seen as a downy or furry coating growing on food or other surfaces.
Some molds can begin growing at temperatures as low as 2°C. When conditions do not enable growth, molds may remain alive in a dormant state, within a large range of temperatures before they die. The many different mold species vary enormously in their tolerance to temperature and humidity extremes. Certain molds can survive harsh conditions such as the snow-covered soils of Antarctica, refrigeration, highly acidic solvents, and even petroleum products such as jet fuel.
Xerophilic molds use the humidity in the air as their only water source; other molds need more moisture. Xerophiles are extremophilic Organisms that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water also known as Water activity
Cultured molds are used in the production of foods, including:
The koji molds are a group of Aspergillus species, notably Aspergillus oryzae, that have been cultured in eastern Asia for many centuries. Tempeh, or tempe in Javanese, is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds Soybeans into a cake form Rhizopus oligosporus is a fungus of the family Mucoraceae that is a widely used Starter culture for the home production of Tempeh. Quorn is the leading brand of Mycoprotein food product in the UK and a leading brand elsewhere Fusarium venenatum is a Fungus, more precisely a Mould, from which a Mycoprotein can be derived Pu-erh, Pu'er tea, Puer tea or Bolay tea is a type of Tea made from a " large leaf " variety of the tea plant Camellia A sausage is a prepared Food, usually made from Ground meat, animal fat salt and Spices (sometimes with other ingredients such as herbs typically packed Soy sauce ( US) soya sauce ( Commonwealth) shoyu ( Japan) or sillao ( Peru) is a fermented Sauce Aspergillus is a Genus of around 200 Molds found throughout much of nature worldwide Aspergillus oryzae ( Chinese: 麴菌 麴霉菌 曲霉菌 Pinyin: qū meí jùn Japanese: 麹 麹菌 or kōji-kin, Korean They are used to ferment a soybean and wheat mixture to make soybean paste and soy sauce. is a traditional Japanese food produced by fermenting Rice, Barley and/or Soybeans, with salt and the fungus (the most typical miso is made Soy sauce ( US) soya sauce ( Commonwealth) shoyu ( Japan) or sillao ( Peru) is a fermented Sauce They are also used to break down the starch in rice (saccharification) in the production of sake and other distilled spirits. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide
Alexander Fleming's famous discovery of the antibiotic penicillin involved the mold Penicillium chrysogenum. Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 &ndash 11 March 1955 was a Scottish Biologist and Pharmacologist. Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of Bacterial Infections Penicillium chrysogenum is a mold that is widely distributed in nature and is often found living on foods and in indoor environments
Several cholesterol-lowering drugs (such as Lovastatin, from Aspergillus terreus) are derived from molds. Lovastatin is a member of the drug class of Statins used for lowering Cholesterol ( Hypolipidemic agent) in those with Hypercholesterolemia and
The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine, used to suppress the rejection of transplanted organs, is derived from the mold Tolypocladium inflatum. Ciclosporin (ˌsaɪkləˈspɔrən cyclosporine ( USAN) or cyclosporin (former BAN) is an Immunosuppressant drug widely Tolypocladium inflatum is a Fungus isolated from Norwegian Soil that in certain conditions produces Ciclosporin (Cyclosporine
Other molds are cultivated for their ability to produce useful substances. Aspergillus niger is used in the production of citric acid, gluconic acid and many other compounds and enzymes. Aspergillus niger is a Fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus. Citric acid is a weak organic Acid. It is a natural Preservative and is also used to add an acidic or sour taste to foods and Soft drinks Gluconic acid is an Organic compound with Molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH4COOH
The mold Aspergillus nidulans is an important model organism. Aspergillus nidulans (also called Emericella nidulans) is one of many species of filamentous Fungi in the phylum Ascomycota. A model organism is a Species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological Phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made
Exposure to bacteria and fungus in indoor air has emerged as a significant health problem in residential environments as well as in occupational settings. Molds are ubiquitous in nature and mold Spores are a common component of household and workplace dust
Mold spores can be allergenic, causing irritations of eye, nose, throat, and lungs. In Biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions An allergen is a nonparasitic Antigen capable of stimulating a Type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals In response to this, environmental health research has yielded tests such as the MELISA test, which can determine whether or not a person is allergic to a specific mold. Melisa is a genus of moth in the family Arctiidae.
Molds may excrete liquids or gases; not all can be detected by smell. Some molds generate toxic liquid or gaseous compounds, called mycotoxins. Mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης (mykes mukos "fungus" is a Toxin produced by an organism of the Fungus kingdom which includes Mushrooms Molds that produce mycotoxins are sometimes referred to as toxic molds. Molds are ubiquitous in nature and mold Spores are a common component of household and workplace dust Of these molds, some only produce mycotoxins under specific growing conditions. Mycotoxins are harmful or lethal to humans and animals when exposure is high enough.
Dermatophytes are the parasitic fungi that cause skin infections such as Athlete's foot and Jock Itch. A dermatophyte is a parasitic fungus ( Mycosis) that infects the skin Athlete's foot, also called Tinea Pedis, is a Parasitic fungal infection of the epidermis of the human foot Tinea cruris, also known as jock itch (American English Dhobi itch or scrot rot (British English is a fungal infection of the Most dermataphyte fungi take the form of a mold, as opposed to a yeast, with appearance (when cultured) that is similar to other molds.
Opportunistic infection by molds such as Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus fumigatus is a common cause of illness and death among immunocompromised people, including people with AIDS. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by Pathogens that usually do not cause disease in a healthy Immune system. Penicillium species are usually regarded as unimportant in terms of causing human disease Aspergillus fumigatus is a Fungus of the Genus Aspergillus, and is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in
Mold growth in buildings can lead to a variety of health issues. This article is about Mold growth in buildings how to kill mold and the more formal topics of assessment and remediation Indoor Air Quality (IAQ deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants Various practices can be followed to mitigate mold issues in buildings, the most important of which is to reduce moisture levels that can facilitate mold growth. Removal of affected materials after the source of moisture has been reduced and/or eliminated may be necessary for remediation.