Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
|Shah of Iran, King of Kings|
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi and his wife, Empress Farah.
|Reign||September 26, 1941 – February 11, 1979|
|Born||October 26, 1919|
|Birthplace||Tehran, Iran (Persia)|
|Died||July 27, 1980 (aged 60)|
|Place of death||Cairo, Egypt|
|Successor||Monarchy Abolished, Islamic Republic declared|
|Consort||Fawzia bint Fuad (1941–1948)|
Soraya Esfandiary (1951–1958)
Farah Diba (1959–1980)
|Issue||Shahnaz, Reza Cyrus, Farahnaz, Ali Reza, Leila Pahlavi|
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: محمدرضا پهلوی Moḥammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941, until the Iranian Revolution on February 11, 1979. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. Queen Fawzia Bint Fuad of Egypt ( Arabic: فوزية بنت فؤاد الأول Persian: فوزیه فؤاد ( Alexandria, Egypt, November Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary (ثریا اسفندیاری UniPers: Sorayâ Asfandiyâri) (b Princess Leila of Iran ( Leila Pahlavi) (Persian لیلا پهلوی March 27, 1970 – June 10, 2001) Born in Tehran For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. Tadj ol-Molouk ( March 17, 1896 &ndash March 10, 1982) née Nimtaj Khanum was the daughter of General Teymur Tadfel Molouk The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages Aryamehr ( Persian: آریامهر Āryāmehr) was the title used in the Pahlavi dynasty by Shahanshah Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) He was the second monarch of the Pahlavi House and the last Shah of the Iranian monarchy.
The Shah came to power during World War II after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah. The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the invasion of Iran by British and Commonwealth forces and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. Mohammad Reza Shah's rule oversaw the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry under the prime ministership of Mohammad Mossadegh. Mohammad Mosaddeq ( (, pronounced mosæddeq}} also Mosaddegh or Mossadegh) ( May 19 1882 – 5 March 1967) was a major During the Shah's reign, Iran celebrated 2,500 years of continuous monarchy since the founding of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great. The 2500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy ( Persian جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالۀ شاهنشاهی ایران consisted The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia His White Revolution, a series of economic and social reforms intended to transform Iran into a global power, succeeded in modernizing the nation, nationalizing many natural resources and extending suffrage to women, among other things. The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran However, a partial failure of the land reform, the lack of democratization, a source of criticism from some of his opponents, as well as the decline of the traditional power of the Shi'a clergy due to parts of the reforms, increased opposition to his authority. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime.
While a Muslim himself, the Shah gradually lost support from the great Shi'a clergy of Iran, particularly due to his strong policy of Westernization and recognition of Israel. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Westernization or occidentalization (from occident, see wiktionary) is a process whereby societies come under or adopt the Western For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Clashes with the religious right, increased communist activity, Western interference in the economy, and a 1953 period of political disagreements with Mohammad Mossadegh, eventually leading to Mossadegh's ousting, caused an increasingly autocratic rule. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler In 2000, U. S. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright stated:
"In 1953 the United States played a significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran's popular Prime Minister, Mohammed Massadegh. Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. The Eisenhower Administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons; but the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development. And it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America in their internal affairs. "
Various controversial policies were enacted, including the banning of the Tudeh Party and the oppression of dissent by Iran's intelligence agency, SAVAK; Amnesty International reported that Iran had as many as 2,200 political prisoners in 1978. Formed in 1941 the Tudeh Party of Iran ("Party of the Masses of Iran" حزب توده ایران Hezb-e Tudeh Iran) is an Iranian Communist party An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " SAVAK ( Persian: ساواک short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sazeman-e Ettela'at va Amniyat-e Keshvar, National Intelligence and Security Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to By 1979, the political unrest had transformed into a revolution which, on January 16, forced the Shah to leave Iran after 37 years of rule. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Soon thereafter, the revolutionary forces transformed the government into an Islamic republic. Islamic Republic is the name given to several states in the Muslim world including the Islamic Republics of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Mauritania
Born in Tehran to Reza Pahlavi and his second wife, Tadj ol-Molouk, Mohammad Reza was the eldest son of the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, and the third of his eleven children. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. Tadj ol-Molouk ( March 17, 1896 &ndash March 10, 1982) née Nimtaj Khanum was the daughter of General Teymur Tadfel Molouk He was born with a twin sister, Ashraf Pahlavi. Princess (Shahdokht Ashraf ul-Mulk ( Persian: اشرف پهلوی Ashraf Pahlavī) (born October 26, 1919) is the twin sister of Mohammad However, Mohammad Reza, Ashraf, Ali Reza, and their older half-sister, Fatemeh, were born as non-royals, as their father did not become Shah until 1925. Ali Reza Pahlavi (1 March 1922 - 17 October 1954 was Reza Shah Pahlavi's second son and the brother of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
On February 21, 1921, Reza Khan together with Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee staged a successful coup d'état against the reigning Qajar dynasty of Persia. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Seyyed Zia'eddin Tabatabaee ( 1888 – August 29, 1969)( Persian: سید The Qajar dynasty (also known as Ghajar or Kadjar ( ( - or دودمان قاجار) is a common term to describe Iran (then known as Persia) under The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Years later, on December 12, 1925, Reza Khan was declared Shah by the country's National Assembly, the Majlis of Iran. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Assembly is either a Legislature, or the Lower house of a Bicameral legislature in some countries The Majlis of Iran ( Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی lit He was crowned in a ceremony on April 25, 1926; at the same time, his son Mohammad Reza was proclaimed Crown Prince of Iran. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship.
As a child, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi attended Institut Le Rosey, a Swiss boarding school, completing his studies there in 1935. Institut Le Rosey, established in 1880 is the oldest private Boarding school in Switzerland and one of the most exclusive educational institutions in the world Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A boarding school is a School where some or all pupils not only study but also live during term time with their fellow students and possibly teachers Around the same time, his father officially asked the international community to refer to Persia by its internal name, "Iran". Iran has been the subject of a naming dispute in common Western usage Upon Mohammad Reza's return to the country, he enrolled in the local military academy in Tehran; he remained in the academy until 1938. A military academy or service academy (American English is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the Army the Navy Air Force
In the midst of World War II in 1941, Nazi Germany began Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union, breaking the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the invasion of Iran by British and Commonwealth forces and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The act had a huge impact on Iran , as the country had declared neutrality in the conflict. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties 
During the subsequent military invasion and occupation, the joint Allied and Soviet command forced Reza Shah to abdicate in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran was the invasion of Iran by British and Commonwealth forces and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning renouncing from ab, away from and dicare, to declare to proclaim as not belonging to one He replaced his father on the throne on September 16, 1941. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It was hoped that the younger prince would be more open to influence from the pro-Allied West, which later proved to be the case. Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a
Subsequent to his succession as Shah, Iran became a major conduit for British and, later, American aid to the USSR during the war. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 This massive supply effort became known as the Persian Corridor and marked the first large-scale American and Western involvement in Iran, an involvement that would continue to grow until the successful revolution against the Iranian monarchy in 1979. The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or
In the early 1950s, there was a political crisis centered in Iran that commanded the focused attention of British and American intelligence agencies. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all In 1951 Dr. Mossadegh came to office, committed to re-establish democracy and constitutional monarchy, and to nationalize the Iranian petroleum industry, which was controlled by the British. From the start he erroneously believed that the Americans, who had no interest in the Anglo-Iranian Oil company, would support his nationalization plan. He was buoyed by the American Ambassador, Henry Grady. However, during these events, the Americans supported the British, and, fearing that the Communists with the help of the Soviets were poised to overthrow the government, they decided to remove Mossadegh. Shortly before the 1952 presidential election in the US, the British government invited Kermit Roosevelt of the CIA to London and proposed they cooperate under the code name “Operation Ajax” to bring down Mossadegh from office. .
In 1951, under the leadership of the nationalist movement of Dr. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Mohammed Mossadegh, the Iranian parliament unanimously voted to nationalize the oil industry. Mohammad Mosaddeq ( (, pronounced mosæddeq}} also Mosaddegh or Mossadegh) ( May 19 1882 – 5 March 1967) was a major This shut out the immensely profitable Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), which was a pillar of Britain's economy and political clout in the region. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company ( APOC) was founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. A month after that vote, Mossadegh was named Prime Minister of Iran. Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known
Under the direction of Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., a senior CIA officer and grandson of former U. For other persons with the same name see Kermit Roosevelt (disambiguation. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, the CIA and British intelligence funded and led a covert operation to depose Mossadegh with the help of military forces loyal to the Shah. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all A covert operation is a Military or political activity carried out in such a way that the parties responsible for the action can be an Open secret, but This plan was known as Operation Ajax. The 1953 Iranian Coup d'état deposed the government of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet, it was effected by Gen  The plot hinged on orders signed by the Shah to dismiss Mossadegh as prime minister and replace him with General Fazlollah Zahedi, a choice agreed on by the British and Americans. Mohammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963 was an Iranian General, Prime Minister, and Politician.
Despite the high-level coordination and planning, the coup initially failed, causing the Shah to flee to Baghdad, then Rome. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 After a brief exile in Italy, the Shah returned to Iran, this time through a successful second attempt at the coup. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The deposed Mossadegh was arrested, given a show trial, and condemned to death. The Shah commuted this sentence to solitary confinement for three years in a military prison, followed by house arrest for life. Zahedi was installed to succeed Prime Minister Mossadegh.
The American Embassy in Tehran reported that Mossadegh had near total support from the nation and was unlikely to fall. The Prime Minister asked the Majles to give him direct control of the army. Given the situation, alongside the strong personal support of Eden and Churchill for covert action, the American government gave the go ahead to a committee, attended by the Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles, Kermit Roosevelt, Ambassador Henderson, and Secretary of Defense Charles Erwin Wilson. John Foster Dulles ( February 25, 1888 &ndash May 24, 1959) served as U The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7 1893 &ndash January 29 1969 was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961 Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U Charles Erwin Wilson ( July 18, 1890 — September 26, 1961) American businessman and politician was United States Secretary Kermit Roosevelt returned to Iran on July 13 and on August 1 in his first meeting with the Shah. A car picked him up at midnight and drove him to the palace. He lay down on the seat and covered himself with a blanket as guards waved his driver through the gates. The Shah got into the car and Roosevelt explained the mission. The CIA provided $1 million in Iranian currency, which Roosevelt had stored in a large safe, a bulky cache given the exchange rate of 1000 rial = 15 dollars at the time. .
The Communists staged massive demonstrations to hijack the Prime Minister’s initiatives. The United States had announced its total lack of confidence in him; and his followers were drifting into indifference. On August 16, 1953, the right wing of the Army reacted. Armed with an order by the Shah, it appointed General Fazlollah Zahedi as prime minister. Mohammad Fazlollah Zahedi (1897-1963 was an Iranian General, Prime Minister, and Politician. A coalition of mobs and retired officers close to the Palace, attempted what could be described as a coup d’etat. They failed dismally. The Shah fled the country in humiliating haste. Even Ettelaat, the nation’s largest daily newspaper, and its pro-Shah publisher, Abbas Masudi, published negative commentaries on him. Ettela'at is an Iranian Newspaper. Incidents On January 6 1978 a slanderous article appeared in Ettela'at suggesting Ayatollah Ruhollah 
During the following two days, the Communists turned against Mossadegh. They roamed Tehran raising red flags and pulling down statues of Reza Shah. This frightened the conservative clergies like Kashani and National Front leaders like Makki, who sided with the Shah. On August 18, Mossadegh hit back. Tudeh Partisans were clubbed and dispersed. 
Tudeh had no choice but to accept defeat. In the meantime, according to the CIA plot, Zahedi appealed to the military, and claimed to be the legitimate prime minister and charged Mossadegh with staging a coup by ignoring the Shah’s decree. Zahedi’s son Ardeshir acted as the contact between the CIA and his father. On August 19th, pro-Shah partisans, organized with $100,000 in CIA funds, finally appeared, marched out of south Tehran into the city center, where others joined in. Gangs with clubs, knives, and rocks controlled the streets, overturning Tudeh trucks and beating up anti-Shah activists. As Roosevelt was congratulating Zahedi in the basement of his hiding place, the new Prime Minister’s mobs burst in and carried him upstairs on their shoulders. That evening, Ambassador Henderson suggested to Ardashir that Mossadegh not be harmed. Roosevelt gave Zahedi $900,000 left from Operation Ajax funds.
The Shah returned to power, but never extended the elite status of the court to the technocrats and intellectuals who emerged from Iranian and Western universities. Indeed, his system irritated the new classes, for they were barred from partaking in real power. 
The Shah was the target of two unsuccessful assassination attempts. On February 4, 1949, the Shah attended an annual ceremony to commemorate the founding of Tehran University.  At the ceremony, Fakhr-Arai fired five shots at the Shah from a ten foot range. Only one of the shots hit the Shah and his cheek was grazed. Fakhr-Arai was instantly shot by nearby officers. After an investigation, it was determined that Fakhr-Arai was a member of the Tudeh Party, which was subsequently banned.  However, there is evidence that the would-be assassin was not a Tudeh member but a religious fundamentalist.  The Tudeh was nonetheless blamed and persecuted.
The second attempt on the Shah's life occurred on April 10, 1965.  A soldier shot his way through the Marble Palace. The assailant was killed before he reached the Shah's quarters. Two civilian guards died protecting the Shah.
According to Vladimir Kuzichkin, a former KGB officer who defected to the SIS, the Shah was also allegedly targeted by Soviet Union, who tried to use a TV remote control to detonate a Volkswagen which was turned into an IED. Vladimir Andreyevich Kuzichkin Владимир Андреевич Кузичкин (born 1947 was a Soviet KGB officer who defected to the Tehran Station KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. A remote control is an electronic device used for the remote operation of a Machine. The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen An improvised explosive device ( IED) is a Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional Military action The TV remote failed to function. 
The Shah supported the Yemeni royalists against republican forces in the Yemen Civil War (1962-70) and assisted the sultan of Oman in putting down a rebellion in Dhofar (1971). Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya The North Yemen Civil War was fought in North Yemen between royalists of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen and factions of the Yemen Arab Republic from Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast The Dhofar ( Arabic ظفار Ẓufār) region lies in Southern Oman, on the eastern border of Yemen. Concerning the fate of Bahrain (which Britain had controlled since the 19th century, but which Iran claimed as its own territory) and three small Persian Gulf islands, the Shah negotiated an agreement with the British, which, by means of a public consensus, ultimately led to the independence of Bahrain (against the wishes of Iranian nationalists). The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the In return, Iran took full control of Greater and Lesser Tunbs and Abu Musa, three strategically sensitive islands in the Strait of Hormuz which were claimed by the United Arab Emirates. Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb ( Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak; Arabic: ar طنب الكبرى وطنب الصغرى, Tunb This is a geographical article For the Palestinian leader see Said al-Muragha, for the Sahaba, see Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari. Navigation Ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS which separates inbound from outbound traffic to reduce the risk of collision
During this period, the Shah maintained cordial relations with the Persian Gulf states and established close diplomatic ties with Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Relations with Iraq, however, were often difficult. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Then in 1975, the countries signed the Algiers Accord, which granted Iraq equal navigation rights in the Shatt al-Arab river, while the Shah agreed to end his support for Iraqi Kurdish rebels. The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Accord) was a Treaty that was meant to settle disputes over the lands between Iraq and Iran 
The Shah also maintained close relations with King Hussein of Jordan, Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and King Hassan II of Morocco. Hussein bin Talal King of Jordan (حسين بن طلال Ḥusayn bin Ṭalāl) ( November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. King Hassan II (صاحب الجلالة الملك الحسن الثاني class Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa 
In July 1964, Shah Pahlavi, Turkish President Cemal Gürsel and Pakistani President Ayub Khan announced in Istanbul the establishment of the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) organization to promote joint transportation and economic projects. Cemal Gürsel ( October 13, 1895 — September 14, 1966) was a Turkish Army officer, and the 4th President Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan ( Urdu / Pashto: محمد ايوب خان GCMG, MBE, HJ, NPk, ( May 14 Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established in 1962 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey It also envisioned Afghanistan joining some time in the future. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت,
The Shah also maintained close relations with Pakistan. During the 1965 war between Pakistan and India, the Shah provided free fuel to the Pakistani planes, which landed on Iranian soil, refueled and then took flight.
The Shah of Iran was the first Muslim leader to recognize the State of Israel, although when interviewed on CBS 60 Minutes by reporter, Mike Wallace, he criticized US Jews for their control over US media and finance. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
During his reign however, it was reported in the New York Times (1982), that half of the arms to Iran were "being supplied or arranged by Israel".
With Iran's great oil wealth, Mohammad Reza Shah became the pre-eminent leader of the Middle East, and self-styled "Guardian" of the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the He became increasingly despotic during the last years of his regime. In the words a US Embassy dispatch, “The Shah’s picture is everywhere. The beginning of all film showings in public theaters presents the Shah in various regal poses accompanied by the strains of the National anthem… The monarch also actively extends his influence to all phases of social affairs…there is hardly any activity or vocation which the Shah or members of his family or his closest friends do not have a direct or at least a symbolic involvement. In the past, he had claimed to take a two party-system seriously and declared “If I were a dictator rather than a constitutional monarch, then I might be tempted to sponsor a single dominant party such as Hitler organized”. 
However, by 1975, he abolished the multi-party system of government so that he could rule through a one-party state under the Rastakhiz (Resurrection) Party in autocratic fashion. Rastakhiz ( Resurrection) party (also Hizb-i Rastakhiz) was founded on March 2, 1975 by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler All Iranians were pressured to join in. The Shah’s own words on its justification was; “We must straighten out Iranians’ ranks. To do so, we divide them into two categories: those who believe in Monarchy, the constitution and the Six Bahman Revolution and those who don’t… A person who does not enter the new political party and does not believe in the three cardinal principles will have only two choices. He is either an individual who belongs to an illegal organization, or is related to the outlawed Tudeh Party, or in other words a traitor. Such an individual belongs to an Iranian prison, or if he desires he can leave the country tomorrow, without even paying exit fees; he can go anywhere he likes, because he is not Iranian, he has no nation, and his activities are illegal and punishable according to the law”.  In addition, the Shah had decreed that all Iranian citizens and the few remaining political parties must become part of Rastakhiz. 
The Shah made major changes to curb the power of certain ancient elite factions by expropriating large and medium-sized estates for the benefit of more than four million small farmers. In the White Revolution, he took a number of major modernization measures, including extending suffrage to women, much to the discontent and opposition of the Islamic clergy. The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran Mullah ( ملا) is a Muslim learned in Islamic theology and sacred law He instituted exams for Islamic theologians to become established clerics, which were widely unpopular and broke centuries-old religious traditions. The mullahs were accustomed to having total control over admission to their ranks.
The Shah used secret imprisonment and extensive torture to maintain power. Amnesty International estimated the Shah's political prisoners at 60,000 to 100,000 in number. 
In October 1971, the Shah celebrated the twenty-five-hundredth anniversary of the Iranian monarchy. October events and holidays Children's Book Week ( England) - First Week of October National Day ( China People's Republic Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The 2500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy ( Persian جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالۀ شاهنشاهی ایران consisted The New York Times reported that $100 million was spent.  Next to the ruins of Persepolis, the Shah gave orders to build a tent city covering 160 acres, studded with three huge royal tents and fifty-nine lesser ones arranged in a star-shaped design. Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial The term tent city is used to describe a variety of temporary housing facilities made using Tents. French chefs from Maxim’s of Paris prepared breast of peacock for royalty and dignitaries around the world, the buildings were decorated by Maison Jansen (the same firm that helped Jacqueline Kennedy redecorate the White House), the guests ate off Ceraline Limoges china and drank from Baccarat crystal glasses. Maxim's is the name of a Restaurant in Paris, France, located on the Rue Royale. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Maison Jansen (House of Jansen was a Paris -based Interior decoration office founded in 1880 by Dutch -born Jean-Henri Jansen and continuing in See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Limoges ( Lemòtges / Limòtges in the Limousin dialect of Occitan language) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture Baccarat Crystal is a manufacturer of fine crystal Glassware located in Baccarat, France. This became a major scandal for the contrast between the dazzling elegance of celebration and the misery of the nearby villages was so dramatic that no one could ignore it. Months before the festivities, university students struck in protest. Indeed, the cost was sufficiently impressive that the Shah forbade his associates to discuss the actual figures. 
Cottam has argued that the longevity of the Shah’s rule was due largely to his success in balancing his security chiefs against each other. Although the Shah was clearly willing to utilize instruments of terror to remain in power, he nevertheless was likely sincere about wishing to bring economic, social, and political reform to his country.
On January 16, 1979, he and his wife left Iran at the behest of Prime Minister Shapour Bakhtiar (a long time opposition leader himself), who sought to calm the situation. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Shapour Bakhtiar ( (also Shapur Bakhtiar) ( Persian: شاپور بختیار Shāpūr Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August  Bakhtiar dissolved SAVAK, freed all political prisoners, and allowed the Ayatollah Khomeini to return to Iran after years in exile. SAVAK ( Persian: ساواک short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sazeman-e Ettela'at va Amniyat-e Keshvar, National Intelligence and Security Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( Persian:, pronounced muːsæviː-je xomejniː}}( September 24, 1902 – June 3 1989 He asked Khomeini to create a Vatican-like state in Qom, promised free elections and called upon the opposition to help preserve the constitution, proposing a 'national unity' government including Khomeini's followers. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Khomeini fiercely rejected Dr. Bakhtiar's demands and appointed his own interim government, with Mehdi Bazargan as prime minister, demanding "since I have appointed him he must be obeyed. " In February, pro-Khomeini Revolutionary guerrilla and rebel soldiers gained the upper hand in street fighting and the military announced their neutrality. On the evening of February 11 the dissolution of the monarchy was complete.
The exiled monarch had become unpopular in much of the world, especially in the liberal West. Ironically, these included his original backers who had the most to lose from his downfall. U. S. President Jimmy Carter had supported the Shah, and visited Iran in 1977. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Carter overlooked the fact that Iran had significant oil reserves. According to the Shah in his memoir, General Robert Huyser, a top NATO official, came to Iran unannounced with the primary mission of paralyzing the army. Robert Ernest Huyser ( 14 june, 1924 - 22 September, 1997) was a four star general in the United States Air Force who served The North Atlantic Treaty  Huyser's role was also confirmed by the Shah's top military officials and his last prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar who was assassinated in France immediately after the revolution. Shapour Bakhtiar ( (also Shapur Bakhtiar) ( Persian: شاپور بختیار Shāpūr Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August Huyser later received a medal from President Carter. Huyser later wrote a book, Mission to Tehran, denying the events and claiming that his mission was intended to protect the Shah and stabilize Iran. This was consistent with the official policy of US and UK that the western alliance with the Shah was genuine. This provided the basis for the Islamic Republic of Iran's accusation that the West backed the Shah. Still, according to some supporters of the Shah, the leaders of US, UK, France, and Germany in the summit held in Guadeloupe came to an agreement with the US proposal to remove the Shah. Guadeloupe is an island group or Archipelago located in the eastern Caribbean Sea at, with a land area of 1628 square kilometres (629  sq
The Shah traveled from country to country in his second exile, seeking what he hoped would be a temporary residence. First he went to Egypt, and got an invitation and warm welcome from president Anwar el-Sadat. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. He later lived in Morocco, the Bahamas, and Mexico. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The Bahamas, officially the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an independent sovereign English -speaking country consisting of two thousand Cays and The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. But his non-Hodgkin's lymphoma began to grow worse and required immediate and sophisticated treatment. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a diverse group of hematologic cancers which encompass any Lymphoma other than Hodgkin lymphoma.
Reluctantly, on October 22, 1979, President Jimmy Carter allowed the Shah to make a brief stopover in the United States to undergo medical treatment. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The compromise was extremely unpopular with the revolutionary movement, which had been angered by the United States' years of support for the Shah's rule. The Iranian government demanded the return of the Shah to Iran to stand trial.
This resulted in the the storming of the U. S. Embassy in Tehran, and the kidnapping of American diplomats, military personnel and intelligence officers, which soon became known as the Iran hostage crisis. The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 Once the Shah's course of treatment in the U. S. was finished, the U. S. government, eager to avoid further controversy, pressed the former monarch to leave the country.
He left the United States on December 15, 1979, and lived for a short time in the Isla Contadora in Panama. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Isla Contadora (or Contadora Island in English is a Panamanian island on the Pearl Islands Archipielago ( Spanish Archipielago de las Perlas Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Finally he returned to Egypt, where he died on July 27, 1980, at the age of 60. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Egyptian President Sadat gave the Shah a state funeral.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi is buried in the Al Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, a mosque of great symbolic importance. The Al-Rifa'i Mosque ( Arabic: مسجد الرفاعى, transliterated also as Al-Rifai, Al-Refai, Al-Refa'i, and named in The last royal rulers of the two monarchies are buried there, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran and King Farouk of Egypt, his former brother-in-law. Farouk I of Egypt ( Arabic: فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal) (February 11 1920 &ndash March 18 1965 was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad The tombs lie off to the left of the entrance.
In 1969, the Shah sent one of 73 Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages to NASA for the historic first lunar landing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program  The message still rests on the lunar surface today. He stated in part, ". . . we pray the Almighty God to guide mankind towards ever increasing success in the establishment of culture, knowledge and human civilization. " The Apollo 11 crew visited the Shah during a world tour.
Shortly after his overthrow, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi wrote an autobiographical memoir Réponse à l'histoire (Answer to History). Shortly after his overthrow in 1979 by Islamic revolutionaries the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, wrote an autobiographical memoir entitled Answer to History It was translated from the original French into English, Persian (Pasokh be Tarikh), and other languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States However, by the time of its publication, the Shah had already died. The book is his personal account of his reign and accomplishments, as well as his perspective on issues related to the Iranian Revolution and Western foreign policy toward Iran. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed His love for his country vividly come through in his final memoirs, and it is clear that at the end of his life, he realized some of the mistakes he made. The Shah places some of the blame for the wrongdoings of SAVAK and the failures of various democratic and social reforms (particularly through the White Revolution) upon Amir Abbas Hoveyda and his administration. The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran Amir-Abbas Hoveyda (امیرعباس هویدا Amīr `Abbās Hoveyda) February 18, 1920 &ndash April 7, 1979) was an
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was married three times.
His first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt (born November 5, 1921), a daughter of King Fuad I of Egypt and Nazli Sabri; she also was a sister of King Farouk I of Egypt. Queen Fawzia Bint Fuad of Egypt ( Arabic: فوزية بنت فؤاد الأول Persian: فوزیه فؤاد ( Alexandria, Egypt, November Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Fuad I, born Ahmed Fuad, ( Arabic: فؤاد الأول Fu'ād al-Awwal) ( March 26, 1868 - April 28, 1936 Nazli Sabri (نزلي صبري / نازلى صبرى ( June 25, 1894 - May 29, 1978) was the Queen consort of Egypt Farouk I of Egypt ( Arabic: فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal) (February 11 1920 &ndash March 18 1965 was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad They married in 1939 and were divorced in 1945 (Egyptian divorce) and 1948 (Iranian divorce). They had one daughter, Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi (born October 27, 1940). Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
His second wife was Soraya Esfandiary (June 22, 1932-October 26, 2001), the only daughter of Khalil Esfandiary, Iranian Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany, and his wife, the former Eva Karl. Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary (ثریا اسفندیاری UniPers: Sorayâ Asfandiyâri) (b Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. They married in 1951, but divorced in 1958 when it became apparent that she could not bear children. Soraya later told The New York Times that the Shah had no choice but to divorce her, and that he was heavy hearted about the decision. 
After his second divorce, the Shah told a reporter who asked about his feelings for the former queen that "nobody can carry a torch longer than me. " He subsequently indicated his interest in marrying Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, a daughter of the deposed Italian king, Umberto II. Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy ( Maria Gabriella Giuseppa Aldegonda Adelaide Daisy Ludovica Felicita Gennara di Savoia (born 24 February 1940 in Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15 1904 - March 18 1983 the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May ( Re Pope John XXIII reportedly vetoed the suggestion. Pope John (numberingBlessed In an editorial about the rumors surrounding the marriage of "a Muslim sovereign and a Catholic princess", the Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, considered the match "a grave danger," especially considering that under the 1917 Code of Canon Law a Roman Catholic who married a divorced person could be excommunicated. L'Osservatore Romano ( English: The Roman Observer) is the "semi-official" Newspaper of the Holy See. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi married to his third and final wife, Farah Diba (born October 14, 1938), the only child of Sohrab Diba, Captain in the Imperial Iranian Army, and his wife, the former Farideh Ghotbi. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They were married in 1959, and Queen Farah was crowned Shahbanu, or Empress, a title created especially for her in 1967. Shahbanu (in - Šāhbānū) means Empress in Persian. It was a title that was only conferred on the third royal consort of Mohammad Reza Shah Previous royal consorts had been known as "Malakeh" (Arabic: Malika), or Queen. Malik (ملك) as an Arabic word meaning " king " It has been adopted in various other mainly Asian languages for their ruling princes and to The couple remained together for twenty years, until the Shah's death. Farah Diba bore him four children:
- When later he was asked in an interview by Barbara Walters if he had said this, he answered "Not with the same words, no. Barbara Jill Walters (born September 25 1929) is an American Journalist, writer and media "
Mohammad Reza PahlaviBorn: 16 October 1919 Died: 27 July 1980
|Shah of Iran|
16 September 1941 – 11 February 1979
as Shah of Iran
|Iranian Head of State|
16 September 1941 – 11 February 1979
as Supreme Leader of Iran
|Titles in pretence|
|New title||— TITULAR —|
Shah of Iran
11 February 1979 – 27 July 1980
Reason for succession failure:
|NAME||Mohammad Reza Pahlavi|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Shahanshah Aryamehr Mohammad Reza Pahlavi|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Second Iranian Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 26, 1919|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Tehran, Iran|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 27, 1980|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Cairo, Egypt|