Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century High modernism is a particular instance of Modernism, coined towards the end of modernism The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century The first modern novel has generally been ascribed to a series of Picaresque Novels, most famously Don Quixote (1605 by Cervantes There is a separate section on modernist poetry. Modernist poetry refers to poetry written between 1890 and 1930 in the tradition of Modernist literature; the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors including the
Modernism as a literary movement reached its height in Europe between 1910 and 1920, and addressed aesthetic problems similar to those found in non-literary forms of contemporaneous Modernist art, such as painting. Gertrude Stein's abstract writings, for example, have often been compared to the fragmentary and multi-perspectival Cubism of her friend Pablo Picasso. Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973
The general thematic concerns of Modernist literature are well-summarized by the sociologist Georg Simmel:
"The deepest problems of modern life derive from the claim of the individual to preserve the autonomy and individuality of his existence in the face of overwhelming social forces, of historical heritage, of external culture, and of the technique of life. "
The Modernist emphasis on a radical individualism can be seen in the many literary manifestos issued by various groups within the movement; the concerns expressed by Simmel above are echoed in Richard Huelsenbeck's "First German Dada Manifesto" of 1918:
"Art in its execution and direction is dependent on the time in which it lives, and artists are creatures of their epoch. The Art manifesto has been a recurrent feature associated with the avant-garde in Modernism. The highest art will be that which in its conscious content presents the thousandfold problems of the day, the art which has been visibly shattered by the explosions of last week . . . The best and most extraordinary artists will be those who every hour snatch the tatters of their bodies out of the frenzied cataract of life, who, with bleeding hands and hearts, hold fast to the intelligence of their time. "
The Modernist re-contextualization of the individual within the fabric of a received social heritage can be seen in the "mythic method" which T. S. Eliot expounded in his discussion of James Joyce's Ulysses:
"In using the myth, in manipulating a continuous parallel between contemporaneity and antiquity, Mr. Joyce is pursuing a method which others must pursue after him . . . It is simply a way of controlling, of ordering, of giving a shape and a significance to the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history. "
Through an aesthetic examination of these and related concerns, Modernist literature developed a style that can be characterized by a preoccupation with stylistic novelty, formal fragmentation, multiple perspectives, and alternatives to traditional narrative forms.
Modernist literature involved such authors as Virginia Woolf, T. S. Eliot, Gertrude Stein, H.D., Ezra Pound, Mina Loy, James Joyce, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, Franz Kafka, Robert Musil, Joseph Conrad, Andrei Bely, W. B. Yeats, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Luigi Pirandello, D. H. Lawrence, Katherine Mansfield, Jaroslav Hašek, Samuel Beckett, Menno ter Braak, Marcel Proust, Mikhail Bulgakov, Robert Frost and Boris Pasternak. (Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941 was an English Novelist and Essayist, regarded as one of the foremost Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Gertrude Stein ( February 3, 1874 &ndash July 27, 1946) was an American Writer who spent most of her life in France HD (September 10 1886 – September 27 1961 born Hilda Doolittle, was an American poet, Novelist and Memoirist She is best known Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Mina Loy ( December 27, 1882 - September 25, 1966) was an Artist, Poet, Playwright, Novelist, James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. Robert Musil born Robert Edler von Musil ( November 6, 1880, Klagenfurt, Austria &ndash Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924 was a Polish-born English novelist Andrei Bely (Андрей Белый was the pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev ( &ndash January 8, 1934) a Russian novelist poet Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24 1896 – December 21 1940 was an American writer of Novels and Short stories, whose works are evocative of the Luigi Pirandello ( June 28, 1867 — December 10, 1936) was an Italian Dramatist Novelist, and short David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930 was an English writer of the 20th century whose prolific and diverse output included Novels short Kathleen Mansfield Murry ( 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist writer of short fiction who wrote under the Jaroslav Hašek (ˈjaroslaf ˈɦaʃɛk ( April 30, 1883 – January 3, 1923) was a Czech humorist and satirist best known for his Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Menno ter Braak ( January 26, 1902 &ndash May 14, 1940) was a Dutch Modernist author Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (maʁsɛl pʁust (10 July 1871 &ndash 18 November 1922 was a French Novelist Essayist and Critic Mikhail Afanasievich Bulgakov (Михаил Афанасьевич Булгаков, Kiev &ndash March 10, 1940, Moscow) was a Russian Robert Lee Frost (March 26 1874 &ndash January 29 1963 was an American Poet. Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Бори́с Леони́дович Пастерна́к ( — May 30, 1960) was a Nobel Prize -winning Soviet
Modernist literature attempted to move from the bonds of Realist literature and introduce concepts such as disjointed timelines. Realism in the Visual arts and Literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in Everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation Modernism was distinguished by emancipatory metanarrative. In Critical theory, and particularly Postmodernism, a metanarrative (from Meta - Narrative, sometimes also known as a master- or In the wake of Modernism, and post-enlightenment, metanarratives tended to be emancipatory, whereas beforehand this was not a consistent characteristic. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Contemporary metanarratives were becoming less relevant in light of the implications of World War I, the rise of trade unionism, a general social discontent, and the emergence of psychoanalysis. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior The consequent need for a unifying function brought about a growth in the political importance of culture.
Modernist literature can be viewed largely in terms of its formal, stylistic and semantic movement away from Romanticism, examining subject matter that is traditionally mundane--a prime example being The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the This page is about science fiction insider terminology See Journal of Mundane Behavior for the scholarly journal The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock is the 1915 poem that marked the start of T S. Eliot. Modernist literature often features a marked pessimism, a clear rejection of the optimism apparent in Victorian literature. Pessimism, from the Latin pessimus (worst is the decision to evaluate perceive and view life in a generally negative light Victorian literature is the literature produced during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901 and corresponds to the Victorian era. In fact, "a common motif in Modernist fiction is that of an alienated individual--a dysfunctional individual trying in vain to make sense of a predominantly urban and fragmented society".
However, many Modernist works like T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land are marked by the absence of a central, heroic figure; in rejecting the solipsism of Romantics like Shelley and Byron, these works reject the notion of subject associated with Cartesian dualism, and collapse narrative and narrator into a collection of disjointed fragments and overlapping voices. The Waste Land ( 1922) is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T Solipsism ( Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self is the philosophical idea that "My mind is the only thing that I know exists Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4 1792 – July 8 1822 ˈpɝːsɪ ˈbɪʃ ˈʃɛlɪ was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some
Modernist literature often moves beyond the limitations of the Realist novel with a concern for larger factors such as social or historical change; this is prominent in "stream of consciousness" writing. Examples can be seen in Virginia Woolf's Kew Gardens and Mrs Dalloway, James Joyce's Dubliners and Ulysses, Katherine Porter's Flowering Judas, Jean Toomer's Cane, William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, and others. The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, usually referred to simply as Kew Gardens, are extensive Gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond and Mrs Dalloway (published on 14 May, 1925) is a Novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway in Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Katherine Anne Porter ( 15 May 1890 – 18 September 1980) was a Pulitzer Prize -winning American Journalist, Jean Toomer ( December 26, 1894 &ndash March 30, 1967) was an American poet and novelist and an important figure of the Harlem Renaissance William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author The Sound and the Fury is one of the most celebrated novels of the Twentieth century, written by American author William Faulkner, which makes use
Modernism as a literary movement is seen, in large part, as a reaction to the emergence of city life as a central force in society. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Furthermore, an early attention to the object as freestanding became in later Modernism a preoccupation with form. The dyadic collapse of the distance between subject and object represented a movement from means to is. Where Romanticism stressed the subjectivity of experience, Modernist writers were more acutely conscious of the objectivity of their surroundings. In Modernism the object is; the language doesn't mean it is. This is a shift from an epistemological aesthetic to an ontological aesthetic or, in simpler terms, a shift from a knowledge-based aesthetic to a being-based aesthetic. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part This shift is central to Modernism. Archibald MacLeish, for instance, said, "A poem should not mean / But be. Archibald MacLeish ( May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American Poet, Writer and the Librarian "
Many Modernist works are studied in schools today, from Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, to T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, to James Joyce's Ulysses and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. The Old Man and the Sea is a Novella (just over 100 pages in length by Ernest Hemingway, written in Cuba in 1951 and published in Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. The Waste Land ( 1922) is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist