The mobile phone (also called a mobile, wireless, cellular phone, cell phone, or hand phone(hp)) is a short-range, portable electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or " Wires quot Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical A cell site is a term used primarily in North America for a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to create a cell in a Mobile phone network In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to Mobile phone subscribers all over the world The typical cell phone has become somewhat obsolete current cell phones offer embedded features such as memory databases for storing frequently called numbers locking features for theft deterrence Short Message Service ( SMS) is a Communications protocol allowing the interchange of short text messages between mobile telephone devices. Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of "short" (160 characters or fewer including spaces text messages from Mobile phones Electronic mail, often abbreviated to e-mail, email, or originally eMail, is a Store-and-forward method of writing sending receiving Packet switching is a network communications method that splits data traffic (digital representations of text sound or video data into chunks called packets, that are then The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Multimedia Messaging Service, MMS for short is a Cellular telephone standard for sending messages that include multimedia objects (images audio video rich A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic Video is the technology of electronically capturing, Recording, processing storing transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of Still images Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones). A cellular network is a Radio network made up of a number of radio cells (or just cells) each served by a fixed transmitter known as a Cell The term base station can be used in the context of Land surveying, Wireless computer networking, and Wireless communications. A cell site is a term used primarily in North America for a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to create a cell in a Mobile phone network The public switched telephone network ( PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched Telephone networks in much the same way that the The public switched telephone network ( PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched Telephone networks in much the same way that the A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of Mobile phone that connects to orbiting Satellites instead of terrestrial
According to internal memos, American Telephone & Telegraph discussed developing a wireless phone in 1915, but were afraid deployment of the technology could undermine its monopoly on wired service in the U. Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year S. 
The first commercial mobile phone service was launched in Japan by NTT in 1978. By November 2007, the total number of mobile phone subscriptions in the world had reached 3. 3 billion, or half of the human population (although some users have multiple subscriptions, or inactive subscriptions), which also makes the mobile phone the most widely spread technology and the most common gadget in the world. 
The first mobile phone to enable internet connectivity and wireless email use, was the Nokia Communicator released in 1996 and created a new category of expensive phones called smartphones. In 1999 the first mobile internet service was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan under the i-Mode service. By 2007 over 798 million people around the world accessed the internet or equivalent mobile internet services such as WAP and i-Mode at least occasionally using a mobile phone rather than a personal computer.
Mobile phones send and receive radio signals with any number of cell site base stations fitted with microwave antennas. All cellular phone networks worldwide utilize a portion of the radio frequency spectrum designated as Ultra High Frequency, or "UHF" for the transmission Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. A cell site is a term used primarily in North America for a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to create a cell in a Mobile phone network Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with Wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 1 m or frequencies between 0 Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. These sites are usually mounted on a tower, pole or building, located throughout populated areas, then connected to a cabled communication network and switching system. The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, normally not more than 8 to 13 km (approximately 5 to 8 miles) away. A transceiver is a device that has both a Transmitter and a receiver which are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing
When the mobile phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. Network Switching Subsystem, or NSS, is the component of a GSM system that carries out switching functions and manages the communications between Mobile phones The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations. As the user moves around the network, the mobile device will "handoff" to various cell sites during calls, or while waiting (idle) between calls it will reselect cell sites. In cellular Telecommunications, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the Mobility Management is one of the major functions of a GSM ora UMTS network that allows Mobile phones to work
Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts) radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. A cell site is a term used primarily in North America for a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed to create a cell in a Mobile phone network The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers. A mobile network operator ( MNO) also known as carriage service provider ( CSP) wireless service provider, wireless carrier, The public switched telephone network ( PSTN) is the network of the world's public circuit-switched Telephone networks in much the same way that the Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend with existing environments, particularly in scenic areas.
The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. A mobile network operator ( MNO) also known as carriage service provider ( CSP) wireless service provider, wireless carrier, The technologies are grouped by generation. The first-generation systems started in 1979 with Japan, are all analog and include AMPS and NMT. Second-generation systems, started in 1991 in Finland, are all digital and include GSM, CDMA and TDMA.
The nature of cellular technology renders many phones vulnerable to 'cloning': anytime a cell phone moves out of coverage (for example, in a road tunnel), when the signal is re-established, the phone will send out a 're-connect' signal to the nearest cell-tower, identifying itself and signalling that it is again ready to transmit. In telecommunications the coverage is the geographic area that the station in question covers With the proper equipment, it's possible to intercept the re-connect signal and encode the data it contains into a 'blank' phone -- in all respects, the 'blank' is then an exact duplicate of the real phone and any calls made on the 'clone' will be charged to the original account.
Third-generation (3G) networks, which are still being deployed, began in Japan in 2001. They are all digital, and offer high-speed data access in addition to voice services and include W-CDMA (known also as UMTS), and CDMA2000 EV-DO. W-CDMA ( Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G Cellular network. China will launch a third generation technology on the TD-SCDMA standard. Operators use a mix of predesignated frequency bands determined by the network requirements and local regulations. A frequency range or frequency band is a range of Wave frequencies.
In an effort to limit the potential harm from having a transmitter close to the user's body, the first fixed/mobile cellular phones that had a separate transmitter, vehicle-mounted antenna, and handset (known as car phones and bag phones) were limited to a maximum 3 watts Effective Radiated Power. In radio Telecommunications, effective radiated power or equivalent radiated power (ERP is a standardized theoretical measurement of radio frequency (RF Modern handheld cellphones which must have the transmission antenna held inches from the user's skull are limited to a maximum transmission power of 0. 6 watts ERP. Regardless of the potential biological effects, the reduced transmission range of modern handheld phones limits their usefulness in rural locations as compared to car/bag phones, and handhelds require that cell towers be spaced much closer together to compensate for their lack of transmission power.
Some handhelds include an optional auxiliary antenna port on the back of the phone, which allows it to be connected to a large external antenna and a 3 watt cellular booster. Alternately in fringe-reception areas, a cellular repeater may be used, which uses a long distance high-gain dish antenna or yagi antenna to communicate with a cell tower far outside of normal range, and a repeater to rebroadcast on a small short-range local antenna that allows any cellphone within a few meters to function properly. A cellular repeater, cell phone repeater, or wireless cellular signal booster, a type of bi-directional amplifier (BDA as commonly munications industry The parabolic antenna is a high-gain reflector antenna used for radio television and data communications and also for radiolocation ( RADAR) on the UHF and A Yagi-Uda Antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi, is a Directional antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole
Nokia is currently the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones, with a global device market share of approximately 40% in 2008. Nokia Corporation (pronunciation /'nɔkiɑ/),,) is a Finnish multinational Communications Corporation, headquartered Other major mobile phone manufacturers (in order of market share) include Samsung (14%), Motorola (14%), Sony Ericsson (9%) and LG (7%). The Samsung Group ( Korean:, Samsung Guerup) is South Korea 's largest company or Chaebol and the world's largest conglomerate Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. Sony Ericsson is a Joint venture established in 2001 by the Japanese Consumer electronics Company Sony Corporation and the  These manufacturers account for over 80% of all mobile phones sold and produce phones for sale in most countries.
Other manufacturers include Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UTStarcom), Benefon, BenQ-Siemens, CECT, High Tech Computer Corporation (HTC), Fujitsu, Kyocera, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC, Neonode, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), Pantech Curitel, Philips, Research In Motion, Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, Sonim Technologies, T&A Alcatel, Huawei, Trium and Toshiba. Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Audiovox Corporation ( established in 1965 Audiovox continues to operate and expand under its chairman and founder John J UTStarcom is a Fortune 1000 company that specializes in IP -based networking products for Telecommunications companies and service providers Benefon is a mobile telecommunications company founded in 1988 and headquartered in Salo, Finland. BenQ-Siemens is the mobile communications subsidiary of Taiwanese BenQ Corp. Qiao Xing ( Chinese: 侨兴 Pinyin: Qiáo Xīng is the first Chinese Telephone manufacturer listed on the NASDAQ. High Tech Computer Corporation ( known by its abbreviation HTC, is a Taiwan -based manufacturer of primarily Microsoft Windows Mobile -based is a Japanese company specializing in Semiconductors Computers ( Supercomputers Personal computers, servers, Telecommunications is a Japanese company based in Kyoto, Japan. The company was founded as in 1959 by Kazuo Inamori. ( is a Japanese company based in the Tokyo Building in Tokyo, manufactures electric and architectural equipment as well as a major worldwide producer of is a Japanese multinational IT company headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan. Neonode Inc ( is a Swedish manufacturer of Mobile phones The company was founded in 2001 by Magnus Goertz and Thomas Eriksson Pantech Curitel is a South Korean company specializing in manufacturing Mobile phone terminals Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV ( Royal Philips Electronics Inc. Research In Motion Limited ( RIM) () is a Wireless device company best known as the developer of the BlackBerry handheld Communication SAGEM Communication is a French company headquartered in Paris, involved in communication systems and consumer electronics () is a major Japanese electronics company and member of the Fortune 500 whose headquarters is located in Moriguchi, Osaka prefecture, Japan () is a Japanese Electronics manufacturer founded in 1912 It takes its name from one of its founder's first inventions the Ever-Sharp Mechanical pencil, which Sierra Wireless () is a wireless communications equipment designer and manufacturer founded in 1993 and currently headquartered in Richmond BC, Canada. SK Group ( Hangul: SK그룹 에스케이그룹 is the 3rd largest conglomerate ( Chaebol) in South Korea. The TCL Corporation is a Chinese Electronics Manufacturer headquartered in Huizhou of Guangdong Province southern China Huawei Technologies Co Ltd ( in Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China is the largest networking and telecommunications equipment supplier Trium was a brand of mobile phones made by Mitsubishi. Models included the Trium Mars Trium Eclipse Trium 110 Trium Aria Trium Astral Trium Aura Trium Cosmo ( is a multinational conglomerate manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones.
There are several categories of mobile phones, from basic phones to feature phones such as musicphones and cameraphones, to smartphones. The first smartphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which incorporated PDA functionality to the basic mobile phone at the time. As miniaturization and increased processing power of microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones, the concept of the smartphone has evolved, and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago, is a standard phone today. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment, such as the RIM Blackberry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones; and the Nokia N-Series of multimedia phones. The Apple iPhone is another example of a multimedia smartphone.
Mobile phones often have features beyond sending text messages and making voice calls, including Internet browsing, music (MP3) playback, memo recording, personal organizer functions, e-mail, instant messaging, built-in cameras and camcorders, ringtones, games, radio, Push-to-Talk (PTT), infrared and Bluetooth connectivity, call registers, ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing, video calling and serve as a wireless modem for a PC, and soon will also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games. There are many mobile phone features found in today's Mobile phones that offer users many more capabilities than only voice calls or text messaging MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a Digital audio encoding format using a form of Lossy data compression Electronic mail, often abbreviated to e-mail, email, or originally eMail, is a Store-and-forward method of writing sending receiving A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a Mobile phone to indicate an incoming call or text message Push-to-talk ( PTT) also known as Press-to-Transmit, is a method of conversing on half-duplex communication lines including Two-way radio Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of Bluetooth is a wireless protocol utilizing short-range communications technology facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and/or mobile devices creating wireless Mobile phones can be employed as data modems to form a wireless access point connecting a personal computer to the Internet (or some proprietary network) The total value of mobile data services exceeds the value of paid services on the Internet, and was worth 31 billion dollars in 2006 (source Informa). The largest categories of mobile services are music, picture downloads, videogaming, adult entertainment, gambling, video/TV.
The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging, with 74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2. 4 billion out of 3. 3 billion total subscribers at the end of 2007). SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of messaging use is 2. 6 SMS sent per day per person across the whole mobile phone subscriber base. (source Informa 2007). The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.
The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were worth 31 Billion dollars in 2007, and were led by mobile music, downloadable logos and pictures, gaming, gambling, adult entertainment and advertising (source: Informa 2007). The first downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringing tone service. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size as Google in annual revenues.
The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000. Mobile news services are expanding with many organizations providing "on-demand" news services by SMS. Mobile News services are growing in popularity along with an explosion in the usage of SMS messages worldwide and a few organizations are exporing these services Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo! and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka. Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change This article is primarily about Reuters prior to its 2008 merger with Thomson Companies like Monster are starting to offer mobile services such as job search and career advice. Consumer applications are on the rise and include everything from information guides on local activities and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to save money on purchases. Even tools for creating websites for mobile phones are increasingly becoming available, e. g. Mobilemo.
Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two coca cola machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa, and in selected European markets. For example in the Philippines it is not unusual to have your whole paycheck paid to the mobile account. In Kenya the limit of money transfers from one mobile banking account to another is one million US dollars. In India paying utility bills with mobile gains a 5% discount. In Estonia the government found criminals collecting cash parking fees, so the government declared that only mobile payments via SMS were valid for parking and today all parking fees in Estonia are handled via mobile and the crime involved in the activity has vanished.
Mobile Applications are developed using the Six M's (previously Five M's) service-development theory created by the author Tomi Ahonen with Joe Barrett of Nokia and Paul Golding of Motorola. The Six M's are Movement (location), Moment (time), Me (personalization), Multi-user (community), Money (payments) and Machines (automation). The Six M's / Five M's theory is widely referenced in the telecoms applications literature and used by most major industry players. The first book to discuss the theory was Services for UMTS by Ahonen & Barrett in 2002.
The availability of mobile phone backup applications is growing with the increasing amount of mobile phone data being stored on mobile phones today. With mobile phone manufacturers producing mobile handsets with more and more memory storage capabilities the awareness of the importance in backing up mobile phone data is increasing. Corporate mobile phone users today keep very important company information on their mobiles, information if lost then not easily replaced. Wireless backup applications like SC BackUp offer users the chance to backup mobile phone data using advanced wireless technology. Users can backup, restore or transfer mobile data anytime, anywhere all over the world, to a secured server.
The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringing tones were sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a Mobile phone to indicate an incoming call or text message Soon other media content appeared such as news, videogames, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. In 2006 the total value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). The value of music on phones was worth 9. 3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007 (source Netsize Guide 2008).
The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print, Recordings, Cinema, Radio, TV and Internet the first six). The seven mass media, or often used as " seventh mass media channel " to draw attention to the latest mobile phones as a Mass media, are a new concept Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media, such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. Recently unique content for mobile has been emerging, from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes" the video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones.
The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to identify and track Alpha Users or Hubs, the most influential members of any social community. Social Marketing Intelligence is the method of extrapolating valuable information from Social network interactions and large data flows that can enable companies for example AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass media, and found that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate than on the internet and 90 times more accurate than on TV.
Mobile phones generally obtain power from batteries which can be recharged from a USB port or from mains power or a cigarette lighter socket in a car using an adapter (often called battery charger or wall wart). Within Phonetics, a phone is a speech sound or gesture considered a physical event without regard to its place in the Phonology of a Language In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy Mains is the general-purpose Alternating current (AC Electric power supply (as in "I've connected the appliance to the mains" A lighter is a portable device used to create a Flame. It consists of a metal or plastic container filled with lighter fluid (usually Naphtha or liquid Butane An adapter or adaptor (both spellings in use in UK and US English[http//www A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable battery by forcing an Electric current through it Wall wart is a Slang term for certain types of Power supply - typically those that are embedded in an over-sized AC plug. Formerly, the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydride, as they have a low size and weight. A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of Rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium ( Ni[[Cadmium Cd]] battery Lithium-Ion batteries are sometimes used, as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-hydride batteries do. Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of Rechargeable battery in which a Lithium ion moves between the Anode Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-Polymer batteries as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion, the main advantages of this being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid. Lithium-ion polymer batteries, polymer lithium ion, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (abbreviated Li-poly Li-Pol LiPo LIP PLI or LiP are Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of Rechargeable battery in which a Lithium ion moves between the Anode Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with alternate power sources, including solar cells. A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts Solar energy into Electricity by the photovoltaic effect.
In addition to the battery, most cellphones require a small microchip, called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. Approximately the size of a one-cent postage stamp, the SIM Card is installed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit, and (when properly activated) stores the phone's configuration data, and information about the phone itself, such as which calling plan the subscriber is using. A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services When the subscriber removes the SIM Card, it can be re-inserted into another phone and used as normal.
Each SIM Card is activated by use of a unique numerical identifier; once activated, the identifier is locked down and the card is permanently locked in to the activating network. For this reason, most retailers will refuse the return of an activated SIM Card.
Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their memory. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu. From here, one can add information such as a new number for your phone, new Service Provider numbers, new emergency numbers, change their Authentication Key or A-Key code, and update their Preferred Roaming List or PRL. However, to prevent the average Joe from totally disabling their phone or removing it from the network, the Service Provider puts a lock on this data called a Master Subsidiary Lock or MSL.
The MSL also ensures that the Service Provider gets payment for the phone that was purchased or "leased". For example, the Motorola Razr V9C costs upwards of CAD $500. Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. You can get one from Bell Mobility for approximately $200. The difference is paid by the customer in the form of a monthly bill. If, in this case, Bell Mobility did not use a MSL, then they may lose the $300–$400 difference that is paid in the monthly bill, since some customers would cancel their service and take the phone to another carrier such as Telus, or Verizon. Telus ( TSX: T TA NYSE: TU is a national Telecommunications company in Canada that provides a wide range of communications products and "Verizon" redirects here this article is about the corporation see also Verizon Wireless, Verizon Online DSL and Verizon FiOS. This would eventually put the carrier or in this case, Bell Mobility out of business.
An increasing number of countries, particularly in Europe, now have more mobile phones than people. This is a list of Mobile phone network operating companies.For a more comprehensive list (UMTS and GSM operators only see Mobile Network Code. According to the figures from Eurostat, the European Union's in-house statistical office, Luxembourg had the highest mobile phone penetration rate at 158 mobile subscriptions per 100 people (158%), closely followed by Lithuania and Italy. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Mobile phone penetration rate is a term generally used to describe the number of active Mobile phone numbers (usually as a Percentage) within a specific population Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  In Hong Kong the penetration rate reached 139. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders 8% of the population in July 2007.  Over 50 countries have mobile phone subscription penetration rates higher than that of the population and the Western European average penetration rate was 110% in 2007 (source Informa 2007). The U. S. currently has one of the lowest rates of mobile phone penetrations in the industrialized world at 85%.
There are over five hundred million active mobile phone accounts in China, as of 2007, but the total penetration rate there still stands below 50%.  The total number of mobile phone subscribers in the world was estimated at 2. 14 billion in 2005.  The subscriber count reached 2. 7 billion by end of 2006 according to Informa, and 3. 3 billion by November, 2007, thus reaching an equivalent of over half the planet's population. Around 80% of the world's population has access to mobile phone coverage, as of 2006. This figure is expected to increase to 90% by the year 2010. 
In some developing countries with little "landline" telephone infrastructure, mobile phone use has quadrupled in the last decade. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids  The rise of mobile phone technology in developing countries is often cited as an example of the leapfrog effect. Leapfrogging is a theory of development in which Developing countries may accelerate development by skipping inferior less efficient more expensive or more polluting In many remote regions in the third world went literally from having no telecommunications infrastructure to having satellite based communications systems. At present, Africa has the largest growth rate of cellular subscribers in the world, its markets expanding nearly twice as fast as Asian markets.  The availability of prepaid or 'pay-as-you-go' services, where the subscriber is not committed to a long term contract, has helped fuel this growth in Africa as well as in other continents. Prepaid telephone calls are a popular way of making Telephone calls which allow the caller to control spend and not be tied into ongoing commitments with the Telephone operator A prepaid mobile phone ( pay-as-you-go or prepaid wireless) is a Mobile phone for which service is purchased in advance of use
On a numerical basis, India is the largest growth market, adding about 6 million mobile phones every month.  With 256. 55 million mobile phones, market penetration in the country is still low at 22. 52%. India expects to reach 500 million subscribers by end of 2010.
There are three major technical standards for the current generation of mobile phones and networks, and two major standards for the next generation 3G phones and networks. All European, African and many Asian countries have adopted a single system, GSM, which is the only technology available on all continents and in most countries and covers over 74% of all subscribers on mobile networks. GSM ( Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for Mobile phones in the In many countries, such as the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, India, Japan, and South Korea and Vietnam GSM co-exists with other internationally adopted standards such as CDMA and TDMA, as well as national standards such as iDEN in the USA and PDC in Japan. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Code division multiple access ( CDMA) is a Channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies For other uses of Iden/IDEN see Iden (disambiguation Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN is a mobile telecommunications technology Over the past five years several dozen mobile operators (carriers) have abandoned networks on TDMA and CDMA technologies, switching over to GSM.
With third generation (3G) networks, which are also known as IMT-2000 networks, about three out of four networks are on the W-CDMA (also known as UMTS) standard, usually seen as the natural evolution path for GSM and TDMA networks. W-CDMA ( Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G Cellular network. One in four 3G networks is on the CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology. Some analysts count a previous stage in CDMA evolution, CDMA2000 1x RTT, as a 3G technology whereas most standardization experts count only CDMA2000 1x EV-DO as a true 3G technology. Because of this difference in interpreting what is 3G, there is a wide variety in subscriber counts. As of June 2007, on the narrow definition there are 200 million subscribers on 3G networks. By using the more broad definition, the total subscriber count of 3G phone users is 475 million.
Between the 1980s and the 2000s, the mobile phone has gone from being an expensive item used by the business elite to a pervasive, personal communications tool for the general population. In most countries, mobile phones outnumber land-line phones, with fixed landlines numbering 1. 3 Billion but mobile subscriptions 3. 3 Billion at the end of 2007.
In many advanced markets from Japan and South Korea, to Scandinavia, to Israel, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong, most children age 8-9 have mobile phones and the new accounts are now opened for customers aged 6 and 7. Where mostly parents tend to give hand-me-down used phones to their youngest children, in Japan already new cameraphones are on the market whose target age group is under 10 years of age, introduced by KDDI in February 2007. The USA also lags on this measure, as in the US so far, about half of all children have mobile phones.  In many young adults' households it has supplanted the land-line phone. Mobile phone usage is banned in some countries, such as North Korea and restricted in some other countries such as Burma. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. 
Given the high levels of societal mobile phone service penetration, it is a key means for people to communicate with each other. The SMS feature spawned the "texting" sub-culture amongst younger users. Short Message Service ( SMS) is a Communications protocol allowing the interchange of short text messages between mobile telephone devices. Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of "short" (160 characters or fewer including spaces text messages from Mobile phones In December 1993, the first person-to-person SMS text message was transmitted in Finland. Currently, texting is the most widely-used data service; 1. 8 billion users generated $80 billion of revenue in 2006 (source ITU). Many phones offer Instant Messenger services for simple, easy texting. Mobile phones have Internet service (e. g. NTT DoCoMo's i-mode), offering text messaging via e-mail in Japan, South Korea, China, and India. is the predominant Mobile phone operator in Japan The name is officially an abbreviation of the phrase " do co mmunications over the mo bile network NTT DoCoMo 's i-mode is a Wireless internet service popular in Japan. In Europe, 30–40 per cent of internet access is via mobile phone. Most mobile internet access is much different from computer access, featuring alerts, weather data, e-mail, search engines, instant messages, and game and music downloading; most mobile internet access is hurried and short.
The mobile phone can be a fashion totem custom-decorated to reflect the owner's personality. Fashion refers to styles of dress (but can also include cuisine literature art architecture and general comportment that are popular in a culture at any given time A totem is any supposed entity that watches over or assists a group of people such as a family Clan or tribe ( Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and Webster's  This aspect of the mobile telephony business is, in itself, an industry, e. g. ringtone sales amounted to $3. A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a Mobile phone to indicate an incoming call or text message 5 billion in 2005. 
Mobile phone use can be an important matter of social discourtesy: phones ringing during funerals or weddings; in toilets, cinemas and theatres. Some book shops, libraries, bathrooms, cinemas, doctors' offices and places of worship prohibiting their use, so that other patrons will not be disturbed by conversations. A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context Cinemaaustraliajpg|thumb|A movie theater in Australia ]]A movie theater, movie theatre, picture theatre or cinema is a venue A place of worship or house of worship is a building or other location where a group of people (a congregation) comes to perform acts of religious praise honour Some facilities install signal-jamming equipment to prevent their use, although in many countries, including the US, such equipment is illegal. A mobile phone jammer is an instrument used to prevent cellular phones from receiving signals from or transmitting signals to Base stations When used the jammer effectively Some new auditoriums have installed wire mesh in the walls to make a Faraday cage, which prevents signal penetration without violating signal jamming laws. A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material
Trains, particularly those involving long-distance services, often offer a "quiet carriage" where phone use is prohibited, much like the designated non-smoking carriage of the past. In the UK however many users tend to ignore this as it is rarely enforced, especially if the other carriages are crowded and they have no choice but to go in the "quiet carriage". The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In Japan, it is generally considered impolite to talk using a phone on any train -- texting is generally the mode of mobile communication. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Mobile phone usage on local public transport is also increasingly seen as a nuisance; the city of Graz, for instance, has mandated a total ban of mobile phones on its tram and bus network in 2008 (though texting is still allowed). Graz (etymologically from Slovene: Gradec IPA /gradeʦ/ "little castle" with a population of around 290000 as of 2008 (of which 252852 have principal 
Mobile phone use on aircraft is also prohibited and many airlines claim in their in-plane announcements that this prohibition is due to possible interference with aircraft radio communications. The use of mobile telephones aboard commercial aircraft is generally forbidden during flight Shut-off mobile phones do not interfere with aircraft avionics; the concern is partially based on the crash of Crossair Flight 498. Crossair Flight LX498 (known subsequently as Crossair Flight CRX498 by officials was a commuter flight from Zurich, Switzerland to Dresden
Law enforcement have used mobile phone evidence in a number of different ways. Lawful interception (aka Wiretapping) is the interception of telecommunications by law enforcement agencies (LEA's and intelligence services in accordance with local law and In the EU the "communications of every mobile telephone user are recorded".  In other countries, evidence about the physical location of an individual at a given time has been introduced by triangulating the individual's cellphone between several cellphone towers. This triangulation technique can be used to show that an individual's cellphone was at a certain location at a certain time. The concerns over terrorism and terrorist use of technology prompted an inquiry by the British House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committee into the use of evidence from mobile phone devices, prompting leading mobile telephone forensic specialists to identify forensic techniques available in this area. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Home Affairs Select Committee is a Committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.  NIST have published guidelines and procedures for the preservation, acquisition, examination, analysis, and reporting of digital information present on mobile phones can be found under the NIST Publication SP800-101. 
In the UK in 2000 it was claimed that recordings of mobile phone conversations made on the day of the Omagh bombing were crucial to the police investigation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Omagh bombing was a Paramilitary Car bomb attack carried out by the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA a splinter group of former Provisional Irish In particular, calls made on two mobile phones which were tracked from south of the Irish border to Omagh and back on the day of the bombing, were considered of vital importance. 
Further example of criminal investigations using mobile phones is the initial location and ultimate identification of the terrorists of the 2004 Madrid train bombings. In the attacks, mobile phones had been used to detonate the bombs. However, one of the bombs failed to detonate, and the SIM card in the corresponding mobile phone gave the first serious lead about the terrorists to investigators. By tracking the whereabouts of the SIM card and correlating other mobile phones that had been registered in those areas, police were able to locate the terrorists. 
The Finnish government decided in 2005 that the fastest way to warn citizens of disasters was the mobile phone network. In Japan, mobile phone companies provide immediate notification of earthquakes and other natural disasters to their customers free of charge . An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer A natural disaster is the consequence of a Natural hazard (eg In the event of an emergency, disaster response crews can locate trapped or injured people using the signals from their mobile phones. Disaster response is a phase of the Disaster management cycle An interactive menu accessible through the phone's Internet browser notifies the company if the user is safe or in distress. A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a In Finland rescue services suggest hikers carry mobile phones in case of emergency even when deep in the forests beyond cellular coverage, as the radio signal of a cellphone attempting to connect to a base station can be detected by overflying rescue aircraft with special detection gear. In telecommunications the coverage is the geographic area that the station in question covers Also, users in the United States can sign up through their provider for free text messages when an AMBER Alert goes out for a missing person in their area. An AMBER Alert is a Child abduction alert system, issued to the general public by various media outlets in Canada and in the United States, when police
However, most mobile phone networks operate close to capacity during normal times and spikes in call volumes caused by widespread emergencies often overload the system just when it is needed the most. Examples reported in the media where this have occurred include the 2001 September 11 attacks, the Hawaiian earthquake, the 2003 Northeast blackouts, the 2005 London Tube bombings, Hurricane Katrina, and the 2007 Minnesota bridge collapse. Thus mobile phones are better for isolated emergencies such as vehicle accidents.
Under FCC regulations, all mobile telephones must be capable of dialing emergency services, regardless of the presence of a SIM card or the payment status of the account. Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies
When cellular telecoms services were launched, phones and calls were very expensive and early mobile operators (carriers) decided to charge for all air time consumed by the mobile phone user. GSM services are a standard collection of applications and features available to Mobile phone subscribers all over the world This resulted in the concept of charging callers for outbound calls and also for receiving calls. As mobile phone call charges diminished and phone adoption rates skyrocketed, more modern operators decided not to charge for incoming calls. Thus some markets have "Receiving Party Pays" models (also known as "Mobile Party Pays"), in which both outbound and received calls are charged, and other markets have "Calling Party Pays" models, by which only making calls produces costs, and receiving calls is free. An exception to this are international roaming tariffs, by which receiving calls are normally also charged. Roaming is a general term in Wireless Telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location
The European market adopted a "Calling Party Pays" model throughout the GSM environment and soon various other GSM markets also started to emulate this model. As Receiving Party Pays systems have the undesired effect of phone owners keeping their phones turned off to avoid receiving unwanted calls, the total voice usage rates (and profits) in Calling Party Pays countries outperform those in Receiving Party Pays countries. Consequently, most countries previously with Receiving Party Pays models have either abandoned them or employed alternative marketing methods, such as massive voice call buckets, to avoid the problem of phone users keeping phones turned off.
In most countries today, the person receiving a mobile phone call pays nothing. However, in Hong Kong, Canada, and the United States, one can be charged per minute, for incoming as well as outgoing calls. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In the United States and Canada, a few carriers are beginning to offer unlimited received phone calls. For the Chinese mainland, it was reported that both of its two operators will adopt the caller-pays approach as early as January 2007. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction 
While some systems of payment are 'pay-as-you-go' where conversation time is purchased and added to a phone unit via an Internet account or in shops or ATMs, other systems are more traditional ones where bills are paid by regular intervals. A prepaid mobile phone ( pay-as-you-go or prepaid wireless) is a Mobile phone for which service is purchased in advance of use Pay as you go (also known as "pre-pay") accounts were invented simultaneously in Portugal and Italy and today form more than half of all mobile phone subscriptions. USA, Canada, Costa Rica, Japan and Finland are among the rare countries left where most phones are still contract-based.
One possible alternative is a sim-lock free mobile phone. Sim-lock free mobile phones allow portability between networks so users can use sim cards from various networks and not need to have their phone unlocked.
Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential health impacts from regular use. Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world ( as  As mobile phone penetrations grew past fixed landline penetration levels in 1998 in Finland and from 1999 in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, the Scandinavian health authorities have run continuous long term studies of effects of mobile phone radiation effects to humans, and in particular children. Numerous studies have reported no significant relationship between mobile phone use and health.
Studies from the Institute of Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute and researchers at the Danish Institute of Cancer Epidemiology in Copenhagen for example showed no link between mobile phone use and cancer.  The Danish study only covered analog mobile phone usage up through 1995, and subjects who started mobile phone usage after 1995 were counted as non-users in the study.  The health concerns have grown as mobile phone penetration rates throughout Europe reached 80%–90% levels earlier in this decade and prolonged exposure studies have been carried out in almost all European countries again most reporting no effect, and the most alarming studies only reporting a possible effect. However, a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of 4,500 users found a borderline statistically significant link between tumor frequency on the same side of the head as the mobile phone was used on and mobile phone usage. The International Agency for Research on Cancer ( IARC, or CIRC in its French Acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health 
A 2007 study by Prof. Bengt Arnetz and colleagues of Wayne State University and Uppsala University, and Foundation IT’IS, USA, and Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, funded by the Mobile Manufacturers Forum and published in "Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) Online" reported higher incidence of headache and also disturbance of normal sleep patterns following mobile phone use. 
Early in 2008, Michele Froment-Vedrine the President of AFSSET (an independent but state-funded French health watchdog), advised that parents should not give small children mobile phones. 
As of 2007, several airlines are experimenting with base station and antenna systems installed to the aeroplane, allowing low power, short-range connection of any phones aboard to remain connected to the aircraft's base station.  Thus, they would not attempt connection to the ground base stations as during take off and landing. Simultaneously, airlines may offer phone services to their travelling passengers either as full voice and data services, or initially only as SMS text messaging and similar services. Qantas, the Australian airline, is the first airline to run a test aeroplane in this configuration in the autumn of 2007. Qantas Airways Limited (ˈkwɔntəs ( is the National airline of Australia. Emirates has announced plans to allow limited mobile phone usage on some flights. Emirates Airline (shortened form Emirates) ( Arabic: طيران الإمارات Tayarān al-Imārāt) is a subsidiary of The Emirates Group However, in the past, commercial airlines have prevented the use of cell phones and laptops, due to the assertion that the frequencies emitted from these devices may disturb the radio waves contact of the airplane.
On the 20 March 2008 an Emirates flight was the first time voice calls have been allowed in-flight on commercial airline flights. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The breakthrough came after the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the United Arab Emirates-based General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) granted full approval for the AeroMobile system to be used on Emirates. Passengers were able to make and receive voice calls as well as use text messaging on today’s flight. The system automatically came into operation as the Airbus A340-300 reached cruise altitude. Passengers wanting to use the service received a text message welcoming them to the AeroMobile system when they first switched-on their phones. The approval by EASA has established that GSM phones are safe to use on airplanes, as the AeroMobile system does not require the modification of aircraft components deemed "sensitive," nor does it require the use of modified phones.
In any case, there are inconsistencies between practices allowed by different airlines and even on the same airline in different countries. For example, Northwest Airlines may allow the use of mobile phones immediately after landing on a domestic flight within the US, whereas they may state "not until the doors are open" on an international flight arriving in the Netherlands. Northwest Airlines Inc (often abbreviated NWA) is the principal subsidiary In April 2007 the US Federal Communications Commission officially grounded the idea of allowing passengers to use phones during a flight. 
In a similar vein, signs are put up in many countries, such as Canada, the U. K. and the U. S. , at petrol stations prohibiting the use of mobile phones, due to possible safety issues. A filling station, fueling station, gas station, service station, petrol station, or gasbar, Retail Outlet
Most schools in the United States have prohibited mobile phones in the classroom, due to the large number of class disruptions that result from their use, and the potential for cheating via text messaging. In the UK, possession of a mobile phone in an examination can result in immediate disqualification from that subject or from all that student's subjects. 
A working group made up of Finnish telephone companies, public transport operators and communications authorities has launched a campaign to remind mobile phone users of courtesy, especially when using mass transit—what to talk about on the phone, and how to. In particular, the campaign wants to impact loud mobile phone usage as well as calls regarding sensitive matters. 
Many US cities with subway transit systems underground are studying or have implemented mobile phone reception in their underground tunnels for their riders. Boston, Massachusetts has investigated such usage in their tunnels, although there is a question of usage etiquette and also how to fairly award contracts to carriers. 
The issue of mobile communication and etiquette has also become an issue of academic interest. The rapid adoption of the device has resulted in the intrusion of telephony into situations where this was previously not known. This has exposed the implicit rules of courtesy and opened them to reevaluation. 
The use of mobile phones by people who are driving has become increasingly common, either as part of their job, as in the case of delivery drivers who are calling a client, or by commuters who are chatting with a friend. Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident While many drivers have embraced the convenience of using their cellphone while driving, some jurisdictions have made the practice against the law, such as the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Officials from these jurisdictions argue that using a mobile phone while driving is an impediment to vehicle operation that can increase the risk of road traffic accidents.
Studies have found vastly different relative risks (RR). In Statistics and mathematical Epidemiology, relative risk (RR is the risk of an event (or of developing a disease relative to exposure Two separate studies using case-crossover analysis each calculated RR at 4, while an epidemiological cohort study found RR, when adjusted for crash-risk exposure, of 1. A cohort study or panel study is a form of Longitudinal study used in Medicine and Social science. 11 for men and 1. 21 for women. 
A simulation study from the University of Utah Professor David Strayer compared drivers with a blood alcohol content of 0. The University of Utah (referred to locally as ' The U' or ' the U of U') is a publicly funded Research university in Salt Lake Blood alcohol content or blood alcohol concentration (abbreviated BAC) is the concentration of alcohol in a person's Blood. 08% to those conversing on a cell phone, and after controlling for driving difficulty and time on task, the study concluded that cell phone drivers exhibited greater impairment than intoxicated drivers.  Meta-analysis by The Canadian Automobile Association and The University of Illinois found that response time while using both hands-free and hand-held phones was approximately 0. The Canadian Automobile Association (commonly known as CAA) is a non-profit federation founded in 1913 of nine clubs across Canada, providing roadside assistance This article is about the flagship campus For other uses and locations of University of Illinois, see University of Illinois (disambiguation The University of 5 standard deviations higher than normal driving (i. In Probability and Statistics, the standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a collection of values e. , an average driver, while talking on a cell phone, has response times of a driver in roughly the 40th percentile).
Other research has found that using a mobile phone while driving may reduce the driver's concentration and reaction time. People in or near their 20s who use a mobile phone while driving have the same reaction time as 70-year-olds. Studies have shown that talking on a phone can reduce the cognitive resources that the driver can apply to the driving task, and may thus lead to dangerous situations.
Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than driving while using a hand-held phone, as concluded by case-crossover studies.  epidemiological studies, simulation studies, and meta-analysis. Even with this information, the State of California recently passed a cell phone law that requires drivers who are 18 years of age or older to use a hands-free device while using the phone in the car. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, this law also restricts drivers under the age of 18 from using a mobile phone at all. This law goes into effect on July 1, 2008 with a $20 fine for the first offense and $50 fines for each subsequent conviction. The consistency of increased crash risk between hands-free and hand-held phone use is at odds with legislation in over 30 countries that prohibit hand-held phone use but allow hands-free. Scientific literature is mixed on the dangers of talking on a phone versus those of talking with a passenger, with the Accident Research Unit at the University of Nottingham finding that the number of utterances was usually higher for mobile calls when compared to blindfolded and non-blindfolded passengers, but the University of Illinois meta-analysis concluding that passenger conversations were just as costly to driving performance as cell phone ones. The University of Nottingham is a Public, Co-educational institution of Higher learning in the city of Nottingham, England. This article is about the flagship campus For other uses and locations of University of Illinois, see University of Illinois (disambiguation The University of 
Like all high structures, cellular antenna masts pose a hazard to low flying aircraft. Towers over a certain height or towers that are close to airports or heliports are normally required to have warning lights. An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land A heliport is a small Airport suitable only for use by Helicopters Heliports typically contain one or more Helipads and may have limited facilities such There have been reports that warning lights on cellular masts, TV-towers and other high structures can attract and confuse birds. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. US authorities estimate that millions of birds are killed near communication towers in the country each year. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
An example of the way mobile phones and mobile networks have sometimes been perceived as a threat is the widely reported and later discredited claim that mobile phone masts are associated with the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) which has reduced bee hive numbers by up to 75% in many areas, especially near cities in the US. Colony Collapse Disorder (or CCD) is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or Western honey bee colony abruptly disappear The Independent newspaper cited a scientific study claiming it provided evidence for the theory that mobile phone masts are a major cause in the collapse of bee populations, with controlled experiments demonstrating a rapid and catastrophic effect on individual hives near masts.  Mobile phones were in fact not covered in the study, and the original researchers have since emphatically disavowed any connection between their research, mobile phones, and CCD, specifically indicating that the Independent article had misinterpreted their results and created "a horror story".  While the initial claim of damage to bees was widely reported, the corrections to the story were almost non-existent in the media.
There are more than 500 million used mobile phones in the US sitting on shelves or in landfills , and it is estimated that over 125 million will be discarded this year alone. Electronic waste, " e-waste " or " Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment " (" WEEE " is a Waste type consisting  The problem is growing at a rate of more than two million phones per week, putting tons of toxic waste into landfills daily. Several sites including TradeMyCell.com, ReCellular, PaceButler Corp and MyGreenElectronics offer to buy back and recycle mobile phones from users. myGreenElectronics is a public service online portal for consumers to recycle or reuse their electronics products once they have reached end-of-life
In 1908, Nathan B. Stubblefield of Murray, Kentucky. This history of mobile phones chronicles the development of handheld radio telephone technology from two-way radios in vehicles to handheld cellular phones Nathan B Stubblefield ( November 22, 1860 - March 28, 1928) was an American Inventor and Kentucky melon farmer Murray is a city in Calloway County, Kentucky, United States. He applied this patent to "cave radio" telephones and not directly to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood.  Cells for mobile phone base stations were invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and further developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s. Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is the Research organization Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s, while hand-held cellular radio devices have been available since 1973. A radiotelephone is a communications device that allows two or more people to talk using Radio. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden ( October 6, 1866 &ndash July 22, 1932) born in East Bolton, Quebec, Canada, was World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Due to their low establishment costs and rapid deployment, mobile phone networks have since spread rapidly throughout the world, outstripping the growth of fixed telephony. Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio informationfor a wireless telephone was issued in to
In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. 0G mobile phones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not cellular, and so did not feature "handover" from one base station to the next and reuse of radio frequency channels. The Mobile Telephone Service (MTS is a pre- cellular VHF radio system that links to the PSTN. In cellular Telecommunications, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the Like other technologies of the time, it involved a single, powerful base station covering a wide area, and each telephone would effectively monopolize a channel over that whole area while in use. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology are first described in , issued May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Gladden and Martin H. Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada and assigned by them to the United States Government. Las Vegas ( Spanish: "The Meadows" is the most populous City in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally
This is the first embodiment of all the concepts that formed the basis of the next major step in mobile telephony, the Analog cellular telephone. Concepts covered in this patent (cited in at least 34 other patents) also were later extended to several satellite communication systems. Later updating of the cellular system to a digital system credits this patent.
Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is widely considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting. Martin Cooper (born in Chicago Illinois) is considered the father of the Mobile phone (as distinct from the Car phone) Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. 
The first commercial citywide cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. commonly known as NTT, is a telephone company that dominates the Telecommunication market in Japan. Fully automatic cellular networks were first introduced in the early to mid 1980s (the 1G generation). 1G (or 1-G is short for first-generation Wireless Telephone Technology, Cellphones These are the analog cellphone standards that The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system went online in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981. NMT ( Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephony in English is the first fully-automatic Cellular phone  NMT was the first mobile phone system that enabled international use of the phone, or "roaming" on other networks in other countries. This was followed by a boom in mobile phone usage, particularly in Northern Europe.
In 1983, Motorola DynaTAC was the first approved mobile phone by FCC in the United States. The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first Mobile phone to receive FCC acceptance in 1983. In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed multiple, centrally-controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small area (a cell). Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) is the Research organization The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped. In a cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells.
Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. In cellular Telecommunications, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the This system included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones (controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity. The evidence of this growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the upper parts of their towers. These sites originally created large cells, and so had their antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts to reduce range.
The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network. Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM operator founded on September 19 1988. "HPY" redirects here For the airport see Baytown Airport. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. TeliaSonera AB is the dominant Telephone company and Mobile network operator in Sweden and Finland.
The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in 1999. The first commercial payment system to mimick banks and credit cards was launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart. The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone, first launched in 1998 in Finland. The first full internet service on mobile phones was i-Mode introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.
In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. is the predominant Mobile phone operator in Japan The name is officially an abbreviation of the phrase " do co mmunications over the mo bile network W-CDMA ( Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G Cellular network. 
Until the early 1990s, most mobile phones were too large to be carried in a jacket pocket, so they were typically installed in vehicles as car phones. A car phone is a Mobile phone device specifically designed and fitted into an Automobile. With the miniaturization of digital components and the development of more sophisticated batteries, mobile phones have become smaller and lighter. Miniaturization is the creation of ever-smaller scales for mechanical optical and electronic products and devices
In the 2000s, video and TV services are driving forward third generation (3G) deployment. Video is the technology of electronically capturing, Recording, processing storing transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of Still images Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic In the future, low cost, high speed data may drive forward the fourth generation (4G) as short-range communication emerges. Service and application ubiquity, low cost data delivery, and a high degree of personalization and synchronization between various user appliances will be drivers. At the same time, the radio access network may evolve from a centralized architecture to a distributed one.
Since 2000, many books have been written on the social impact of mobile phones:
Sadie Plant (born 1964 in Birmingham England) is a British Author and Philosopher. Howard Rheingold (born July 7, 1947) is a critic and writer his specialties are on the cultural social and political implications of modern communication media such This history of mobile phones chronicles the development of handheld radio telephone technology from two-way radios in vehicles to handheld cellular phones This page lists the known relative differences between the most popular mobile platform development options for Handheld devices such as a Personal digital assistants There are many mobile phone features found in today's Mobile phones that offer users many more capabilities than only voice calls or text messaging This is a list of Mobile phone network operating companies.For a more comprehensive list (UMTS and GSM operators only see Mobile Network Code. Mobile phone radiation and health concerns have been raised especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world ( as Global System for Mobile Communications (AKA GSM, around 80–85 % market share and IS-95 (AKA cdmaOne around 10–15 % market share are the All cellular phone networks worldwide utilize a portion of the radio frequency spectrum designated as Ultra High Frequency, or "UHF" for the transmission WAP is an open international Standard for Application layer network communications in a Wireless communication environment XHTML Mobile Profile (XHTML MP is a Hypertextual Computer language standard designed specifically for Mobile phones and other resource-constrained devices Mobile blogging (moblogging is a form of Blogging in which the user publishes blog entries directly to the web from a Mobile phone or other mobile device Mobile dating services also known as cell dating, cellular dating,or cell phone dating, allow individuals to chat meet and possibly become romantically Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident Mobile gambling refers to Gambling done on a remote wirelessly connected device A mobile game is a Video game played on a Mobile phone, Smartphone, PDA or Handheld computer M-learning, or "mobile learning" now commonly abbreviated to "mLearning" has different meanings for different communities Ringxiety is a Portmanteau Neologism formed from the words "ringtone" and "anxiety A smartphone is a Mobile phone offering advanced capabilities beyond a typical mobile phone often with PC -like functionality Electronic waste, " e-waste " or " Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment " (" WEEE " is a Waste type consisting