A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici), Latin for "Envoy of the Lord [ruler]', also known as Sendgraf in German, Zendgraaf in Dutch, both meaning 'sent Graf', was an official commissioned by the Frankish king or emperor to supervise the administration, mainly justice, in a part of his dominions, not unlike the original Roman Corrector but on a regular basis, so rather preventively. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Graf is a historical German noble title equal in rank to a Count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own or a British A corrector (English plural Correctors) is a person who or object that practices Correction, usually by removing or rectifying errors
Their institution dates from the Carolingians Charles Martel and Pippin III the Short, who sent out officials to see their orders executed. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was When Pippin became king in 754 he sent out missi in a desultory fashion. Events By Place Asia Al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Caliph, starts to rule
Charlemagne made them a regular part of his administration, and a capitulary issued about 802 gives a detailed account of their duties. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his A capitulary ( Medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of Legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of This article is about the year 802 For other uses see IEEE 802 networking standard They were to execute justice, to enforce respect for the royal rights, to control the administration of the counts (then still royal officials), to receive the oath of allegiance, and to supervise the conduct and work of the clergy. They were to call together the officials of the district and explain to them their duties, and to remind the people of their civil and religious obligations. In short they were the direct representatives of the German king or Holy Roman Emperor. This article lists the German monarchs, ruling over the territory of Germany from the creation of a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom in 843 until the end of monarchy The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states The inhabitants of the district they administered had to provide for their subsistence, and at times they led the host to battle. In addition special instructions were given to various missi, and many of these have been preserved.
The districts placed under the missi, which it was their duty to visit four times a year, were called missatici or legationes (a term illustrating the analogy with a papal legate). A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic They were not permanent officials, but were generally selected from among persons at the court, and during the reign of Charlemagne personages of high standing undertook this work. They were sent out collegially, usually in twos, an ecclesiastic and a layman, and were generally complete strangers to the district which they administered. In addition there were extraordinary missi who represented the emperor on special occasions, and at times beyond the limits of his dominions. Even under the strong rule of Charlemagne it was difficult to find men to discharge these duties impartially, and after his death in 814 it became almost impossible. Events By Place Europe Charlemagne dies in Aachen, aged 67 or 72 (depending on source Louis the Pious
Under the emperor Louis the Pious the nobles interfered in the appointment of the missi, who, selected from the district in which their duties lay, were soon found looking after their own interests rather than those of the central power. Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor Their duties became merged in the ordinary work of the bishops and counts, and under the emperor Charles the Bald they took control of associations for the preservation of the peace. Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia About the end of the ninth century they disappeared from France and Germany, and during the tenth century from Italy. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
The missi were the last attempt to preserve centralised control in the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in In the course of the ninth century, the forces which were making for feudalism tended to produce inherited fiefdoms as the only way to ensure stability, especially in the face of renewed external aggression in the form of Viking attacks. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas