|Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra|
portrait of Cervantes[a], by Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (c. There are other people known as Juan de Jáuregui. ---- Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (also known as Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Hurtado 1600)
|Born||September 29, 1547 |
Alcalá de Henares, Spain
|Died||23 April 1616 (aged 68)|
|Occupation||novelist, poet and playwright|
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: [miˈɣel ðe θerˈβantes saːˈβeðra] in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, is considered a founding classic of Western literature and regularly figures among the best novels ever written. Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera) from the Latin meaning great work, refers to the best the greatest es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Western literature refers to the Literature of the Indo-European languages, as well as several languages geographically or historically related to the Indo-European His work is considered among the most important in all of literature.  He has been dubbed el Príncipe de los Ingenios (the Prince of Wits).
Cervantes, born at Alcalá de Henares, was the fourth of seven children, of Rodrigo de Cervantes, a doctor born at Alcalá de Henares in a family whose origins may have been of the minor gentry, and wife, married in 1543, Leonor de Cortinas, who died on October 19, 1593. Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage Gentry generally refers to people of high Social class, especially in the past Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. The family moved from town to town, and little is known of Cervantes's early years. By 1570 he had been enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by pirates. He was ransomed by his captors and the Trinitarians and returned to his family in Madrid. The Order of the Holy Trinity (or Trinitarians) is a Catholic Religious order that was founded in the area of Cerfroid, some 80 km northeast Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain.
In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel, La Galatea. La Galatea was Miguel de Cervantes ’ first book published in 1585. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. Beginning as early as the 14th century a grocer (also called purveyor) was a dealer in comestible dry goods such as spices pepper sugar and (later cocoa tea and coffee The Spanish Armada ( Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or Armada Invencible, "Invincible A tax collector is a person who collects unpaid Taxes from other people or corporations In 1597 discrepancies in his accounts of three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605 he was in Valladolid, just when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world. ||-||} is an industrial city and it is a Municipality in north-central Spain, upon the Pisuerga River and within the Ribera del Duero wine-making region In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer; he published the Exemplary Novels (Novelas ejemplares) in 1613, the Journey to Parnassus (Viaje del Parnaso) in 1614, and in 1615, the Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes noted that, "Cervantes leaves open the pages of a book where the reader knows himself to be written. Carlos Fuentes Macías (born March 11,1928 is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish -speaking world "
Miguel de Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, a Castilian city about 20 miles from Madrid, probably on September 29 (the feast day of St. Michael) 1547. Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an He was baptized on October 9. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks.  Miguel's paternal great-grandfather was Ruy Díaz de Cervantes, a prosperous draper who was born most probably in the 1430s. He married Catalina de Cabrera about whom nothing at all is known. Their son, Miguel's grandfather Juan, studied law at the University of Salamanca. The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the oldest university in Spain (the older For most of his life he served as a minor magistrate, ending his career as a specialist in fiscal law for the Spanish Inquisition and was a well-to-do man. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain He married Leonor Fernández de Torreblanca, who was apparently his cousin and a daughter of a Cordoban physician. Miguel's father, Ruy (Rodrigo), was a barber-surgeon who set bones, performed bloodlettings, and attended "lesser medical needs". The Barber surgeon was one of the most common Medical practitioners of medieval Europe - generally charged with looking after Soldiers during He presented himself as a nobleman and liked to act as a gentleman, which was not easy because of his low income.  His mother was the third daughter of a nobleman who lost his fortune and had to sell his daughter in to matrimony. This led to a very awkward marriage and several affairs on the fathers part.  Little is known of Cervantes' early years. He was a brash young man and possessed a very idealistic nature. This is later reflected in his literary work, such as El trabaja de San Juan. It seems that he spent much of his childhood moving from town to town with his family. During this time He met a young barmaid, Josefina Catalina De Parez. The couple fell madly in love and plotted to run away together. Sadly her father discovered their plans and forbade Josefina from ever seeing Cervantes again. It seems that, much like Dickens' father, Miguel's father was embargoed for debt. The court records of the proceedings show a very poor household. While some of his biographers argue that he studied at the University of Salamanca, there is no solid evidence for supposing that he did so. The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the oldest university in Spain (the older [c] There has been speculation also that Cervantes studied with the Jesuits in Córdoba or Sevilla. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. 
The reasons that forced Cervantes to leave Castilia remain uncertain. The Accademia is best known now as a museum gallery of pre-1800s art in Venice, Italy. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Whether he was the "student" of the same name, a "sword-wielding fugitive from justice", or fleeing from the royal warrant of arrest for having wounded a certain Antonio de Sigura in a duel is another mystery.  In any event, in going to Italy, Cervantes was doing what many young Spaniards of the time did to further their careers in one way or another. Rome would reveal to the young artist its ecclesiastic pomp, ritual and majesty. A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions In a city teeming with ruins, Cervantes could focus his attention on Renaissance art, architecture and poetry (knowledge of Italian literature is so readily discernible in his own productions), and on rediscovering antiquity; he could find in the ancients "a powerful impetus to revive the contemporary world in light of its accomplishments". The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere  Thus, Cervantes' continuing desire for Italy, as revealed in his later works, was in part a desire for a return to the Renaissance. 
By 1570, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a Castilian infantry regiment stationed in Naples, then a possession of the Spanish crown. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the He was there for about a year before he saw active service. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the Marquesa, part of the galley fleet of the Holy League (a coalition of the Pope, Spain, Venice, Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Savoy, the Knights of Malta and others under the command of John of Austria) that defeated the Ottoman fleet on October 7 in the Gulf of Lepanto near Corinth. A galley (from Greek γαλέα - galea is an ancient Ship which can be propelled entirely by human oarsmen, used for Warfare The Holy League of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included almost all the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean. Pope Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from the 11th century For the early history of Savoy, before it was raised to a duchy see County of Savoy and March of Turin. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. Though taken down with fever, Cervantes refused to stay below, and begged to be allowed to take part in the battle, saying that he would rather die for his God and his king than keep under cover. He fought bravely on board a vessel, and received three gunshot wounds – two in the chest and one which rendered his left arm useless, resulting in amputation. In Journey to Parnassus, he was to say that he "had lost the movement of the left hand for the glory of the right" (he was thinking of the success of the first part of Don Quixote). Cervantes always looked back on his conduct in the battle with pride: he believed that he had taken part in an event that would shape the course of European history
After the battle of Lepanto Cervantes remained in hospital for around six months, before his wounds were sufficiently healed to allow his joining the colors again. The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day The Battle of Lepanto ( Greek: Ναύπακτος Naupaktos, pron  From 1572 to 1575, based mainly in Naples, he continued his soldier's life; he participated in expeditions to Corfu and Navarino, and saw the fall of Tunis and La Goletta to the Turks in 1574. Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town Tunis ( Arabic: تونس Tūnis) is the Capital of the Tunisian Republic and also the Tunis La Goulette (حلق الوادي Halq al Wadi) is the port of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. 
On September 6 or 7 1575 Cervantes set sail on the galley Sol from Naples to Barcelona, Spain, with letters of commendation to the king from the duke de Sessa and Don Juan himself. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. A galley (from Greek γαλέα - galea is an ancient Ship which can be propelled entirely by human oarsmen, used for Warfare Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia  On the morning of September 26, as the Sol approached the Catalan coast, it was attacked by Algerian corsairs. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's After significant resistance, in which the captain and many crew members were killed, the surviving passengers were taken to Algiers as captives. Algiers (الجزائر Algerian Arabic: Dzayer ( (From kabyle pronunciation Kabyle: Ledzayer, Alger) is the Capital and largest  After five years spent as a slave in Algiers, and four unsuccessful escape attempts, he was ransomed by his parents and the Trinitarians and returned to his family in Madrid. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The Order of the Holy Trinity (or Trinitarians) is a Catholic Religious order that was founded in the area of Cerfroid, some 80 km northeast Not surprisingly, this period of Cervantes' life supplied subject matter for several of his literary works, notably the Captive's tale in Don Quixote and the two Algiers El trato de Argel (The Treaty of Algiers) and Los baños de Argel (The Baths of Algiers), as well as episodes in a number of other writings, although never in straight autobiographical form. 
In Toledo, Esquivias, on December 12, 1584, he married the much younger Catalina de Salazar y Palacios (Toledo, Esquivias – Madrid, October 31, 1626), daughter of Fernando de Salazar y Vozmediano and wife Catalina de Palacios and whose uncle Alonso de Quesada y Salazar is said to have inspired the character of Don Quixote. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain Esquivias is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain Esquivias is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse During the next 20 years he led a nomadic existence, working as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada, and as a tax collector. The Spanish Armada ( Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or Armada Invencible, "Invincible He suffered a bankruptcy, and was imprisoned at least twice (1597 and 1602) for irregularities in his accounts. Between the years 1596 and 1600, he lived primarily in Seville. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. In 1606, Cervantes settled permanently in Madrid, Spain; where he remained for the rest of his life. In 1585, Cervantes published his first major work, La Galatea, a pastoral romance, at the same time that some of his plays, now lost except for El trato de Argel (where he dealt with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers) and El cerco de Numancia, were playing on the stages of Madrid. La Galatea received little contemporary notice, and Cervantes never wrote the continuation for it, (which he repeatedly promised). Cervantes next turned his attention to the drama, hoping to derive an income from that source, but the plays which he composed failed to achieve their purpose. Aside from his plays, his most ambitious work in verse was Viaje del Parnaso (1614), an allegory which consisted largely of a rather tedious though good-natured review of contemporary poets. Cervantes himself realized that he was deficient in poetic gifts.
If a remark which Cervantes himself makes in the prologue of Don Quixote is to be taken literally, the idea of the work, though hardly the writing of its "First Part", as some have maintained, occurred to him in prison at Argamasilla de Alba, in La Mancha. Argamasilla de Alba is a Municipality in Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. Cervantes' idea was to give a picture of real life and manners, and to express himself in clear language. The intrusion of everyday speech into a literary context was acclaimed by the reading public. The author stayed poor until 1605, when the first part of Don Quixote appeared. Although it did not make Cervantes rich, it brought him international appreciation as a man of letters. Cervantes also wrote many plays, only two of which have survived; short novels, and the vogue obtained by Cervantes's story led to the publication of a continuation of it by an unknown who masqueraded under the name of Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. In 1614 a sequel to Cervantes ' Don Quixote was published under the pseudonym Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. In self-defence, Cervantes produced his own continuation, or "Second Part", of Don Quixote, which made its appearance in 1615 (Nota Bene: Cervantes had already promised the publication of a second part of Don Quijote in 1613 in the foreword to the Novelas Ejemplares, the year before the publication of Avellanda's book; it is therefore anachronistic to say that he produced his continuation "in self-defence").
For the world at large, interest in Cervantes centers particularly in Don Quixote, and this work has been regarded chiefly as a novel of purpose. It is stated again and again that he wrote it in order to satirize the romances of chivalry, and to challenge the popularity of a form of literature which for much more than a century had been a fad with the general public. As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative
Don Quixote certainly reveals much narrative power, considerable humor, a mastery of dialogue, and a forcible style. Of the two parts written by Cervantes, the first is the more popular with the general public - containing the famous episodes of the tilting at windmills, the attack on the flock of sheep, the vigil in the courtyard of the inn, and the episode with the barber and the shaving basin. The second part is inferior to it in humorous effect; but, nevertheless, the second part shows more constructive insight, better delineation of character, an improved style, and more realism and probability in its action. In 1613, he published a collection of tales, the Exemplary Novels, some of which had been written earlier. On the whole, the Exemplary Novels are worthy of the fame of Cervantes; they bear the same stamp of genius as Don Quixote. The picaroon strain, already made familiar in Spain by the Lazarillo de Tormes and his successors, appears in one or another of them, especially in the Rinconete y Cortadillo, which is the best of all. The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities ( La vida de Lazarillo de Tormes y de sus fortunas y adversidades) is a Spanish Novella He also published the Viaje del Parnaso in 1614, and in 1615, the Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes. At the same time, Cervantes continued working on Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, a novel of adventurous travel completed just before his death, and which appeared posthumously in January, 1617. Under the Comnenian dynasty Byzantine writers of Twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its
Cervantes died in Madrid on April 23, 1616; coincidentally William Shakespeare also died on that date, but not on the same day; Britain was still using the Julian calendar, whereas Spain had already adopted the Gregorian calendar. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at William Shakespeare ( baptised The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today  In honour of this coincidence UNESCO established April 23 as the International Day of the Book. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Days) is a yearly event on 23 April, organized by UNESCO  It is worth mentioning that the Encyclopedia Hispanica claims the date widely quoted as Cervantes' date of death, namely April 23, is the date on his tombstone which in accordance of the traditions at the time would be his date of burial rather than date of death. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a Burial If this is true, according to Hispanica, then it means that Cervantes probably died on April 22 and was buried on April 23. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Of his burial-place nothing is known except that he was buried, in accordance with his will, in the neighbouring convent of Trinitarian nuns, of which it is supposed his daughter, Isabel de Saavedra, was a member, and that a few years afterwards the nuns removed to another convent, carrying their dead with them. But whether the remains of Cervantes were included in the removal or not no one knows, and the clue to their final resting place is now lost beyond all hope.
Cervantes's novels, listed chronologically, are as follows:
La Galatea, the pastoral romance, which Cervantes wrote in his youth, is an imitation of the Diana of Jorge de Montemayor, and bears an even closer resemblance to Gil Polo's continuation of that romance. La Galatea was Miguel de Cervantes ’ first book published in 1585. Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability Jorge de Montemayor ( Jorge de Montemor) (1520? &ndash February 26, 1561) was a Portuguese Novelist and Poet, who wrote Next to Don Quixote and the Novelas ejemplares, it is particularly worthy of attention, as it manifests in a striking way the poetic direction in which the genius of Cervantes moved even at an early period of life.
Don Quixote (sometimes spelled "Quijote") is actually two separate books that cover the adventures of Don Quixote, also known as the knight or man of La Mancha, a hero who carries his enthusiasm and self-deception to unintentional and comic ends. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don La Mancha is an arid fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft On one level, Don Quixote works as a satire of the romances of chivalry which ruled the literary environment of Cervantes' time. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. However, the novel also allows Cervantes to illuminate various aspects of human nature by using the ridiculous example of the delusional Quixote.
Because the novel - particularly the first part - was written in individually published sections, the composition includes several incongruities. In the preface to the second part, Cervantes himself pointed out some of these errors, but he disdained to correct them, because he conceived that they had been too severely condemned by his critics.
Cervantes felt a passion for the vivid painting of character, as his successful works prove. Under the influence of this feeling, he drew the natural and striking portrait of his heroic Don Quixote, so truly noble-minded, and so enthusiastic an admirer of everything good and great, yet having all those fine qualities, accidentally blended with a relative kind of madness; and he likewise portrayed with no less fidelity, the opposite character of Sancho Panza, a compound of grossness and simplicity, whose low self-esteem leads him to place blind confidence in all the extravagant hopes and promises of his master. Sancho Panza is a Fictional character in the novel Don Quixote written by Spanish author Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in The subordinate characters of the novel exhibit equal truth and decision.
The essential connection of these episodes with the whole has sometimes escaped the observation of critics, who have regarded as merely parenthetical those parts in which Cervantes has most decidedly manifested the poetic spirit of his work. The novel of El curioso impertinente cannot indeed be ranked among the number of these essential episodes, but the charming story of the shepherdess Marcela, the history of Dorothea, and the history of the rich Camacho and the poor Basilio, are unquestionably connected with the interest of the whole.
These serious romantic parts, which are not, it is true, essential to the narrative connection, but strictly belong to the characteristic dignity of the whole picture, also prove how far Cervantes was from the idea usually attributed to him of writing a book merely to entice laughter. The passages, which common readers feel inclined to pass over, are, in general, precisely those in which Cervantes is most decidedly a poet, and for which he has manifested an evident predilection. On such occasions, he also introduces among his prose, episodical verses, for the most part excellent in their kind and no translator can omit them without doing violence to the spirit of the original.
Were it not for the creative spirit with which Cervantes has contrived to preserve an intermediate tone between pure poetry and prose, Don Quixote would not deserve to be cited as the first classic model of the modern romance or novel. It is, however, fully entitled to that distinction. Cervantes was the first writer who formed the genuine romance of modern times on the model of the original chivalrous romance of the Middle Ages. The result has proved that modern literary style, however readily it may in other respects conform to the rules of the antique, nevertheless requires, in the narration of fictitious events, a certain union of poetry with prose, which was unknown to the Greeks and Romans at their height of creativity. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC It was only necessary to seize on the right tone, but that was a point of delicacy, which the inventors of romances of chivalry were not able to comprehend. The anonymous author of Lazarillo de Tormes, departed too far from poetry. Cervantes, in his Don Quixote restored to the poetic art the place it was entitled to hold in this class of writing; and he must not be blamed if cultivated nations have subsequently mistaken the true spirit of this work, because their own novelists had led them to regard common prose as the style peculiarly suited to romance composition.
Don Quixote is, moreover, the undoubted prototype of the comic novel. The humorous situations are, it is true, almost all burlesque, which was certainly not necessary, but the satire is frequently so delicate, that it escapes rather than obtrudes on unpracticed attention; as for example, in the whole picture of the administration of Sancho Panza in his imaginary island. The language, even in the description of the most burlesque situations, never degenerates into vulgarity; it is on the contrary, throughout the whole work, so noble, correct and highly polished, that it would not disgrace even an ancient classic of the first rank. This explanation of a part of the merits of a work, which has been so often wrongly judged, may perhaps seem to belong rather to the eulogist than the calm and impartial historian. Let those who may be inclined to form this opinion study Don Quixote in the original language, and study it rightly, for it is not a book to be judged by a superficial perusal. But care must be taken lest the intervention of many subordinate traits, which were intended to have only a transient national interest, should produce an error in the estimate of the whole. By the 20th century it became clear that Don Quixote was the first true modern novel, a systemical and structural masterpiece. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
Don Quixote is one of the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Great Books of the Western World" and the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky called it "the ultimate and most sublime word of human thinking". Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky,
It would be scarcely possible to arrange the other works of Cervantes according to a critical judgment of their importance; for the merits of some consist in the admirable finish of the whole, while others exhibit the impress of genius in the invention, or some other individual feature.
A distinguished place must, however, be assigned to the Novelas ejemplares ("Moral or Instructive Tales"). They are unequal in merit as well as in character. Cervantes doubtless intended that they should be to the Spaniards nearly what the novellas of Boccaccio were to the Italians, some are mere anecdotes, some are romances in miniature, some are serious, some comic, and all are written in a light, smooth, conversational style. A novella is a written, Fictional Prose Narrative longer than a Novelette but shorter than a Novel.
Four of them are perhaps of less interest than the rest: El amante liberal, La señora Cornelia, Las dos doncellas and La española inglesa. The theme common to these is basically the traditional one of the Byzantine novel: pairs of lovers separated by lamentable and complicated happenings are finally reunited and find the happiness they have longed for. Under the Comnenian dynasty Byzantine writers of Twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its The heroines are all of most perfect beauty and of sublime morality; they and their lovers are capable of the highest sacrifices, and they exert their souls in the effort to elevate themselves to the ideal of moral and aristocratic distinction which illuminates their lives.
In El amante liberal, to cite an example, the beautiful Leonisa and her lover Ricardo are carried off by Turkish pirates; both fight against serious material and moral dangers; Ricardo conquers all obstacles, returns to his homeland with Leonisa, and is ready to renounce his passion and to hand Leonisa over to her former lover in an outburst of generosity; but Leonisa's preference naturally settles on Ricardo in the end.
Another group of "exemplary" novels is formed by La fuerza de la sangre, La ilustre fregona, La gitanilla, and El celoso extremeño. The first three offer examples of love and adventure happily resolved, while the last unravels itself tragically. Its plot deals with the old Felipe Carrizales, who, after traveling widely and becoming rich in America, decides to marry, taking all the precautions necessary to forestall being deceived. He weds a very young girl and isolates her from the world by having her live in a house with no windows facing the street; but in spite of his defensive measures, a bold youth succeeds in penetrating the fortress of conjugal honor, and one day Carrizales surprises his wife in the arms of her seducer. Surprisingly enough he pardons the adulterers, recognizing that he is more to blame than they, and dies of sorrow over the grievous error he has committed. Cervantes here deviated from literary tradition, which demanded the death of the adulterers, but he transformed the punishment inspired by the social ideal of honour into a criticism of the responsibility of the individual. Honor or Honour (see spelling differences) (the latter directly from the Latin word honos honoris) is the evaluation of a person's
Rinconete y Cortadillo, El casamiento engañoso, El licenciado Vidriera and El coloquio de los perros, four works of art which are concerned more with the personalities of the characters who figure in them than with the subject matter, form the final group of these stories. The protagonists are two young vagabonds, Rincón and Cortado; Lieutenant Campuzano; a student, Tomás Rodaja, who goes mad and believes himself to have been changed into a witty man of glass, offering Cervantes the opportunity to chain witty jokes; and finally two dogs, Cipión and Berganza, whose wandering existence serves as a mirror for the most varied aspects of Spanish life. Rinconete y Cortadillo is one of the most delightful of Cervantes' works. Its two young vagabonds come to Seville attracted by the riches and disorder that the sixteenth-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that metropolis. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. There they come into contact with a brotherhood of thieves led by the unforgettable Monipodio, whose house is the headquarters of the Sevillian underworld. Under the bright Andalusian sky, people and objects take form with the brilliance and subtle drama of a Velazquez, and a distant and discreet irony endows the figures, insignificant in themselves, as they move within a ritual pomp that is in sharp contrast with their morally deflated lives. Velázquez, also Velazquez, Velásquez or Velasquez, is a surname of Spanish origin When Monipodio appears, serious and solemn among his silent subordinates, "all who were looking at him performed a deep, protracted bow. " Rincón and Cortado had initiated their mutual friendship beforehand "with saintly and praiseworthy ceremonies. " The solemn ritual of this band of ruffians is all the more comic for being concealed in Cervantes' drily humorous style.
The romance of Persiles and Sigismunda, which Cervantes finished shortly before his death, must be regarded as an interesting appendix to his other works. The language and the whole composition of the story exhibit the purest simplicity, combined with singular precision and polish. The idea of this romance was not new, and scarcely deserved to be reproduced in a new manner. But it appears that Cervantes, at the close of his glorious career, took a fancy to imitate Heliodorus. He has maintained the interest of the situations, but the whole work is merely a romantic description of travels, rich enough in fearful adventures, both by sea and land. Real and fabulous geography and history are mixed together in an absurd and monstrous manner; and the second half of the romance, in which the scene is transferred to Spain and Italy, does not exactly harmonize with the spirit of the first half.
Some of his poems are found in La Galatea. La Galatea was Miguel de Cervantes ’ first book published in 1585. He also wrote Dos canciones a la armada invencible. His best work, however, is found in the sonnets, particularly Al túmulo del rey Felipe en Sevilla. The sonnet is one of the poetic forms that can be found in Lyric poetry from Europe. Among his most important poems, Canto de Calíope, Epístola a Mateo Vázquez, and the Viaje del Parnaso (Journey to Parnassus), (1614) stand out. Viaje al Parnaso (or Viaje del Parnaso) (Journey to Parnassus) is a poetic work by Miguel de Cervantes, generally rated as his second greatest The latter is his most ambitious work in verse, an allegory which consists largely of reviews of contemporary poets. An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation
Compared to his ability as a novelist, Cervantes is often considered an mediocre poet, although he himself always harbored a hope that he would be recognized for having poetic gifts.
The prose of the Galatea, which is in other respects so beautiful, is occasionally overloaded with epithet. Cervantes displays a totally different kind of poetic talent in the Viaje del Parnaso, a work which cannot properly be ranked in any particular class of literary composition, but which, next to Don Quixote, is considered by a few the most exquisite production of its author. Viaje al Parnaso (or Viaje del Parnaso) (Journey to Parnassus) is a poetic work by Miguel de Cervantes, generally rated as his second greatest Many critics, however, would argue with that, citing the Novelas ejemplares and the Entemeses as the finest examples of his work next to Don Quixote.
Comparisons have also diminished the reputation of his plays, but two of them, El trato de Argel and La Numancia, (1582), made a big impact and were not surpassed until Lope de Vega appeared. The Siege of Numantia (El cerco de Numancia is a Tragedy by Miguel de Cervantes. Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) ( 25 November 1562 &ndash 27 August 1635
The first of these is written in five acts; based on his experiences as a Moorish captive, Cervantes dealt with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The other play, Numancia is a description of the siege of Numantia by the Romans stuffed with horrors and described as utterly devoid of the requisites of dramatic art.
Cervantes's later production consists of 16 dramatic works, among which are eight full-length plays:
El gallardo español, Los baños de Argel, La gran sultana, Doña Catalina de Oviedo, La casa de los celos, El laberinto de amor, the cloak and dagger play La Entretenida, El rufián dichoso, and finally, Pedro de Urdemalas, a sensitive play about a picaro who joins a group of Gypsies for love of a girl.
He also wrote eight short farces (entremeses) : El juez de los divorcios, El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos, La elección de los alcaldes de Daganzo, La guarda cuidadosa (The Vigilant Sentinel), El vizcaíno fingido, El retablo de las maravillas, La cueva de Salamanca, and El viejo celoso (The Jealous Old Man).
These plays and entremeses made up Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos, nunca representados (Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes, Never Before Acted) , which appeared in 1615. Cervantes's entremeses, whose dates and order of composition are not known, must not have been performed in their time. Faithful to the spirit of Lope de Rueda, Cervantes endowed them with novelistic elements such as simplified plot, the type of description normally associated with the novel, and character development. The dialogue is sensitive and agile.
Cervantes includes some of his dramas among those productions with which he was himself most satisfied; and he seems to have regarded them with self-complacency in proportion to their neglect by the public. This conduct has sometimes been attributed to a spirit of contradiction, and sometimes to vanity. That the penetrating and profound Cervantes should have so mistaken the limits of his dramatic talent, would not be sufficiently accounted for, had he not unquestionably proved by his tragedy of Numantia how pardonable was the self-deception of which he could not divest himself.
Cervantes was entitled to consider himself endowed with a genius for dramatic poetry; but he could not preserve his independence in the conflict he had to maintain with the conditions required by the Spanish public in dramatic composition; and when he sacrificed his independence, and submitted to rules imposed by others, his invention and language were reduced to the level of a poet of inferior talent. The intrigues, adventures and surprises, which in that age characterized the Spanish drama, were ill suited to the genius of Cervantes. His natural style was too profound and precise to be reconciled to fantastical ideas, expressed in irregular verse. But he was Spaniard enough to be gratified with dramas, which, as a poet, he could not imitate; and he imagined himself capable of imitating them, because he would have shone in another species of dramatic composition, had the public taste accommodated itself to his genius.
This play is a dramatization of the long and brutal siege of the Celtiberian town Numantia, Hispania, by the Roman forces of Scipio Africanus. The Siege of Numantia (El cerco de Numancia is a Tragedy by Miguel de Cervantes. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians were a Celtic people of Hallstatt culture Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183
Cervantes invented along with the subject of his piece a peculiar style of tragic composition, and in doing so, he did not pay much regard to the theory of Aristotle. His object was to produce a piece full of tragic situations, combined with the charm of the marvellous. In order to accomplish this goal, Cervantes relied heavily on allegory and on mythological elements.
The tragedy is written in conformity with no rules save those which the author prescribed to himself; for he felt no inclination to imitate the Greek forms. The play is divided into four acts, (jornadas) and no chorus is introduced. The dialogue is sometimes in tercets and sometimes in redondillas, and for the most part in octaves without any regard to rule.
Cervantes' novel Don Quixote has had a tremendous influence on the development of prose fiction; it has been translated into all major languages and has appeared in 700 editions. The first translation was in English, made by Thomas Shelton in 1608, but not published until 1612. Thomas Shelton (fl 1612-1626 English Translator of Don Quixote. Shakespeare had evidently read Don Quixote, but it is most unlikely that Cervantes had ever heard of Shakespeare. William Shakespeare ( baptised Carlos Fuentes raised the possibility that Cervantes and Shakespeare were the same person (see Shakespearean authorship question). Carlos Fuentes Macías (born March 11,1928 is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish -speaking world The Shakespeare authorship question is the debate dating back to the early 18th century about whether the works attributed to William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon Francis Carr has suggested that Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays and Don Quixote. Francis Carr ( December 6, 1751 - October 6, 1821) was a US Representative from the District of Maine, which was Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author 
Don Quixote has been the subject of a variety of works in other fields of art, including operas by the Italian composer Giovanni Paisiello, the French Jules Massenet, and the Spanish Manuel de Falla; a Russian ballet by the Russian-German composer Ludwig Minkus; a tone poem by the German composer Richard Strauss; a German film (1933) directed by G. W. Pabst; a Soviet film (1957) directed by Grigori Kozintsev; a ballet (1965) with choreography by George Balanchine - no relation to the one by Minkus; and an American musical, Man of La Mancha (1965), by Dale Wasserman, Mitch Leigh, and Joe Darion. Giovanni Paisiello (or Paesiello) ( May 9, 1740 &ndash June 5, 1816) was an Italian Composer of the Jules (Émile Frédéric Massenet ( May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer best known for his Operas Manuel de Falla y Matheu ( November 23, 1876 &ndash November 14, 1946) was a Spanish Composer of classical music Ludwig Minkus (Людвиг Минкус aka Léon Fyodorovich Minkus (born Aloisius Ludwig Minkus on March 23, 1826 in Velké Meziříčí Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted Georg Wilhelm Pabst ( August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was an Austrian Film director. Grigori Mikhailovich Kozintsev (Григорий Михайлович Козинцев Kiev, &ndash Leningrad now Saint Petersburg, 11 May 1973 See also List of ballets by George Balanchine, George Balanchine (January 22 1904 &ndash April 30 1983 born Giorgi Melitonis dze Balanchivadze Man of La Mancha is a musical with a book by Dale Wasserman, lyrics by Joe Darion and music by Mitch Leigh. Dale Wasserman (born 1917 is a prolific American Playwright. Biography "I was born Mitch Leigh (born January 30, 1928 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American Musical theatre Composer and Theatrical Joe Darion ( 30 January, 1917 - 6 June, 2001) was an American musical theatre Lyricist, most famous for Man of La Mancha Man of La Mancha was made into a film in 1972, directed by Arthur Hiller. Arthur Hiller, OC (born November 22, 1923 in Edmonton Alberta) is an Oscar -nominated Canadian film director
Don Quixote 's influence can be seen in the work of Smollett, Defoe, Fielding, and Sterne, as well as in the classic 19th-century novelists Scott, Dickens, Flaubert, Melville, and Dostoevsky, and in the works of James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges. Tobias George Smollett (bapt 19 March, 1721 &ndash 17 September, 1771) was a Scottish author best known for his Picaresque Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 — April 24, 1731 was an English Writer, Journalist, and Pamphleteer, who gained enduring fame for Henry Fielding ( April 22, 1707 &ndash October 8, 1754) was an English Novelist and Dramatist known for his Laurence Sterne ( November 24, 1713 &ndash March 18, 1768) was an Irish -born English Novelist and an Anglican Sir Walter Scott 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 &ndash 21 September 1832 was a prolific Scottish Historical novelist and Poet popular throughout Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the The theme also inspired the 19th-century French artists Honoré Daumier and Gustave Doré. Honoré Daumier ( February 26, 1808 &ndash February 10, 1879) was a French Printmaker, Caricaturist,
The Euro coins of €0. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e 10, €0. 20 and €0. 50 made for Spain bear his portrait and signature. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Cervantes has been declared an Old Christian (pure blood), New Christian (converso), secularist, and Christian humanist. For other uses see New Christian (Swedenborgian. New Christian ( Spanish: cristianos nuevos; Portuguese,
New Christians were called so for their - or their elder's- recent conversion to Christian faith, and were suspected of secretly practising Judaism. Jews had been expelled from Spain and all Spanish domains by the Catholic Kings in 1492, and those who stayed had to forcibly become baptised. Nevertheless, those Jews who remained as New Christians were always suspected of continuing their Jewish religious practices, and therefore, were constantly under the eye of the Inquisition. Jews were not allowed the property of any land, and suffered significant legal discrimination. Thus, they could only earn a living by trade or skill. Any gentleman who wanted to prosper in the social scale, or gain privileges - nobility was tax free - had to prove his purity of blood, and that gave the status of Old Christian important economic, legal and social consequences.
Purporters of the New Christian theory, established by Americo Castro, often suggest it to be on Cervantes' mother's side. Américo Castro y Quesada (1885 – 1972 was a Spanish cultural Historian, Philologist, and Literary critic who challenged some of the prevailing The theory is almost exclusively supported by circumstantial evidence but would "explain" some mysteries of Cervantes' life.  It has been supported by authors such as Anthony Cascardi and Caravaggio. Others, such as Claudio Albornoz or Francisco Olmos Garcia, who considers it a "tired issue" only supported by Americo Castro, reject the theory strongly. 
The second origin theory suggests Cervantes is of Old Christian stock. Most of the evidence for this is supported by documentary evidence but does not help fill the gaps of some of the personality and life aspects and virtues of Cervantes, as well as the New Christian theory does. However, it must be noted that the only surviving document addressing Cervantes pedigree is the 1569 "Informacion de la limpieza de Miguel de Cervantes, estante en Roma" which addresses Cervantes directly as an Old Christian. 
|“||This person whom you see here, with an oval visage, chestnut hair, smooth open forehead, lively eyes, a hooked but well-proportioned nose, and silvery beard that twenty years ago was golden, large moustaches, a small mouth, teeth not much to speak of, for he has but six, in bad condition and worse placed, no two of them corresponding to each other, a figure midway between the two extremes, neither tall nor short, a vivid complexion, rather fair than dark, somewhat stooped in the shoulders, and not very lightfooted: this, I say, is the author of Galatea, Don Quixote de la Mancha, The Journey to Parnassus, which he wrote in imitation of Cesare Caporali Perusino, and other works which are current among the public, and perhaps without the author's name. He is commonly called MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA.||”|
— Miguel de Cervantes, Exemplary Novels (Author's Preface)
b. ^ His signature spells Cerbantes with a b but he is now known after the spelling Cervantes used by the printers of his works. Saavedra was the surname of a distant relative that Cervantes adopted as his second surname after his return from Barbary Coast. The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa—what  The earliest documents signed with Cervantes' two names (Cervantes Saavedra) appear several years after his repatriation. Cervantes began adding the second surname Saavedra (a name that did not correspond to his immediate family) to his patronymic in 1586-1587, in official documents related to his marriage to Catalina de Salazar. 
c. ^ The only evidence is a statement by Professor Tomas González, that he once saw an old entry of the matriculation of a Miguel de Cervantes.  No subsequent scholar has been successful in verifying this statement. In any case, there were at least two other Miguels born about the middle of the century.
d. ^ "He" refers to the writer of a spurious Part II of Don Quixote (Second Volume of the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha) known under the pseudonym Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) In 1614 a sequel to Cervantes ' Don Quixote was published under the pseudonym Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. Avellaneda had referred to Cervantes as an "old and one-handed" man.
|NAME||Cervantes, Miguel de|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de; De Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Spanish novelist, poet and playwright|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 29, 1547|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Alcalá de Henares, Spain|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 23, 1616|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Madrid, Spain|
Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.